Publishing House SB RAS:

Publishing House SB RAS:

Address of the Publishing House SB RAS:
Morskoy pr. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia



Advanced Search

Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2021 year, number 3

1.
TREATMENT OF SCOTS PINE SEEDS BY BIOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS AS A WAY OF IMPROVING THE PLANTING MATERIAL QUALITY IN FOREST NURSERIES OF KRASNOYARSK KRAI

I. D. Grodnitskaya1, G. G. Polyakova1, V. A. Senashova1, O. E. Pashkeeva1, N. V. Pashenova1, G. I. Antonov1, A. Yu. Baglaev2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation
2Kazachinsky Forestry District, Ministry of Forestry of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Kazachinskoe, Russian Federation
Keywords: Trichoderma fungi, pre-sowing seed treatment, biological preparations, soil seed germination, seedling safety, morphometric parameters of seedlings, Central Siberia

Abstract >>
The effectiveness of treating Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. seeds by biological preparations based on Trichoderma Pers. fungi to improve the quality of the seedlings was tested in small-plot experiments and by sowing on the industrial scale in two forest nurseries of Krasnoyarsk Krai. It was found that in the small-plot experiments, the treatment of pine seeds with biological preparations improved the safety of seedlings by 12.3 times ( T. harzianum ) and 16.4 times ( T. lignorum (Tode) Harz + T. harzianum ) as compared to the control. All the treatment options improved morphometric parameters of the seedlings to varying degrees. Sowing on the industrial scale in two forest nurseries of the Kazachinsky Forestry District also showed a positive effect of the influence of biological products in improving the quality of planting material. The application of the «Bunker preparation before the storage of the Scots pine seeds in snow in the forest nursery near the village of Mokrushinskoe reduced the effectiveness of the biological preparations in the first year of research. The number of seedlings at the end of the growing season in the experimental and control variants did not differ significantly. In the second year of observations in the experimental variant two-year-old seedlings were characterized by the significant increase in their sizes (by 13 %), branching and length of the root system (by 30 %) as compared to the control. In the nursery near the Vodorezovo village, where fungicides were not used, the positive effect of the biological preparations on the morphometric parameters of one-year seedlings was evident already in the first year. The experimental seedlings had stronger trunks and developed root systems, including a greater total root length as compared to the control. Microbiological studies of the forest nursery soils in 2019-2020 showed that the number of Trichoderma fungi, introduced together with the pine seeds, remained quite high throughout the growing season in the experimental plot soil. The developed biological preparations based on native strains of Trichoderma fungi can be recommended for the application in artificial reforestation in order to improve the quality of forest planting material.
																								



2.
INTRASPECIFIC VARIABILITY OF SEED QUALITY AND SEEDLING DEVELOPMENT OF LARIX SIBIRICA LEDEB. IN A SOWING EXPERIMENT

A. V. Pimenov, A. S. Averyanov, T. S. Sedelnikova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: Siberian larch, ecotypic and form differentiation, field germination of seeds, safety and growth of seedlings

Abstract >>
The results of a sowing experiment to assess the field germination of seeds, preservation and growth of seedlings of the Siberian larch Larix sibirica Ledeb., representing ecotypic (population) and form (individual) levels of intraspecific differentiation, are presented. The experiment was conducted for 4 years (2016-2019) at the experimental site of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Rus. Acad. Sci., Sib. Br., in Akademgorodok, the city of Krasnoyarsk for population and individual samples of the Siberian larch seeds from ecologically contrasting origins of Siberia - forest-swamp (Tomsk region), forest-steppe (Republic of Khakassia) and forest-tundra (Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets district of Krasnoyarsk territory). Field germination of seeds, dynamics of vertical annual growth of seedlings, their current and final safety were determined. It was found that the main features of intraspecific variability in the quality of the Siberian larch seeds appear in the first two years of the experiment. The Siberian larch seeds of different origin have different strategy of germination, determined by the habitat conditions of the parent stands. From the seeds of forest-tundra origin, single weakened seedlings were formed, which completely died in the first year of the experiment. Seeds of forest-swamp origin were characterized by a gradual increase in the number of seedlings and a higher safety of seedlings throughout the first year of growth, with a relatively smooth death over the following years. Seeds of forest-steppe origin in the first year of the experiment were characterized by accelerated germination and high initial growth of seedlings, but their final safety was low. Field seed germination, dynamics of seedling growth and their final preservation are characterized by significantly higher values in the typical form of the Siberian larch trees, compared with its intraspecific forms with features of cone morphology and habitus. The dynamics of growth and safety of seedlings correspond to the indicators of field and laboratory germination of seeds and their mass: the maximum values of these parameters were found in the origin of the Siberian larch from more optimal dry-steppe and forest-steppe ecotopes, as well as in the typical tree form.
																								



3.
SELECTIVE FOREST HEALTH FELLING IN PROTECTIVE SIBERIAN STONE PINE STANDS OF KHAKASSIA: AN EXPERIENCE OF POST-LOGGING SURVEY AND SILVICULTURAL ANALYSIS

S. K. Farber, R. T. Murzakmatov
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: Siberian stone pine protective forests, inventory indicators of stands, silvicultural evaluation of selective forest health felling

Abstract >>
On the example of three areas of protective Siberian stone pine Pinus sibirica Du Tour stands of Khakassia, the expediency of selective forest health felling is considered. Forest growing conditions on the plots are favorable for dark coniferous Siberian stone pine-fir forests. A distinctive feature of precutting and postcutting stands is their sparseness. As a result, exceptional (often more than 1 m) stem diameters were formed. Over the four years that have passed after the felling, the tendencies of the forest-forming process have become quite distinctly outlined, which actually made it possible to assess their consequences. On the basis of the data of full-scale survey - a continuous count of stumps and data from strip test plots - the inventory indicators of pre-cut and post-cut forest stands, the volume and marketability of the wood removed and left on the root were revealed. The absolute completeness was restored according to the measurement data of the stump diameters. It is shown that the transition from stump diameters to DBH is accompanied by systematic errors. To determine DBH, the dependences DBH = f ( d 0) were formed on the basis of model Siberian stone pine and fir Abies Mill. trees. It has been established that an increase in core rot occurs synchronously with an increase in the diameter of the stem, therefore, trees of lower thickness steps are more likely to be classified as commercially valuable trees. During the allocation of cutting areas, the trees to be selected were not marked. Thus, the logger was given the opportunity to choose trees for felling. As a result, a targeted selection of commercially valuable stems was made; the half-timber and wood-logged sems partially remained intact, partially not removed from the plots or burned as felling remains. Such felling definitely does not correspond to the «forest health category. It has been shown that the efficiency of performing soil-protective and water-protective functions by post-felling stands, even with a predicted conversion to meadows, remains comparable to the previous, pre-felling stands. At the same time, the Siberian stone pine stands are more valuable for forest animals. Hence, it follows that the undertaken action - forest health felling of the Siberian stone pine stands was inappropriate.
																								



4.
RADIAL GROWTH OF SCOTS PINE IN THE GREEN STANDS OF KRASNOYARSK CITY

Yu. V. Kladko, L. N. Skripalshchikova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: urbanized areas, planting of greenery, technogenic pollution, API, tree rings

Abstract >>
Green spaces of urban areas perform important environmental, sanitary, hygienic and aesthetic functions, forming a comfortable environment for the city population. In order to develop and update the optimal assortment of woody species for landscaping urbanized areas, this study identified the features of radial growth of a species widely used in planting greenery and landscaping: Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. The features of the radial growth of the stem wood of Scots pine, growing in the green spaces of the city of Krasnoyarsk under the influence of technogenic pollution (of various composition and intensity) and background, were determined. The objects of research were group plantings of trees in parks and ordinary (single-row) plantings along the city highways, exposed to the negative effects of atmospheric toxicants (CO, NO, NO2, SO2, benzo(a)pyrene, soot, fluoride compounds, etc.). The study was carried out using the standard dendrochronological method. It was revealed that the total impact of motor transport and industrial emissions had the most negative effect on the radial growth and stability of trees of this species. It was found that in single-row plantings along large highways, the lowest rate of radial growth of Scots pine trees was noted. A statistically significant (at p < 0.05) negative relationship between the width of annual rings and the degree of technogenic pollution of the territory (expressed in API5) was confirmed. Based on the results obtained, preliminary recommendations were formulated for the use of Scots pine for landscaping in Krasnoyarsk, which may be of practical interest for specialists in the field of urban ecology and green construction.
																								



5.
COMMUNITIES OF PINUS SYLVESTRIS L. IN THE TECHNOGENIC ENVIRONMENT IN THE EUROPEAN NORTH OF RUSSIA: STRUCTURE, FEATURES OF GROWTH, CONDITION

V. T. Yarmishko1, O. V. Ignateva2
1Komarov Botanical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
2S. M. Kirov St. Petersburg State Forest Engineering University, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
Keywords: Scots pine, middle-aged tree stands, aerial technogenic pollution, heavy metals, life span of needles, intensity of linear and radial growth, vital structure, Kola Peninsula

Abstract >>
Lichen-green-moss pine forests represented by Scotch pine Pinus sylvestris L. of the III-IV age classes were studied under conditions of various modes of aerial technogenic environmental pollution in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. It is established that the current trends in the formation of secondary pine forests in deforestation and burning in the background areas are due to natural processes and intra-population relationships. Aerial technogenic pollution of SO2 with heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Co, etc.) is the main cause of damage, weakening and even destruction of pine forests. The first sign of deviation from the norm of the state of scots pine is the dechromation of needles. The area of the affected surface of the needles with chlorosis and necrosis can reach 75 % or more. Premature fall of damaged needles is the reason for the reduction of its life expectancy on trees to 2-3 years in the area of intensive pollution in comparison with 6-7 years in the background stands. Atmospheric pollution suppresses growth processes in Scotch pine: up to 40-70 % increase in the height of the central shoots and 30 % or more increase in diameter in comparison with undisturbed communities. Under the influence of pollutants, the vital structure of medium-aged pine forests of lichen-green moss significantly deteriorates. Currently observed improvement of the pine forests in the areas of industrial air pollution on the Kola Peninsula (reduction of damage to the needles and increase its lifespan in trees, the intensification of the growth processes, improving the living condition of individual trees and forest stands) indicate a positive response of Pinus sylvestris at reducing aerial technogenic load.
																								



6.
CARBON BALANCE OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS OF THE VOLGA RIVER BASIN DUE TO GLOBAL WARMING: FORECAST LANDSCAPE-ECOLOGICAL MODELING

E. G. Kolomyts
Institute of Ecology of the Volga River Basin, Russian Academy of Sciences, Togliatty, Russian Federation
Keywords: forests, regulation of carbon cycle, climate change, predictive empirical-statistical models

Abstract >>
On the example of the Volga basin, based on the materials of large-scale landscape surveys, predictive empirical-statistical modeling of the carbon balance of boreal and nemoral forest biomes was carried out. One of the types of predictive ecological models is presented - within the framework of experimental landscape ecology. Methods for calculating and mapping the volumes of absorption/emission of greenhouse gases by forests under predicted climate changes are discussed. Based on global climate models, predictive estimates of the components of the carbon balance of forest ecosystems as integral formations and their influence on the carbon exchange of the earths surface with the atmosphere are given. For two climatic forecast scenarios: moderate and extreme, quantitative indicators of adsorption and emission of 2 in various local and zonal-regional conditions of the East European subcontinent are given. It has been established that boreal forest ecosystems predominantly carry out cumulative regulation of the carbon cycle, which mitigates warming, while nemoral forests regulate emission regulation. The general softening effect of the forest cover of the Volga basin on climatic changes with the strengthening of the hydrothermal signal was revealed. It is shown that the process of thermal arid transformation of forest ecosystems leads to a general decrease in carbon accumulation in most groups of forest formations. The maps of the carbon content and the projected carbon balance of the main forest formations of the Volga basin for
																								



7.
PROPERTIES OF SECONDARY SALINE ALLUVIAL SOILS IN THE TAIGA-FOREST ZONE OF KAMA REGION

I. V. Pakhorukov, O. Z. Eremchenko
Perm State National Research University, Perm, Russian Federation
Keywords: potash production, salt dumps, mineralized waters, river valley, secondary salinization, soil transformation and systematics

Abstract >>
In Perm Krai, production of potash salts is accompanied by storage of salt waste on the surface. From salt dumps and slime storages, an underground flow of mineralized water was formed, due to which a saline soil formation process develops in the valleys of small rivers in the Kama river basin. Secondary saline alluvial soils were examined in the Chernaya river valley on the territory of the Berezniki potash production mine management. The morphostructural profile of soils shows signs of frequent changes in redox conditions. The Fe (III) ↔ Fe (II) transitions characteristic of hydromorphic soils were accompanied by the formation of a black color in the gelled horizons, which is probably caused by the synthesis of dark-colored minerals, including magnetite and hydrotroilite. Alluvial saline soils are characterized by strong salinity, chloride and sulfate-chloride, sodium and calcium-sodium chemistry. They show the neutralization of acidity, the appearance of carbonates, gypsum formation, and the entry of sodium and potassium ions into the soil absorbing complex. An assessment of the scale of secondary halogenesis development showed that distinct signs of saline soil formation were observed on an area of 17.3 ha, which is about 16 % of the river valley area. The rest of the alluvial soils may also contain easily soluble salts in varying amounts due to the mineralization of soil and ground water. The studied secondary saline soils were diagnosed to the genus and species relative to the modern classification of soils in Russia (2004), as well as in accordance with the world correlation database of soil resources (WRB). In general, the salinity levels, the reaction of the soil environment, and the composition of exchange bases in the alluvial soils of the Chernaya river correspond to the characteristics of previously studied secondary saline soils in the valleys of other small rivers of the Kama region. This correspondence allows us to state that the technogenic transformation of soils under the influence of mineralized water from the dump-sludge economy in the production of potash salts develops according to the same laws.