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Russian Geology and Geophysics

2021 year, number 6

1.
CARBONATITE-LIKE ROCK IN A DIKE OF THE AIKHAL KIMBERLITE PIPE: COMPARISON WITH CARBONATITES OF THE NOMOKHTOOKH SITE (Anabar area)

S.I. Kostrovitsky1,2, D.A. Yakovlev1, L.F. Suvorova1, E.I. Demonterova2
1Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Favorskogo 1a, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia
2Institute of the Earths Crust, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Lermontova 128, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia
Keywords: Kimberlite, carbonatite, baddeleyite, pyrochlore, monazite, trace element composition, Aikhal, Nomokhtookh

Abstract >>
A dike of rock similar in composition to carbonatites has been found in the Aikhal diamondiferous pipe of the Alakit-Markha field of the Yakutian kimberlite province (YaKP). The fine-grained rock of essentially carbonate composition (dolomite and calcite) rich in thin-platy phlogopite contains minerals typical of carbonatites: monazite, baddeleyite, and pyrochlore. In the high content and distribution of incompatible elements the rock differs significantly from kimberlites and is transitional from kimberlites to carbonatites. The content of incompatible elements in this rock is 3-5 times lower than that in carbonatite breccias of the pipes in the Staraya Rechka kimberlite field of the YaKP (Nomokhtookh site). The compositions of accessory trace-element minerals from the Aikhal dike rock and the Nomokhtookh carbonatite breccias are compared. An assumption is made that the high contents of incompatible elements in the carbonatite-like rock, which caused the crystallization of accessory minerals, are due to the differentiation of kimberlite melt/fluid. The high Sr isotope ratios indicate that the rock altered during hydrothermal and metasomatic processes. The obtained data on the composition of the carbonatite-like rock cannot serve as an argument for the genetic relationship between the Aikhal kimberlites and typical carbonatites. The genetic relationship between kimberlites and carbonatites in the northern fields of the YaKP remains an open issue.
																								



2.
VENDIAN ISLAND ARC INTRUSIVE MAGMATISM OF THE LAKE ZONE OF WESTERN MONGOLIA (geological, geochronological, and petrochemical data)

S.N. Rudnev, A.S. Gibsher, D.V. Semenova
V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Vendian intrusive magmatism, geochronology, petrochemistry, Central Asia, Lake Zone of Western Mongolia

Abstract >>
Based on new geochronological data on gabbroid and plagiogranitoid associations (Tavan Hayrhan, East Bayan Tsagaan, Bayan Tsagaan Uul, Tungalag, Three Hills, and Shutkhuin massifs) located among the Vendian island-arc volcanic complexes of the Lake Zone of Western Mongolia, an independent stage of Vendian island-arc intrusive magmatism (560-542 Ma) is substantiated. Geochronological ages determined for xenogenic zircon from Vendian gabbroids and granitoids (716-559 Ma) indicate a wide time interval of their formation and different natures of the sources. Several types of such sources are assumed. The source of the first type is rocks of the late Riphean oceanic crust of the Paleoasian Ocean, on which the Vendian island arc of the Lake Zone formed later. This is evidenced by the presence of xenogenic zircon with ages of ~716, 658-642, and 613-611 Ma. The source of the second (probably main) type is rocks of the Vendian island arc crust of the Lake Zone. This is indicated by the presence of xenogenic zircon with ages of 583-559 Ma, observed in all studied Vendian intrusive associations.
																								



3.
PETROGENESIS OF THE DESPEN VOLCANIC ROCKS OF THE MIDDLE-LATE ORDOVICIAN VOLCANOPLUTONIC ASSOCIATION OF THE TANNU-OLA TERRANE (southwestern Tuva)

E.V. Vetrov1, A.N. Uvarov2, N.I. Vetrova1, F.A. Letnikov3, I.A. Vishnevskaya4,5, F.I. Zhimulev1, E.S. Andreeva2, M.V. Chervyakovskaya6
1V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Siberian Research Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Mineral Resources, Krasnyi pr. 67, Novosibirsk, 630091, Russia
3Institute of the Earths Crust, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Lermontova 128, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia
4Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Kosygina 19, Moscow, 119334, Russia
5Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 1, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
6Zavaritsky Institute of Geology and Geochemistry, Uralian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Akademika Vonsovskogo 15, Yekaterinburg, 620016, Russia
Keywords: Ordovician, volcanism, zircon U-Pb (SHRIMP-II) dating, petrogeochemical and isotope-geochemical (Sm-Nd) studies, Republic of Tuva

Abstract >>
We have studied the structure and composition of a volcanic unit in the valley of the Despen River, on the southern slope of the East Tannu-Ola Ridge. The unit was earlier assigned to the Lower Devonian Kendei Formation. The new geological and geochronological data show that it resulted from explosive volcanism at 460-450 Ma. The Despen volcanic rocks formed in association with granitoids of the Argolik complex at the end of the accretion-collision stage of evolution of the Altai-Sayan region, in particular, the Tannu-Ola terrane. These are predominantly felsic ferroan metaluminous and weakly peraluminous nappe volcanic rocks resulted from the differentiation of tholeiitic basalts. Their REE patterns, like those of the Argolik granitoids, are flat in the HREE region, show a distinct Eu anomaly, and suggest magma generation at shallow depths in the upper crust. The magmatic source was of subduction origin, as evidenced by the negative Ta-Nb anomalies in the multielement patterns and by εNd(T) = 3.1-5.6, and has a Neoproterozoic model age, TNd(DM-2st) = 0.69-0.94 Ga.
																								



4.
THE AKHUNOVO-PETROPAVLOVSK GRANITOID AREA AS A CONTINENTAL-MARGIN CENTER OF THE LONG-TERM MANTLE-CRUST INTERACTION: THE ROLE OF SUBDUCTIONAL AND RIFT-PLUME SOURCES

V.V. Kholodnov1, E.S. Shagalov1,2, G.A. Kallistov1, G.Yu. Shardakova1,2, D.N. Salikhov3, E.V. Konovalova1
1Zavaritsky Institute of Geology and Geochemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Akademika Vonsovskogo 15, Yekaterinburg, 620016, Russia
2Ural State Mining University, ul. Kuibysheva 30, Yekaterinburg, 620144, Russia
3Institute of Geology, Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Karla Marksa 16/2, Ufa, 450077, Russia
Keywords: Granite formation, subduction, collision, rifting, plume-lithosphere and mantle-crust interaction, fluid regime, ore potential

Abstract >>
The Akhunovo-Petropavlovsk area of the Late Paleozoic granite magmatism is located in the northeast of the Magnitogorsk megazone (MMZ) in the South Urals. It is a series of successively intruded rocks (Petropavlovsk, Akhunovo, Karagai, and Uiskii Bor intrusions) differing not only in composition, the depth of formation, and ore content but also in the relationship with magmatic and fluid sources and in magma generation mechanisms. This area differs significantly in the number and composition of intrusive complexes from the igneous rocks and ore associations in the central and western parts of the MMZ. The granite magmatism pulses alternated with the collisional shearing/spreading and rifting stages. The Petropavlovsk mesoabyssal granite intrusion (347.0 8.6 Ma) formed at the early stage of the area evolution. Its rocks are similar in composition to a suprasubductional series (melting products of a mantle source enrichednot only in water fluid but also in Cl). Later (310-306 Ma), at the collision-compression stage, crustal intrusion of the Akhunovo-Karagai granodiorite-granite complex took place. The intruded rocks are similar to the Middle Urals continental-margin gabbro-tonalite-granodiorite-granite plutons (320-290 Ma) bearing large gold-sulfide-quartz deposits (Berezovskoe etc.). At the final stage of the area evolution, during the transition from continental-margin regime to hard collision between the East European and Kazakhstan continents (late Carboniferous) and the intense shearing/spreading deformations, the Uiskii Bor granosyenite-granite intrusion (304.0 4.8 Ma) rich in K and HFSE formed. Granite intrusions of this type have been revealed in the MMZ for the first time. Thus, the granitoid complexes of the Akhunovo-Petropavlovsk area formed under changes in geodynamic settings and are characterized by different compositions, depths of occurrence, and genesis. This permits us to consider the area a typical continental-margin center of the long-term mantle-crust interaction, where magma generation proceeded at different mantle and crust levels, with the participation of both suprasubductional and enriched plume-related rift sources.
																								



5.
ZIRCON U-Pb GEOCHRONOLOGY, Hf ISOTOPE COMPOSITION, AND PETROCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PALEOCENE GRANITOIDS IN THE WESTERN GANGDESE BELT, TIBET

J.Q. Lin1, F. Ding1,2, C.H. Chen1,2, T. Shen3
1College of Earth Sciences, Chengdu Sichuan, 610059, China
2Key Laboratory of Tectonic Controls on Mineralization and Hydrocarbon Accumulation, Ministry of Natural Resources, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu Sichuan, 610059, China
3403 Geological Brigade of Sichuan Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Emei, 614200, China
Keywords: Zircon U-Pb dating, Hf isotope, Nuocang area, Gangdese Belt

Abstract >>
The research team studied the petrology, whole-rock geochemistry, zircon U-Pb age, and stable isotopic characteristics of the Rongguo Longba and Garongcuo granites of the Nuocang area to understand better the impact of Neo-Tethys ocean subduction and India-Eurasia continental collision on Paleocene tectonomagmatic processes along the southern margin of the Gangdese Belt. The Rongguo Longba granite and Garongcuo granite porphyry formed at 61.86 and 62.17 Ma, respectively. The Nuocang granitoids are characterized by (1) high SiO2, NaO2, and Al2O3 contents and low FeOtot, MgO, and TiO2 contents; (2) LREE and LILE enrichment and HREE and HFSE (Nb, P, and Ti) depletion; and (3) obvious negative Eu anomalies. These features indicate that the Nuocang granites are of the high-K calc-alkaline and peraluminous granite types. Furthermore, their zircon Hf isotope characteristics suggest that the magma source region has an ancient crystalline basement. The basaltic andesitic crystal tuff is the product of garnet-peridotite partial melting and crust contamination from rising magma emplacement.
																								



6.
SUPERIMPOSED PATTERN OF THE SOUTHERN SICHUAN BASIN REVEALED BY SEISMIC REFLECTION PROFILES ACROSS LUSHAN-CHISHUI, CHINA

G. Su1,2, Z. Li1,2, H. Li1,2, D. Ying3, G. Li1,2, X. Ding1,2, X. Tian3, H. Liu1,2
1Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610059, China
2Tectonic Controls on Mineralization and Hydrocarbon Accumulation of Ministry of Land and Resources, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610059, China
3Research Institute of Exploration and Development, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, China
Keywords: Seismic reflection profiles, prototype basin, superimposed pattern, southern Sichuan Basin

Abstract >>
The Sichuan Basin is a typical intracraton superimposed basin. It is rich in oil and gas resources in the different sets of sedimentary sequences. It underwent multistage tectonic evolution, which resulted in different types of prototype basins. However, there are still many different opinions on the types and superimposed patterns of the Sichuan Basin in different geologic periods, which largely affect the understanding of the mechanism of effective oil and gas accumulation and preservation. This paper aims to re-recognize several prototype types of the Sichuan Basin by discussing the prototype basins and their superimposed models to deepen the significance of superimposed basin evolution for hydrocarbon accumulation. The regional geological and drilling data are used for a detailed interpretation of seismic reflection profiles across Lushan-Chishui. Then, five regional unconformities are identified with the equilibrium profiles technique, which is used to flatten the formation interface in different geologic periods. Based on the unconformities, the southern Sichuan Basin is divided into six tectonic layers, each of which is regarded as a prototype basin: a pre-Sinian crystalline basement (AnZ), a marine rift cratonic basin (Z-S), a marine intracratonic sag basin (P2l-T2l), a marine-continental downfaulted basin (T3x1-T3x3), a continental depressed basin (T3x4-J), and a foreland basin (K-Q). The different prototype basins are vertically superimposed to form a layered block geologic structure of the multicycle basins. Affected by the late-stage tectonic transformation, the geologic structure of vertical stratification underwent a strong transformation, which had a profound impact on oil and gas accumulation with the characteristics of early accumulation and late adjustment.
																								



7.
THE INFLUENCE OF TRAP MAGMATISM ON THE GEOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BRINES OF PETROLIFEROUS DEPOSITS IN THE WESTERN AREAS OF THE KUREIKA SYNECLISE (Siberian Platform)

D.A. Novikov1,2, A.O. Gordeeva1, A.V. Chernykh1, F.F. Dultsev1, L.M. Zhitova3
1Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 1, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Hydrogeology, geochemical composition of brines, degree of metamorphism, trap magmatism, intrusion, paleotemperatures, petroleum presence, Kureika syneclise, Siberian Platform, Arctic

Abstract >>
We present the results of study of the influence of trap magmatism on the geochemical composition of brines and on the geothermal regime of the Earths interior in the western areas of the Kureika syneclise. The Siberian trap province, which unites all cutting and layered tholeiite-basic magmatic intrusions and erupted basaltic lava, is the worlds largest Phanerozoic continental basalt province. Brines, hydrocarbon deposits, and organic matter of the sedimentary cover were subjected to a significant thermal impact as a result of the Permo-Triassic trap magmatism. During the trap intrusion, the maximum paleotemperatures in major Silurian (Dyavol), Ordovician (Baikit), and Cambrian (Deltula-Tanachi, Abakun, and Moktakon) productive horizons reached 650 ºC. The Paleozoic and Proterozoic deposits of the study area contain brines with TDS = 50-470 g/dm3. By chemical composition, they are of Na, Na-Ca, Ca-Na, Ca-Mg, and Ca chloride types (according to the classification by S.A. Shchukarev), with mixed Ca-Na and Na-Ca chloride brines dominating. The studied brines can be divided into three groups according to the degree of metamorphism: low (S1), medium (S2), and high (S3). The first group includes mainly sodium chloride brines with TDS = 50-370 g/dm3 (rNa/rCl = 0.60-0.95; S ≤ 100). The second (dominating) group comprises Na-Ca, Ca-Na, Ca, and Ca-Mg chloride brines with TDS = 150-470 g/dm3 (rNa/rCl = 0.10-0.87; 100 ≤ S ≤ 300). The third group is Ca-Na and Ca chloride brines with TDS = 223-381 g/dm3 (rNa/rCl = 0.12-0.45; S ≥ 300). We have first established changes in the hydrogeochemical field (major- and trace-component and gas compositions) with distance from the contacts of intruded dolerite sills and dikes. Hydrocarbons (CH4, C2H6, C3H8, i-C4H10, n-C4H10, i-C5H12, n-C5H12, and C6H14) and water-soluble components I, B, and NH4 were most actively subjected to destruction. For example, at a distance of 100 m from the intrusion zone, the water-dissolved gases are dominated by CO2 (>90 vol.%), and CH4 amounts to 5 vol.%, whereas at a distance of 250 m, the concentration of CO2 decreases to 30 vol.%, and that of CH4 increases to 60-70 vol.%. In addition to the negative effect on the hydrocarbon preservation in the contact zone (≤400 m), the intrusive trap magmatism favored the formation of hydrocarbons in remote horizons. The reaction of intruding traps with brines of the sedimentary cover led to the saturation of the latter with iron, aluminum, and silica, which suggests extraction of metals in the form of salts from magmatic melts into an ore-bearing fluid.