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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2020 year, number 3

STATIONS, OBSERVATORIES, LABORATORY OF COSMIC RAYS OF YAKUTIA IN THE CONTEXT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLECTUAL COMMUNICATIONS OF THE CENTER AND REGION IN 1925-1962

E.P. ANTONOV1, V.N. ANTONOVA2
1Institute for Humanitarian Research and Problems of the Small Peoples SB RAS, 1, Petrovskogo Str., Yakutsk, 677007, Russian Federation
2Pedagogical Institute of the Northeast Federal University named after M.K. Ammosov, 2, Lenina Ave., Yakutsk, 677000, Russian Federation
Keywords: метеорологические и аэрологические станции, Геофизическая обсерватория, Институт космофизических исследований и аэрономии, зонды, широкие атмосферные ливни, искусственные спутники Земли, meteorological and aerological stations, Geophysical Observatory, Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, probes, extensive air showers, artificial Earth satellites, radiation conditions, thermonuclear explosions

Abstract

The paper objective is to reconstruct the process of formation of institutions (stations, observatories, institute) involved in meteorological, geophysical and cosmic physical research and their role in Yakutia’s development. The authors use the biographics research achievements, which reconstruct the life of individuals based on personal texts (ego-documents), as well as the network analysis of scientific institutions’ organization and activities in Yakutia on the basis of communications between intellectuals in the center and regions. As the first stage, 1925-1941, the fruitful activities of prominent Soviet scientists contributed to forming a network of 23 stationary meteorological, aerological, hydrometeorological stations, a geophysical observatory and a polar station on an island in the Arctic Ocean. The results of the institution activities were important for development of aviation, Aldan gold mining and the Amur-Yakutsk highway construction. In the 1930s, regular measurements of the cosmic ray intensity started under Yu. G. Shafer guidance in Yakutsk, interrupted in 1941. The second stage, 1947-1962, began after Yu. G. Scafer coming back from the front. The prominent Russian space physicists developed unique innovative semiconductor devices for artificial Earth satellites, cameras for imaging auroras, ionization cameras for continuous registration of cosmic rays installed on nine stations; and most importantly - a research team was formed by the Pedagogical Institute graduates. Studying the radiation situation in the near-Earth space during high-altitude thermonuclear explosions testified to the involvement of Yakutia in improving the country defense. The station on the Bolshaya Lyakhovsky Island has contributed to provide Arctic aviation flights and coastal navigation along the Northern Sea Route.