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Philosophy of Sciences

2021 year, number 1

1.
THE OBJECTIVE-IDEALISTIC COMPONENT IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF R. DECARTES: THE MULTIPLICITY ASPECTS OF THE DUALISTIC SPECIFITY OF THE MONISTIC DOCTRINE

Vasiliy Pavlovich Goran
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8, Nikolaev st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Descartes, philosophy, objective idealism, ontology, theology universe, substance, God, human, dualism, multiplicity of the dualistic specifity of philosophy, monism, nature, denial of regularity in nature, body, soul, mind, epistemology

Abstract >>
The article considers the objective-idealistic component in the philosophy of R. Descartes. The main attention is paid to the combination of the multiplicity of its mutually correlating dualistic components with the philosopher's monistic position on the whole. This is done with a focus on its following main distinctive features. It is a dualistic picture of the universe as an incorporeal God, on the one hand, and a corporeal nature, on the other hand. It is also a dualistic idea of the human as consisting of an incorporeal part of the soul, which is recognized as his mind, and the body. Again, it is the dualistic recognition of the irrationality of a number of Christian ideas about God and the presence of rational components in them as well. Besides, it is the inclusion of both the listed and other dualistic ideas of Descartes in his generally monistic picture of all things, in which God is assigned the role of the only creator of everything else.



2.
RUSSELLIAN ANALYSIS OF THE CONCEPT OF EXISTENCE: PROBLEMS AND DIFFICULTIES

Konstantin Gennadievich Frolov1,2
1St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, 5, Popova st., St. Petersburg, 197376, Russia
2Institute of Philosophy, St. Petersburg State University, 5, Mendeleev Line, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia
Keywords: existence, object, paradox of non-existent objects, B. Russell, A. Meinong

Abstract >>
The main thesis of the article is that the idea of A. Meinong's interpretation of the concept of existence as an eccentric and deliberately implausible concept that implies absurd consequences is unjustified. The author shows that, being correctly presented, this approach not only does not contradict our typical and natural intuitions, but corresponds to them more than any other theory of a similar kind. In this, the key thesis of Meinongianism is that the subject matter of certain thoughts and ideas is not necessarily caused by the existence of the corresponding subject in the physical world. One can think about something that does not exist and such thinking will not be empty. At the same time, this thesis is not aimed at proving the existence of something non-existent, but just states a certain fact, which, although it needs further clarification, surely cannot be denied.



3.
THE FUNDAMENTAL EPISTEMIC GOOD: TRUTH OR KNOWLEDGE?

Igor Evgenievich Pris
Institute of Philosophy, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 1/2, Surganov st., Minsk, 220072, Belarus
Keywords: truth, knowledge, fundamental epistemic good, virtue epistemology, knowledge first epistemology

Abstract >>
D. Pritchard treats the conception of intellectual virtues as a primary theoretical notion and concludes that truth is the fundamental epistemic good and the goal of the scientific research. We criticize his approach in terms of T. Williamsons knowledge first epistemology, which, in our view, is more fundamental than the virtue epistemology. We argue that knowledge is the only fundamental epistemic good and the goal of the scientific research. In respect to philosophy of education, our analysis leads to the conclusion that in education, one should primarily focus on acquiring the basic Wittgensteinian «hinge propositions.



4.
SCIENCE AS AN INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPMENT: CHALLENGES AND NEW MODELS (A Project Idea)

Sergey Alevtinovich Smirnov
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: science, techno-sciences, development institution, institutional forms of science, models of science, Akademgorodok 2.0, scientific community

Abstract >>
The article introduces the idea of science as a development institution. The author proposes to consider the issue of the need to work out a response to global challenges from the perspective of institutional restructuring and reconceiving the whole field of science. For this purpose, two models of science are compared on the example of the Novosibirsk Academgorodok: the model within the framework of the project of a scientific town, which belongs to M.A. Lavrentiev's period, and the one within the framework of the new concept "Akademgorodok 2.0", which is currently being developed. The author emphasizes that in view of global challenges, former disputes about various attitudes in science, about scientific revolutions in T. Kuhn's spirit, disputes between metaphysics and logic, between ontologists and relativists have reached their limit; today, such contrasts are no longer relevant. Times have changed and science as an institution has got other tasks - it should become an institution of development. The article also notes that science itself can no longer be just a science; it becomes a techno-science.



5.
PARADOXES AND INTENSIONALITY IN THE FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS

Vitaliy Valentinovich Tselishchev, Aleksandr Valerievich Khlebalin
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: intensional, extensional, set-theoretical foundations, axiom of choice

Abstract >>
The article considers the gap between the extensional and intensional elements of mathematical discourse in the development of programs concerning the foundations of mathematics. It is shown that F. Ramsey's desire to separate the intensional and extensional elements of discourse through the typology of paradoxes turned into an inversion of his project. The substantiation is produced that the development of the set-theoretic foundations of mathematics presupposed an extensional interpretation of mathematics, but nevertheless faced the need to assume the intensional element, for example, in relation to the axiom of choice. It is shown that the assumption of the intensional element of mathematical discourse is connected with philosophical programs, while the extensional interpretation is motivated by mathematical principles.



6.
A NEW SYSTEM OF KNOWLEDGE IN THE SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY OF COSMISM

Vladislav Georgievich Sokolov
Unified Scientific Center for Space Thinking Problems of the International Centre of the Roerichs, 10th Parkovaya str., Moscow, 105264, Russia
Keywords: cosmic thinking, cosmism, new system of knowledge, empirical science, metascientific method, intuition, matter, culture

Abstract >>
The work is devoted to important aspects of the cardinal phenomenon of scientific and philosophical thought, with other words cosmism, or cosmic thinking, which began to form in the late XIX - early XX centuries and continues to develop today. The work reveals the actual problem of understanding two main ways of knowledge - empirical scientific and metascientific (the comprehension of objects and phenomena by a person through his inner, spiritual, space), the synthesis of which is presented in the works of Russian scientists and cosmist philosophers. This synthesis is a new system of knowledge, which is the subject of research and allows us to understand a phenomenon or process in the most complete and deep way. This understanding is particularly relevant, because science faces a number of major problems that cannot be explained in terms of traditional, outdated approaches. The relevance of comprehending the two above-mentioned means of cognition is due to the need for further qualitative development of science, which is associated with a deeper understanding of different states of substance of the surrounding reality. One side of this reality is grasped empirically, the other side is grasped non-empirically, intuitively, supersensibly, or in a metascientific way. These two sides are also enclosed in the person himself, which makes it inevitable that the two corresponding ways of knowledge will naturally manifest in him. Namely with the development of the internal culture of man, his spirit, the effectiveness of a multifaceted cognitive process, expanding his horizons is bound. Culture, or the process of development of the human spirit, is the main condition for metascientific cognition, as well as its fruitful synthesis with empirical science.



7.
SOCIAL EPISTEMOLOGY AND INCOMMENSURABILITY

Anna Yurievna Storozhuk
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: incommensurability, social epistemology, philosophy of scientific experiment

Abstract >>
The article discusses a project of social epistemology, which implies the interaction between different spheres of culture, in terms of the problem of incommensurability of theories. Various interpretations of the term "incommensurability" are analyzed and their applicability to the current scientific process is assessed. It is shown that in spite of different interpretations of incommensurability, there are still opportunities for interaction between scientific communities, communication and cultural exchange.



8.
THE OBJECTIVE CHARACTER OF TEMPORAL RELATIONS

Alina Sergeevna Zaykova
Institute of Philosophy and Law, SB RAS, 8, Nikolaev st. , Novosibirsk, 630090
Keywords: time, temporal relations, objectivity, science, duration, simultaneity, temporal order

Abstract >>
The article discusses the issue of the objective character of temporal relations, particularly temporal order, duration and simultaneity. The conclusion is made that some temporal relations, such as direction and temporal order, can indeed be objective, since they are caused by logical laws. With regard to duration and simultaneity, one can talk about absolute objectivity only in cases when the space-time interval is reduced to the time interval.



9.
"THE DESCENT OF MAN, AND SELECTION IN RELATIONTO SEX" BY CH. DARWIN: A VIEW FROM THE 21th CENTURY

Sergey Viktorovich Glukhov
Institute of Scientific Information on Social Sciences, Russian Academy of Sciences, 51/21, Nahimovsky av., Moscow, 117418, Russia
Keywords: Darwin, Darwinism, neo-Darwinism, sexual selection, natural selection, rasology, races, anthropogenesis

Abstract >>
The purpose of the article is to show how new research and scientific trends are reflected in the thesis and conceptual framework of Charles Darwin's classic work "The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex". This work of Darwin deals with the vital issues of his time, which arose mainly after they drew the attention of this brilliant scientist. The evolutionary paradigm required considering a human being not as a divine creature, but as a creation of nature closely related to the animal world. This was done on the pages of the said work. As a taxonomist, Darwin could not help but touch upon the topic of similarities and differences among human races. And, finally, the scientist's attention came to the topic of "sexual selection"; he formulated it entirely by himself at the insufficiency of his previous concept of "natural selection".



10.
NEW EPISTEMOLOGY: A REVIEW OF T. WILLIAMSONS "KNOWLEDGE AND ITS LIMITS"

Olga Aleksandrovna Kozyreva
Ural Federal University, 620000, 51 Lenin Ave., Ekaterinburg, Russia
Keywords: Williamson, knowledge, ignorance, epistemology, logic

Abstract >>
The article reviews "Knowledge and Its Limits" by Timothy Williamson, which is one of his key works. It summarizes the main ideas of the twelve chapters of the book.