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Russian Geology and Geophysics

2022 year, number 3


S.V. Khromykh
V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Basic magmatism, granitoid magmatism, accretion-collision systems, plume-lithosphere interaction, Central Asia


The paper summarizes the results of study of the geologic position, composition, and age of basic igneous associations in Eastern Kazakhstan during the late Paleozoic (Carboniferous-Permian). At that time, the Altai accretion-collision system was developed here, which resulted from the interaction of the Siberian and Kazakhstan paleocontinents. The performed studies made it possible to establish three major stages of basic magmatism, corresponding to different stages of evolution of the collisional system: early Carboniferous, late Carboniferous, and early Permian. The chemical composition of ultrabasic-basic associations changed, with a successive increase in the contents of K2O, P2O5, TiO2, LREE, Rb, Ba, Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta. The variations in magma compositions were determined by different compositions of mantle sources (harzburgites, spinel lherzolites, and garnet lherzolites) and different degrees of their melting. The early Permian ultrabasic-basic associations are the most enriched in TiO2 and incompatible components (P2O5, Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta), which indicates the involvement of relatively enriched mantle sources in the partial melting. All manifestations of mantle magmatism were accompanied by subsynchronous crustal magmatism (granitoid intrusions or silicic volcanics). The major crustal magmatism was manifested in the early Permian; the area of its occurrence was dozens of times larger than the area of Carboniferous crustal magmatism. Possible geodynamic scenarios for magmatism are considered for each stage. The early Carboniferous (C1s) magmatism of the early orogeny stage was manifested locally and was the result of the detachment of the subducting lithosphere (slab) beneath the margin of the Kazakhstan continent. The middle Carboniferous (C2m) magmatism of the late orogeny stage was manifested throughout the area; it was caused by the activation of shear-extension motions along large faults and the orogen collapse. The early Permian magmatism was the result of the interaction of the Tarim mantle plume with the lithosphere, which comprised three stages: initial interaction, maximum interaction, and relaxation. This magmatism in the study area was caused by a combination of thermal disturbance in the upper mantle and the lithosphere extension processes.