Publishing House SB RAS:

Publishing House SB RAS:

Address of the Publishing House SB RAS:
Morskoy pr. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia

Advanced Search

Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2022 year, number 3

Efficiency of laser excitation of PO-photofragments of organophosphates

S.M. Bobrovnikov, E.V. Gorlov, V.I. Zharkov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: organophosphate, laser fragmentation, absorption spectrum, phosphorus oxide, laser excitation, thermalization

Abstract >>
The results of calculation of the absorption spectrum of phosphorus oxide (PO) corresponding to the transition A 2S+ ( v′ = 0) - X 2P ( v″ = 0) are presented. The calculation is performed taking into account the perturbation of the v′ = 0 level of the A 2S+ state by the v′ = 4 level of the b4S- state. The efficiency of laser excitation of PO molecules is estimated as a function of the spectral parameters of the radiation. The time dependence of the efficiency of the excitation of PO fragments was calculated in the real atmosphere under two-pulse laser fragmentation of organophosphates for specified spectral line widths Δλ and center positions λ0.

Integration of the spectral line parameters of CO2, N2O, NO2, and C2H2 into the node of the distributed information system VAMDC

R.V. Kochanov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: data bank, database, distributed system

Abstract >>
The integration of the parameters of the CDSD, NOSD, NDSD and ASD data banks developed at the Laboratory of Theoretical Spectroscopy, Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, into a single node of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center (VAMDC) is described. As part of this work, software was written that implements XML-formatted data exchange with the VAMDC portal and integrates the data banks into the distributed infrastructure.

Comparison of CO2 measurements in stratosphere by ground-based and satellite methods

A.A. Nikitenko, Yu.M. Timofeev, Ya.A. Virolainen, G.M. Nerobelov, A.V. Poberovskii
Saint-Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: CO measurements in the stratosphere, carbon dioxide monitoring, ground-based spectroscopic measurements, satellite measurements

Abstract >>
Modern changes in the Earth's climate due to increase in greenhouse gas concentrations, primarily carbon dioxide, stimulate the monitoring of its content by various methods. In the study, we compared CO2 content in the lower stratosphere (12-18 km altitude layer) from ground-based Bruker 125HR spectrometer and satellite ACE instrument measurements in 2009-2019. The analysis of two measurement types shows a good agreement between them. Ground-based CO2 measurements, on average, exceed satellite data by 2.8 ppm (less than 1%), standard deviations of the differences are ~ 5.0 ppm. The correlation coefficient between two datasets is 0.77. Ground-based (Bruker 125HR) and satellite (ACE) CO2 measurements show weak seasonal variations, opposite to the variations in tropospheric CO2. The CO2 content in the lower stratosphere is maximal in summer and minimal in winter.

A heuristic approach to defining the structure parameter of the refractive index of atmosphere from the turbulent lidar data

I.A. Razenkov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: atmospheric turbulence, backscatter enhancement effect, turbulent lidar

Abstract >>
It is shown that the approximate Vorobyov formula linking the lidar returns with the intensity of optical turbulence, for the case of a statistically homogeneous medium with an accuracy up to a constant coefficient, satisfactorily agrees with the sounding data. The procedure for determining the coefficient in the Vorobyov formula for a specific lidar aperture size is recommended. The construction of a nomogram for the operational determination of the intensity of homogeneous turbulence from lidar readings is proposed. The discrepancy between the experimental results and the theory when sounding inhomogeneous turbulence is established. It is shown that the main contribution to the formation of the turbulent component of a lidar return due to the BSE effect is made by the section of the path in front of the scattering volume. It is proposed to use an approximate formula to restore the structure parameter of the optical turbulence Cn2, in which normalized Cn2 is directly proportional to the return and inversely proportional to the integral determining the dispersion of intensity fluctuations.

Effectiveness of monitoring the electrical state of clouds in the near zone by remote radiophysical instruments

Yu.P. Mikhailovskii1, B.G. Zainetdinov1, A.A. Sin’kevich1, S. D. Pawar2, M.L. Toropova1, A.B. Kurov1, V. Gopalakrishnan2
1The Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, St Petersburg, Russia
2Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pashan, India
Keywords: radar, lightning direction finder, fluxmeter, thundercloud, hazardous weather forecast

Abstract >>
The results of field experiments with thunderclouds are analyzed for north-west of the Russian Federation and India. The state of the clouds was monitored by the C-band Doppler radar (Russia), the Blitzortung (Russia) and MLDN (India) lightning location network, and the ground fluxmeter system. It is shown that fluxmeters record a significantly greater number of “cloud -ground” lightning in the near zone than Blitzortung and MLDN.

Impact of nuclear explosions on the ozone layer of the Earth

V.B. Kashkin, R.V. Odintsov, T.V. Rubleva
SibFU Institute of Space and Information Technologies, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Keywords: Vela incident, nuclear test, ozone, nitrogen oxide, mark on the ozone layer, shock wave, test site coordinates

Abstract >>
In our nuclear age, fears are expressed about the fate of the Earth's ozone layer, and it is believed that both large-scale and local nuclear conflicts can destroy the ozone layer for years. On September 22, 1979, an unidentified state secretly performed a nuclear test in a desolate region of the World Ocean. This event is commonly referred to as the Vela Incident. In this work, we used ozone data obtained by the NASA satellite Nimbus-7 17 minutes after the explosion. It is shown that the shock wave left a mark on the ozone layer. No decrease in the amount of ozone is noticed. The coordinates of the explosion site are determined from the mark.

Systematization of published scientific graphics characterizing the water vapor continuum absorption: II Publications of 1981-2000

N.A. Lavrentiev, O.B. Rodimova, A.Z. Fazliev
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: W@DIS information system, water continuum absorption plot, combining primitive plots, attribute search for plots

Abstract >>
The article provides a brief overview of the collection of GrafOnto water absorption plots in the 1981-2000 interval. This collection is hosted in the W@DIS information system ( Most of the ordinates of the plots belong to three groups of functions describing the dependence of the absorption coefficient and the transmission function on wavenumber, the dependence of the absorption coefficient on temperature and the correction factor c for the frequency-dependent Lorentz contour. The article describes two ways to find plots in the collection: a simple search by three publication attributes and an attribute search by 14 properties, including the properties of a primitive plot, substance, and function parameters and properties of an information resource and publication. Such a search is necessary for users to find the desired primitive plots, and is used when combining primitive plots into a compound plot taking into account the user's requirements.

Object-oriented assessment of short-term forecast of convective hazardous weather events with the WRF model in Perm region

N.A. Kalinin1, A.V. Bykov1, A.N. Shikhov1,2
1Perm State National Research University, Perm, Russia
2A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: squall, heavy rainfall, short-term forecast, WRF model, scale-dependent convection parameterization, object-oriented assessment, event omission, false alarm

Abstract >>
This study presents an accuracy assessment of the forecasts of hazardous convective weather events made with the WRF v.4.2 atmospheric model for Perm region and adjacent area for the period from May 4 to August 25, 2021. The WRF model forecasts had a 27-h lead time; the model grid step was 5 km. To reduce the probability of false alarms, scale-dependent parameterization of convection was used. The sample of squalls and large hail events was compiled based on the weather station reports, damage reports, and satellite images of forest damage. It includes 56 events. The sample of heavy rainfall events was compiled from the weather stations data only. For the same period, the WRF model predicted 30 squalls events (³ 25 m/s-1) and 63 heavy rainfall events (³ 30 mm/h). Supercells and tornado events are also considered. For squall events, we performed a cross-validation of the simulated and observed events using the distance (50 km) and time (± 3 h) threshold criteria. The accuracy of heavy precipitation was evaluated using the SCI and EDI indices. Overall, the forecasts accuracy for heavy precipitation was unsatisfactory. For squall events, 36% of them were successfully predicted, including the events that caused most substantial damage. Despite the high proportion of event omission (which prevail over false alarms), the forecasts of squalls with the WRF model in this configuration may be useful in preventing damage.

The role of glaciers in the processes of climate warming

P.G. Kovadlo1, A.Yu. Shikhovtsev1, S.A. Yazev1,2
1Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Irkutsk, Russia
2Astronomical Observatory of Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: climate, temperature, rate of warming, heat content, melting ice

Abstract >>
We analyze the process of an increased, in comparison with other regions, rate of warming in the Arctic Ocean and adjacent areas. The visible aspect of the cause of the phenomenon is a decrease in the average thickness of ocean ice and, as a consequence, an increase in the flow of heat from the water through the ice, which heats the lower air layer. In addition, in the process of losing the ice mass of perennial floating glaciers, the heat consumption for their melting decreases. The combined effect of these two factors has provided the current rise in temperature in the polar zone, in a linear approximation, by more than 8 °C. Note that inter-latitudinal air heat exchange does not intensify in this process due to a decrease in meridional temperature gradients.

Statistical properties of aerosol density in turbulent flows

E.Z. Gribova
Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Keywords: turbulent diffusion, molecular diffusion, aerosol, impurity density, clustering

Abstract >>
Density fluctuations of a clot of aerosol particles in the atmosphere are studied. A one-dimensional case is considered characteristic of the motion of particles in a narrow vertical fire column or in an aircraft trail. The effect of localization of clots is shown to be observed under certain conditions, which consists in formation of compact areas of increased density of aerosol particles surrounded by areas of low density. Knowledge of such properties of impurity density can be useful in solving inverse problems of aerosol optics.