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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2021 year, number 5

1.
High resolution laser spectroscopy of the ozone molecule at the dissociation threshold

S.S. Vasilchenko1, S. Kassi2, D. Mondelain2, A. Campargue2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2Universite Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble Alpes, France
Keywords: ozone, O, high resolution spectroscopy, dissociation threshold

Abstract >>
High sensitivity spectra of the main ozone isotopologue were recorded using a cavity ring-down spectrometer in the region 7920-8670 cm-1 covering the range up to the dissociation threshold and above. The sensitivity on the order 2 × 10-11 cm-1 was achieved. This makes it possible to detect high energy combination bands up to ten vibrational quanta in the electronic ground state. Line positions and intensities are measured for these bands. Vibronic hot bands of the 16O3 borned by transitions from the (100) and (020) electronic ground state levels to the excited 3 A 2 triplet state were recorded for the first time providing new information about the dependence of predissociation broadening on rotational quantum numbers.
																								



2.
High resolution laser spectroscopy of the ozone molecule at the dissociation threshold

N.N. Lavrentieva, A.S. Dudaryonok
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: profile parameters, line broadening, temperature exponent

Abstract >>
Self- and air-broadening coefficients of nitrogen dioxide lines are calculated. The calculations are performed at a room temperature ( Т = 296 K) for ~ 29000 lines, rotational quantum numbers vary in the range up to 87 for N and up to 20 Ka . The temperature exponents are calculated for every line. The resulted parameters are compared with the literature and spectroscopic database. The calculations are made by two approaches: the semi-empirical method and energy difference method.
																								



3.
Effect of helium on the Raman spectrum of methane in the range 2500-3300 cm-

A.S. Tanichev1, D.V. Petrov1,2, I.I. Matrosov1, K.K. Sharybkina1
1Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: methane, helium, Raman spectroscopy, gas analysis

Abstract >>
The peak positions and half-widths of the Q -branch of the n1 band, as well as the ratios of intensities of the Q -branches of n3 and 2n2 bands of methane in a methane-helium mixture are measured at various pressures and concentrations. An empirical model has been developed for estimation of the helium concentration in a methane-bearing medium by measuring these spectral parameters. The error in the He concentration is found to be less than 1% when using the n1 band half-width. The ways of developing this technique and increasing its accuracy are considered.
																								



4.
Dicke narrowing, speed dependence and line mixing of self-broadened CO2 absorption lines in the 30013 — 00001 band. Measurements and line shape testing

V.A. Kapitanov1, K.Yu. Osipov1, A.E. Protasevich1, Yu.N. Ponomarev1, Ya.Ya. Ponurovskii2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: laser spectrometer, absorption line profile, pressure dependence, CO molecule

Abstract >>
Experimental results are presented for self-broadening and shift of six isolated absorption lines of CO2 versus pressure in the 1.6 mm spectral range at a room temperature. The measurements were carried out at a high-sensitivity high-resolution diode laser spectrometer with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3000 to 7000. To describe the experimental spectra, five theoretical line profile models VP, RP, qSDRP, qSDVP, and qSDVP + LM were used. A strong influence of weak closely spaced lines on the parameters retrieved (intensity and collisional broadening coefficient) of strong lines was found, as well as nonlinear pressure dependence of narrowing parameter for RP and qSDRP line profile models. The linear pressure dependence of the parameters retrieved for qSDVP + LM line profile is shown in the range from 0.001 to 1 atm.
																								



5.
Optimization of lens raster parameters in a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor

V.V. Lavrinov, L.N. Lavrinova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, turbulent distortions of the light field, algorithm for calculating lenslet parameters

Abstract >>
Choice of the parameters of the lens raster in a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with the minimal residual error in the wavefront reconstruction is one of the solutions to the problem of the sensor measurement accuracy. This paper presents the results of numerical experiments on estimating the accuracy of reconstruction of the wavefront distorted by atmospheric turbulence taking into account the transfer functions between the telescope and the sensor and between the raster and the photosensitive matrix of the receiving device.
																								



6.
Comparison of methods for multielement analysis of the composition of water aerosol based on spectral analysis of laser plasma

O.A. Bukin1,2, A.Yu. Mayor2,3, D.Yu. Proschenko1,2,3, S.S. Golik2,3, V.V. Lisitsa2,3, D.A. Korovetskiy1,2, A.A. Ilyin2,3
1Admiral G.I. Nevelskoy Maritime State University, Vladivostok, Russia
2Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia
3Institute of Automation and Control Prosesses Far Easten Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Vladivostok, Russia
Keywords: aerosol, laser spectroscopy, plasma, filamentation, limits of detection

Abstract >>
Experimental results of comparison of two methods of multielement analysis of liquid-droplet aerosol based on spectral analysis of laser plasma radiation are presented. The features of the emission spectra of laser plasma arising as a result of laser breakdown (LIBS method) and of filamentation (R-FIBS method) in liquid droplet aerosol are investigated. A liquid-drop aerosol containing a Na solution is used. The experiments were carried out to determine the optimal use of the methods on mobile platforms. It is shown that, for both methods, there are optimal delay times of the start of signal registration relative to the start of plasma generation, at which the maximal signal-to-noise ratio is observed. The magnitude of these delays differs by three orders of magnitude when going from nanosecond to femtosecond pulses. For the LIBS method, the dependence of the signal-to-noise ratio was obtained for various focusing of laser radiation deep into the liquid-droplet cloud. The values of the Na limit of detection for both methods are determined.
																								



7.
Comparison of time behaviors of integrated aerosol content in the stratosphere and total ozone content

A.V. Nevzorov1, O.E. Bazhenov1, A.V. Elnikov2, V.A. Loginov2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2Surgut State University, Surgut, Russia
Keywords: laser sounding, lidar, aerosol, ozone, measurement series

Abstract >>
We analyze the annual variations in the total ozone content (TOC) over Tomsk in period of 1994-2017 and integrated aerosol backscattering coefficient (IABC) in the period 2000-2016 obtained using M-124 ozonometer and lidar method, respectively. The correlation coefficient between these time series turned out to be -0.23, indicating that, although localized in the same altitude range, these time series are uncorrelated. Study of annual behaviors formed from these time series showed that TOC can be fitted by the function sin, while IABC, by the function cos. At the same time, both functions depend on a single parameter, i.e., the time in decades. This allowed us to conclude that the variations of these atmospheric constituents are formed mainly in two perpendicular directions. It is found that the annual behaviors of TOC and IABC consist of two sections, fitted by exponential curves.
																								



8.
Atmospheric temperature from AURA (MLS) satellite and OH (3-1) measurements in Maimaga

V.I. Sivtseva, P.P. Ammosov, G.A. Gavrilyeva, I.I. Koltovskoi
Yu.G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Yakutsk, Russia
Keywords: mesopause region, rotational temperature, hydroxyl, Aura satellite

Abstract >>
This paper presents a study of the temperature of the mesopause region (~ 87 km) by measuring the emission of OH (3-1) at high latitude station Maimaga (63.04° N, 129.51° E) and comparing the results with the temperature data Aura (MLS) at 0.002 hPa during 2013-2018. The average rotational temperature of OH (3-1) was compared with Aura (MLS) measured temperatures ( T ) and the background temperatures ( T bg) calculated from them. The obtained result indicates in favor of more correct comparison of the temperature OH (3-1) and temperature T bg calculated from Aura (MLS) data. Comparison of the data mutually confirms the observation of elevated temperatures in the mesopause in the winter period 2014-2015. In the winter periods of 2013-2015, the seasonal course of the temperature OH (3-1) is ~ 10 K higher than the seasonal course of the temperature T bg. During the winter periods of 2015-2018, although the temperature variations are close in value, the seasonal course of the temperature OH (3-1) continues to exceed the values of the seasonal course of temperature T bg. In general, the temperature variations measured by two different methods are qualitatively consistent and reflect the nature of seasonal changes. Temperature differences can be explained by many factors, such as differences in measurement heights and methods.
																								



9.
Emergent properties of the climate system. Derivatives of the mean annual temperature at meteorological stations in the Northern Hemisphere

V.A. Tartakovsky, N.N. Cheredko, V.G. Maksimov
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: climate change monitoring, emergent properties, climate system

Abstract >>
The average annual temperature derivatives analysis was carried out according to the data of 927 weather stations of the Northern Hemisphere for the period 1956-2016. Changes in derivatives are considered as manifestations of the emergent property of a holistic climate system. A measure of these manifestations has been introduced. The measure has a functional form, including averaging positive and negative derivatives and calculating the correlation coefficients along weather stations. The extrema of the derivative temperatures are determined; it is found that the sample distribution of the sums of the opposite extrema of the derivatives is symmetric and has a greater kurtosis than the normal distribution. In the study period, the values of the measure are already close to their limiting values. At that, the climate system's equilibrium state is preserved, while regional fluctuations of individual climate elements have increased. Therefore, an annual assessment of changes in the multichannel monitoring system's measure of emergent properties is required.
																								



10.
Estimates of CO2 exchange over the water surface near the St. Petersburg metropolitan area

G.M. Nerobelov, Yu.M. Timofeyev
Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: CO emissions and absorption, sea surface, the Gulf of Finland, SOCOM, EMME, ODIAC

Abstract >>
Air-sea CO2 exchange over the Gulf of Finland according to SOCOM ship measurements during March and April 2019 have been assessed to determine the possible impact of the water surface on estimates of St. Petersburg anthropogenic emissions. It was found that the surface of the Gulf of Finland is a source of CO2 in March and a sink in April 2019. CO2 fluxes per unit area of the water surface of the Gulf of Finland were on average significantly smaller (by 1-2 orders) than the anthropogenic emissions of St. Petersburg. Contribution of the Gulf of Finland surface to CO2 content of air masses passing over the water surface in March-April 2019 was small on average in comparison with the contribution of St. Petersburg according to EMME (Emission Monitoring Mobile Experiment) measurements and ODIAC data (less than 1% of the cities contribution). For extreme wind speeds above the water surface and differences in the partial CO2 pressure in water and air, the contribution of the Gulf of Finland to the CO2 content of the air masses can reach almost 3% in relation to the anthropogenic contribution of St. Petersburg.
																								



11.
Measurements of wind speed and direction with an aerosol UV lidar

P.A. Filimonov, S.E. Ivanov, V.A. Gorodnichev, M.L. Belov, Yu.V. Fedotov
Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: lidar, aerosol inhomogeneities, ultraviolet spectral region, wind velocity measurement, digital signal processing

Abstract >>
We show a possibility of measuring wind speed with a lidar and a sampling method developed. An experimental setup operating at an eye-safe 0.355 mm wavelength is described; corresponding measurement data are presented. The dependence of the measurement quality on optical properties of the atmosphere is analyzed. The mean absolute errors are 1.05 m/s for the wind speed and 13.3° for the wind direction calculated with accumulated measurements for spring-autumn is.
																								



12.
The development of the adaptive optics systems for the ground-based solar telescopes

A.Yu. Shikhovtsev1, V.P. Lukin2, P.G. Kovadlo1
1Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Irkutsk, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: atmospheric turbulence, wavefront, LST-3, solar images, MCAO

Abstract >>
The paper describes the multi-conjugate adaptive optics systems and identifies the features of optical conjugations of adaptive mirrors with turbulent layers for ground-based solar telescopes. The optimal size of the field of view for a solar telescope operating under average atmospheric conditions has been calculated. The size of the optimal field of view is equal 10 arc. sec. Recommendations are given for the development of MCAO systems for ground-based solar telescopes. The concept of a system for determination of 3D wavefront distortions for the Large Solar Telescope LST-3, as well as for the wavefront registration in the Large Solar Vacuum Telescope, is proposed.