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Region: Economics and Sociology

2020 year, number 4

1.
Assessing the Role of Large Cities and Agglomerations in the Russian Urban System (case study of housing market)

E.A. Kolomak1,2, A.O. Nezavitina1
1Novosibirsk National Research State University, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: city, agglomeration, urban system, externalities, housing market, market potential, Russia, empirical analysis

Abstract >>
A question of whether large cities make a positive impact on the balanced development of Russian territories remains open to debate. This article aims to assess the role of large cities and urban agglomerations in the development of the Russian urban system. Using housing prices as an indirect indicator of economic activity, we study how neighboring large cities and the fact of being included in an agglomeration affect the housing market of small and medium-sized cities in Russia. The main tested hypotheses of the analysis are the following: 1) agglomerations have a positive impact on the small cities that are part of them; 2) large cities have a positive impact on their neighboring territories; 3) the influence of a large city is determined by the size of its market and distance to it. We have chosen empirical and regression estimates to be the methods. The analysis results confirm the prevalent positive externalities of both large city's influence and inclusion in an urban agglomeration affecting small cities. The importance of the institutional component associated with the agglomeration status is comparable to the role of the market component formed due to cooperative relations between producers and consumers of the agglomeration center and small cities in a region. In Russia, taking advantage of urban system capabilities requires political decisions, including recognizing agglomeration status and removing barriers to inter-municipal interactions.
																								



2.
Religious Heterogeneity: a Barrier or a Factor of Economic Development in Russia?

A.A. Khrzhanovskaya1,2
1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk National Research State University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: heterogeneity, population, religion, welfare, regions, Russia

Abstract >>
The article raises the problem of growing religious heterogeneity of the population as a result of present-day globalization. We discuss studies that have analyzed the influence of diversity, inter alia in religion, on social welfare and the ambiguity of their conclusions. This paper continues their work in this area, evaluating the religious diversity in the population of Russian regions with indices that are the most accurate to reflect opposing views on the societal heterogeneity up to date. The first is the Simpson's Diversity Index, which treats diversification as the expected exchange source; the second is the Polarization Index, which captures polarization as the source of conflict. The calculation relies on the data from the Atlas of Religions and Nationalities of Russia and the website of the Federal Agency for Nationality Affairs. By analyzing the influence that the specified indices have on gross output and investment in the private sector, we confirm their statistical significance for the models under consideration: religious heterogeneity affects economic growth indicators positively, while polarization exerts a negative impact.
																								



3.
Spatial Mobility of Population Inside and Outside the Region: Social and Infrastructural Factors of Inequality

T.Yu. Cherkashina1, N.L. Mosienko2
1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk National Research State University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: spatial mobility, transport infrastructure, social inequality, digital inequality

Abstract >>
The article presents the results of a 2018-2019 study on residents spatial mobility in Novosibirsk Oblast. It focuses on regular daily trips (in a weekly cycle) and occasional trips outside the region. We reveal how the populations spatial mobility differs within the region and the extent to which it arises from infrastructure, social and technological (use of digital technologies to organize and plan trips) factors. We also consider how a new aspect of social inequality - digital inequality manifests itself in the differentiation of spatial mobility and inequality in mobility opportunities. For the analysis, Novosibirsk Oblasts territory was conditionally divided into eight areas: the city of Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk agglomeration periphery, the Southeast area, the Northeast area, the Central area, the Barabinsk-Kuibyshev agglomeration, the Northwest area, and the Southwest area. Here are revealed the differences in spatial mobility between the areas by the following parameters: frequency, directions, targets, and types of transport used. We also describe the differences in perception of regular daily trips depending on the vehicles people use; age and settlement patterns of Novosibirsk Oblast residents with dissimilar spatial mobility experiences.
																								



4.
Designing a Set of Econometric Models to Measure the Impact of Social Infrastructure on Demographic Development Indicators in Russian Regions

M.M. Nizamutdinov, V.V. Oreshnikov
Institute for Social and Economic Research, UFRC RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: econometric model, social infrastructure, demographic processes, regions of Russia, principles, grouping, scenario forecasting, ratings

Abstract >>
This article deals with accounting for the impact that the level of social infrastructure development has when forecasting demographic processes in the regions of the Russian Federation. The studys methodological base is comprised of works by contemporary Russian and international authors. To solve the problems, we have used methods of indicator standardization, data grouping, economic/mathematical modeling, and rating. In the study, we have developed a set of econometric models to assess the impact of social infrastructure on specific demographic process indicators in Russian regions: they take into account both the level of social infrastructure development across various areas of demographic processes and the results of grouping regions by the level at which social infrastructure is delivered. The second component included made it possible to make the models more adequate, as they started to reflect the regional characteristics of reproductive behavior in different Russian regions. In particular, we have created equations that describe the influence of these factors on birth, death, and net migration rates. Having evaluated the quality of the equations obtained, we claim they may be applied to analyzing the situation and subsequent forecasting. We have examined the established econometric model set and, using it as a basis, formed a forecast for changes in the Russian regions demographic parameters according to three scenarios. An analysis of the results shows that a medium-term increase in the birth rate is unlikely; together with slowed down mortality and a difficult migration situation maintained in many regions, the threat of a national demographic crisis is intensifying. The findings can be used in drafting a state demographic policy.
																								



5.
Rural Areas in Modern Russia: Development Trends and Transformation Mechanisms (case study of Volgograd Oblast)

S.K. Volkov, N.V. Ketko
Volgograd State Technical University, Volgograd, Russia
Keywords: rural areas, region, spatial development, demography, infrastructure, creative centers, municipal areas, entrepreneurship

Abstract >>
The study aims to analyze current trends in rural development and provide recommendations for their transformation. The object is rural settlements in Volgograd Oblast. The subject of the study is socio-economic processes taking place in municipal areas of Volgograd Oblast. The research methods are system logic analysis, correlation analysis, and statistical analysis. We have also conducted an (online) survey among rural dwellers from five municipal areas in Volgograd Oblast. We have identified trends in the socio-economic development of rural settlements against changes in the regions population, age-sex structure, in- and outflow dynamics, the number of urban and rural settlements, as well as population dynamics in municipal areas and urban districts. It is established that population changes in Volgograd Oblasts municipal areas are decreasing. However, municipal areas with a high share of the rural population are generally characterized by fewer residents. We have also identified and ranked the main problems of socio-economic development for rural settlements in terms of how attractive they are for residence and doing business. We provide recommendations on shifting the current situation and addressing specific issues that rural areas have. The studys theoretical significance is that its results can be considered a stage of a broad research program to develop a methodological basis for rural areas strategic development built upon newly established creative centers as controlled growth points." The practical significance of the study lies in the possibility of using its results when shaping spatial strategies for rural development.
																								



6.
Agrarian Land Use in Russia and Siberian Regions Under Digital Transformation

O.P. Fadeeva1,2, V.I. Nefedkin1,2
1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk National Research State University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: land reform, farmland, agrarian land use, inventory, information systems, Altai Krai

Abstract >>
The article discusses agricultural land-use problems in Russia and Siberia and the opportunities to grow its value thanks to digital transformation. An analysis of land statistics, collected from censuses and annual reports of the Russian Ministry of Agriculture, shows that the present data are incomplete and inconsistent. Low quality of information on agricultural land availability and use is one of the main factors hindering a full-fledged land market and an increase in land-use efficiency. Semi-formalized interviews with heads and specialists of district administrations in Altai Krai show that most land registration and inventory decision-making have been delegated to local authorities. Unified geographic information systems and databases with up-to-date information on the quantity and quality of available land resources, distribution of land rights and the nature of land use could bring changes to the monitoring of land use in the agricultural sector. However, using digital technologies alone does not guarantee any improvement in data quality. It may be obstructed by various institutional, legal, economic, organizational, technological, and social factors that substantially determine local practices developed under inconsistent land reform. We conclude that minimizing the difficulties and costs of the next land-use innovations, which are already evident at the moment, involves transforming the entire system of relations between regulators, landowners and land users: from rules of state support for producers to legal mechanisms for the accumulation of land resources (primarily unclaimed) from efficient land users. Otherwise, rather costly measures initiated from above will not give the expected effect and instead of streamlining the system of land relations may bring even greater digital chaos.
																								



7.
Environmental Factors Affecting the State and Development of the Siberian Agri-Food Market

A.A. Bykov
Regional Agricultural Economies at Siberian Research Institute of Agricultural Economics, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: agri-food market, organizational and economic mechanism, food commodities, agricultural production, Siberia, environmental factors

Abstract >>
The article presents how primary agricultural products production and consumption are at equilibrium in the Siberian Federal District. We give basic food commodities consumption forecast until 2025. The article offers a methodology for researching external environment factors and determining their impact on the state and development of the Siberian agri-food market. To bridge the gap between economic-statistical and situational analyses, we have defined the force off actors impact on the agri-food market development with a scoring method and engaged experts from the largest organizations in the region. Monographic, economic, statistical, expert and analytical methods have been used in our research. The study has resulted in finding economic, social, institutional and technological factors which affect the state and development of the agri-food market in Siberia. The novelty of our study is assessing the degree of impact that environmental factors have on the development of the Siberian agri-food market. We have concluded that the development of the Siberian agri-food market requires an effective organizational and economic mechanism. The article proposes measures to minimize the negative impact of environmental factors and ensure the Siberian agri-food markets efficiency. Our findings can be used by government officials in republics, krais, and oblasts, agro-industrial managers and specialists, researchers, higher and secondary education teachers.
																								



8.
Features of Economic Entities Development in the Agricultural Industry of Penza Oblast and Republic of Tatarstan

G.F. Gabdrakhmanova, E.A. Sagdieva
Sh. Marjani Institute of History, Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, Kazan, Russia
Keywords: Penza Oblast, Republic of Tatarstan, economic entities, agricultural policy, census, agricultural organization, peasant farm, subsidiary household plot

Abstract >>
The article deals with the development features pertaining to agricultural organizations, peasant farms, and subsidiary household plots in the Republic of Tatarstan and Penza Oblast. The research is based on the context of the regions development strategies and agricultural policies. We put forward a hypothesis that, despite the agricultural policy uniformity nationwide, the dynamics of agriculture in these regions are ensured, among other things, by economic entities changing economic priorities. To analize these strategies, we use data on production specializations and resources of economic entities from the 2006 and 2016 All-Russian Agricultural Censuses. The examination of regional agricultural policies relies on their estimates given by experts over interviews. Here findings may serve state authorities in establishing agricultural industry regulations. One conclusion is that regions conduct distinct agricultural policies. Tatarstans agricultural sector experiences soft intensification, while the government intends to support as many economic entities as possible. By contrast, Penza Oblast aims to lower the number of economic entities and strengthen individual industry participants economy-wise. We find useful learning the trends in enhancing the production specializations of the regions, as well as discovering that they have common problems in the agricultural sectors which are the federal centers responsibility.
																								



9.
Investment and Cross-Border Cooperation in the East of Russia

I.P. Glazyrina1,2, L.M. Faleychik1, A.A. Faleychik2
1Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and Cryology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Chita, Russia
2Transbaikal State University, Chita, Russia
Keywords: institutional transformation, cross-border cooperation, foreign direct investment, economic diversification

Abstract >>
This article may be viewed as another chapter in an ongoing discussion among researchers about the role of the Far Eastern institutional transformation after 2013 in Eastern Russias development against the background of cross-border economic relationships. We consider the dynamics off oreign direct investment (FDI), including that for the major industries. Our calculations show no correlation between FDI volumes and economic growth rates in the eastern regions of Russia. During the period under review, FDI-based cross-border cooperation had little effect on economic diversification in the eastern regions. In most, the majority of investment was allocated to the mineral resources sector. Since 2015, the FDI share in manufacturing, agriculture, construction, trade, hotels and restaurants, and the entertainment industry has generally been no more than 1% of the national total in the relevant sectors. There is no reason to believe that by now, FDI, stimulated by the creation of new institutions in the Far East, has contributed significantly to a modern high-tech economy in Eastern Russia. The Far Eastern institutional transformation has not changed the extractive nature of economic (and political) institutions. Economic preferences for the Russian East help attract investment, to some extent, but mainly if supported by the federal budget and state guarantees. We believe that the gradual transformation of institutions toward their inclusiveness is becoming a primary task. Institutional design in the eastern regions requires, besides political will, active involvement of the scientific community.
																								



10.
Features of Business Socio-Environmental Responsibility Manifestation in Domestic Tourism

S.I. Mishulina1, N.I. Matova2
1Federal Research Center The Subtropical Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Sochi, Russia
2Branch of the Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, Sochi, Russia
Keywords: socio-environmental responsibility, region specializing in recreational tourism, tourism industry, “green” tourism, small business

Abstract >>
The article considers the formation and manifestation features of business socio-environmental responsibility (SER) in regions specializing in recreational tourism as a tool for regional economy greening. The complex nature of the actively emerging SER concept, its interdisciplinarity with philosophical, sociological, phycological, economic, environmental, and other aspects, as well as its practical value, all foster scholarly discussion and contribute to the degree of how defined the terminological and methodological apparatus is. The fiercest debates surround the factors and environment for business social responsibility, socially admitted forms of its manifestation. It makes the research topical and timely. By analising the SERs role in the sustainable development of recreational touristic territories and various aspects of the actual activity of business units in resort regions, we determine the prerequisites for socio-environmentally responsible business and draw out specific aspects of the tourism industry representing a challenge for active development of SER entities. We have identified factors and environments for SER growth, in particular within the tourism industry. Operational directions and instruments of state and public effect on business SER will make it possible to apply this social, philosophical, phycological, and economic phenomenon to the sustainable development of domestic tourism and regions specializing in recreation.