

2021 year, number 4
Vasiliy Pavlovich Goran
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8, Nikolaev st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Descartes, philosophy, objective idealism, ontology, theology, universe, substance, rational thinking and irrational statements, dialectic of opposites, disembodied human soul and human body, immutability of the divine plan and variability of the divine creation
Abstract >>
The article focuses on two features of the objectiveidealistic component in the philosophy of R. Descartes. The first one consisted in the fact that in solving key general ontological issues, as well as those related to the interpretation of human specificity Descartes used an approach that determined the presence of the beginning of dialectics in his conceptual vision and corresponding concepts. The second feature of Decartes’ philosophical position was his absolute disregard for the norms of rational thinking when determining his view on issues that were also key for his worldview position, which was reflected, among other things, in a number of statements that Descartes himself characterized as something rational.

Evgeny Sergeevich Ermakov
Institute of Philosophy of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 1/2, Surganova str., Minsk, 220072, Republic of Belarus
Keywords: ontology, epistemology, asymmetry, complexity, participant observer, consciousness
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The article deals with the transdisciplinary problem of the emergence of the complexity. In the context of postnonclassical rationality, ñomplexity is studied in two interrelated aspects: the ontological and epistemological ones. Asymmetry is considered as one of the possible principles that specify complexifictio in systems of various ontological ranks. The generalized principle of “a participant observer” is proposed as a mechanism for distinguishing and objectifying the complex in the existing reality. In the context of “the hard problem of consciousness”, the heuristic of the proposed explanation for the emergence of complexity is considered.

Alexander Valerievich Khlebalin
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8, Nikolaev st., Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: mathematical community, distributive knowledge, Polymath, mathematical arguments
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The article examines the socioepistemological features of the transformation of the mathematical community and mathematical practice of obtaining and verifying knowledge in new forms of organizing mathematical research on the example of the Polymath platform. It is shown that formal logic models of the distribution of knowledge and obtaining proof in Polymath based on epistemic logic for multiagent systems not only provide more expressive means of studying arguments in mathematical practice, but also are of great importance for studying the institution of knowledge expertise in traditional forms of organizing mathematical practice.

Valentin Nikonovich Karpovich
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: theory, experience, abstraction, observation, definition, decidability, reduction, operationalization
Abstract >>
Theoretical knowledge can contain various levels of abstraction, represented by logical constructs from the observed characteristics of objects in the subject area. The degree of abstraction is determined by the way in which the resulting structures are connected to experimental data. Auxiliary constructions are characterized by explicit or implicit definitions of theoretical concepts in terms of observational. One of the methods for building these definitions is the operationalization of abstractions by a system of reduction sentences. In this case the definiendum becomes "open", so as to be a logical and methodological technique for expanding the possible connections of the theoretical model by its practical applications.

Aleksander Leonidovich Simanov
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: scientific knowledge, philosophy, methodology, determinism, state, connection of states
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The article considers the place and role of the concept of state in the context of determinist understanding in natural scientific knowledge. It is shown that without the use of this concept, determinist ideas seem to be incomplete.

Vladimir Moiseevich Reznikov^{1,2}
^{1}Institute of Philosophy and Law, SB RAS, 8, Nikolaev st., Novosibirsk, 630090 ^{2}Novosibirsk National Research State University, 2, Pirogov st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: philosophy, category, cause, mathematics, nonEuclidean geometry, probability theory, verification of independence, common cause principle, maximum entropy principle
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The article analyses the value of the concept of independence for philosophy, pure mathematics and applied mathematics. Thus, examples from geometry and set theory demonstrate that the study of mathematical statements independent of axiomatics provided an impetus for the development both of these sciences and mathematical logic. The main attention is paid to the analysis of the use of independence in applications. As we know, the most popular applications of mathematical disciplines such as elementary probability theory and mathematical statistics often use models of independent experiments. Since formal verification of the relation of independence is laborintensive, independence is often introduced on the basis of intuitive reasoning. The article shows the inconsistency of arguments in favor of adopting independent experiment models based on intuitive considerations, such as control of experimental conditions and a negligible correlation of random values. The author outlines the prospects for accepting independence out of pure mathematical approaches, but on the basis of philosophical principles and those of natural sciences, namely the common cause principle and the maximum entropy principle.

Igor Evgenievich Pris
Institute of Philosophy, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 1/2, Surganov st., Minsk, 220072, Belarus
Keywords: quantum mechanics, information, idealism, realism, context, rulefollowing problem, quantum correlation
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We argue that Anton Zeilinger’s “foundational conceptual principle” for quantum mechanics, according to which an elementary system carries one bit of information, is an idealistic principle and should be replaced by a realistic principle of contextuality. The specific properties of quantum systems arise from the impossibility of talking about them without regard to the tools of their observation/identification and, therefore, to the context in which these tools are applied. In particular, the assumption of nonlocality is not required to explain quantum correlation. Correlated quantum events are interrelated in a causal way. Yet, this is not classical, but quantum causality expressed by an entangled wave function. This or that particular correlation does not arise in measurement; in measurement, it is identified in context. In contrast to Zeilinger’s principle of quantization of information, the principle of contextuality explains it realistically.

Igor Konstantinovich Stavrovsky
The Center for PhilosophicalMethodological and Interdisciplinary Studies, Institute of Philosophy, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 1, Bldg 2, Surganova st., 220072, Minsk, Belarus
Keywords: Nash equilibrium, Wiener equilibrium, Prisonerâ€™s Dilemma, Inventorâ€™s Dilemma, game theory, technological progress, artificial intelligence, philosophy of technology
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Technological progress can be described as a game called the Inventor's Dilemma which is analogous to the Prisoner's Dilemma. Two actors who independently work on creating a potentially dangerous technology are likely to continue to develop it, even if they recognize the danger and come to an agreement. The very situation, in which they are, prompts them to continue working. Thus, it is virtually inevitable that potentially dangerous technologies will appear. This means that instead of trying to prevent the emergence of such technologies we should focus on finding a way to neutralize or compensate for the negative consequences of their emergence.

Vitaliy Valentinovich Tselishchev^{1,2}
^{1}Novosibirsk National Research State University, 2, Pirogov st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia ^{2}Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia

Yuri Isaevitch Naberukhin
Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 3, Institutskaya, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia

Lev Dmitrievich Lamberov
Ural Federal University, 620002, Russia, Yekaterinburg, 51, Lenina av.
Keywords: Linnebo, metaphysics, modality, logic, modal logic, philosophy of mathematics, logicism, neologicism, abstractionism
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The paper provides a review of Øystein Linnebo's "Thin Objects. An Abstractionist Account" and contains a brief summary of the main ideas of the chapters published in the mentioned book.

