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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2021 year, number 2


A.A. Samdan
Tuvan Institute for the Humanities Economic Research under the Governments of the Republic of Tuva, Kochetov str., Kyzyl, Republic of Tuva, 667000, Russian Federation
Keywords: Privy Councilor, V. M. Shkunov, land dispute, protectorate, Cossacks, mixed court, volost system


The period of Russian protectorate over Tuva was difficult and controversial due to a number of internal and external factors. The article is focused on the analysis of the activity of Russian officials appointed to implement the policy of colonization of Tuva territory through its peaceful and cultural integration into Russia. The study objective is to consider the activity of V.Yu. Grigoriev, the Privy Councilor in Urianghai Krai (1915-1917), and relations of Tuva and Russia at the time under consideration. This objective can be achieved through the solution of the following tasks: to study Russian policy after establishing the protectorate implemented through the Russian representative bodies; to analyze special features of introduction of the volost system in Tuva; to investigate innovations in Tuvan court organization; to show ways of solving land disputes and conflict situations with Tuvan noyons (local feudal lords) by V.Yu. Grigoriev. The research base sources are materials from the State Archives of the Republic of Tyva introduced into scientific discourse for the first time. The author concludes that there was competition and in-coordination between different Russian governmental departments in Tuva. The focus of the Council of Ministers of Russian Empire on the colonization of the region through cultural instilment was often at the background. In addition to the mobilization of the local Russian population in Tuva, the Russian authorities sent a cossack unit from Usinsk and Kobdo consular guard. V.Yu. Grigorievs attempts to introduce Russian jurisdiction and modify administrative and territorial structure in Tuva remained unsuccessful due to the lack of legislative framework.