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"Philosophy of Education"

2021 year, number 2


E. V. Ushakova
Altai State Medical University of the Russian Ministry of Health, Barnaul, Russia
Keywords: professional education, integration of fundamental knowledge, time, space, matter, modern concepts of time: unidirectional, bidirectional, cyclical time


Introduction. Fundamental scientific and philosophical knowledge should be introduced into higher professional education in a timely manner. This creates conditions for a broad scientific and philosophical education of students, for the development of a scientific worldview, creative thinking of future specialists in various fields of science and practice, for strengthening the foundation of scientific and technological progress. Purpose of the article: to study several modern scientific and philosophical concepts of time from the standpoint of their inclusion: in the general field of knowledge integration; to the relevant sections of vocational education. The main tasks: to consider the problem of time and space from the standpoint of general philosophical ideas about the surrounding world; to reveal modern approaches to the issues of attributiveness of time and space; explore epistemological ways of analyzing heterogeneous modern concepts of time; to determine the forms of integration of a number of modern concepts of time in vocational education. Methodology and methods of the research. The material of the research was literary sources, scientific and philosophical ideas about time and space in the surrounding world. Methods of epistemological and praxeological analysis of scientific material were applied; comparative scientific and philosophical assessment of the characteristics of the material world and its attributes; comparative analysis of the concepts of unidirectional, bidirectional and cyclic time; socio-pedagogical approach to the problem. The results of the research. The connection of the attributes of time and space with the fundamental properties of the material world is investigated. It is shown that the content of the concept of matter, as an objective reality, in the XX - early XXI centuries is naturally expanding. These are existing in the world: matter and field, the world of substances and the energetic world. Moreover, such subatomic forms of life as various elementary particles (of which more than eight hundred have already been discovered), energy fields, waves, etc., are not only recorded, described, but also widely used in practice. Taking into account the development of the systemic approach, it was determined that the attributive ontological forms of the existence of matter: dynamism of the world (movement as any change in general, continuous variability of the world) and sistemism of the world (as structuredness, stability of areas and parts of the world). Accordingly, the epistemological (metric) attributes of the material world are: time (reflecting the dynamism of the world) and space (reflecting the systemic/structural nature of the world). On this basis, in a comparative aspect, the modern concepts of one-dimensional, two-dimensional and cyclic time are investigated, their ontological and logical relationship is shown. Conclusion. The significance of the problem of time in modern knowledge, professional education and in the technical and technological spheres of society has been substantiated. Based on a broad analysis of scientific and philosophical literature, changes in the modern understanding of the fundamental content of the material world and its attributes are shown. The problem of insufficient comprehension of time in general philosophical, scientific-applied and educational aspects is revealed.