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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2020 year, number 4

1.
FOREWORD FROM THE SCIENTIFIC EDITORS

V. V. Tarakanov1,2, K. V. Krutovsky3,4,5,6
1West-Siberian Department of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
2Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
3N. I. Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation
4University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
5Siberian Federal University, Genome Research and Education Center, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation
6Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA

																								



2.
GENETIC DIVERSITY AND STRUCTURE OF THE NORWAY SPRUCE Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. SEED ORCHARDS OF THE FIRST AND THE SECOND ORDER IN BELARUS

S. I. Ivanovskaya, D. I. Kagan, V. E. Padutov
Institute of Forest, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Gomel, Republic of Belarus
Keywords: изоферментный анализ, генетическая изменчивость, генетическая структура, isoenzyme analysis, genetic variation, genetic structure

Abstract >>
The genetic diversity of 5 seed orchards of the first (I) and 12 the second (II) orders of the Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. was analyzed on basis of the isoenzyme analysis method, was carried the study with 18 isoenzyme genes. Allelic frequencies of occurrence of the isoenzyme loci were established and the basic indicators of genetic diversity of seed orchards of Norway spruce were calculated (proportion of polymorphic loci, number of alleles per locus, mean heterozygosity) and their comparison with the average stock of genetic diversity of spruce stands of natural origin was conducted. Seed orchards I and II orders are not inferior to natural populations by the proportion of polymorphic loci P 95 (0.39, 0.44 and 0.44, respectively). In the case of indicator P 99, most seed orchards are comparable to natural stands, however, values of P 99 for seed orchards I and II orders as a whole are significantly lower than in natural populations (0.50, 0.50 and 0.67, respectively). Range of allelic diversity in seed orchards is higher than in stands of Norway spruce of production forests. However, many allelic variants in the analyzed totality of seed orchards had a frequency of less than 1 %, although they were found in the spruce formation of Belarus with a frequency of 1 to 5 %. The average values of heterozygosity in seed orchards I order are significantly lower (0.127 and 0.131, respectively) with those in stands of production forests of Belarus (0.147 and 0.150, respectively); in seed orchards II order vice versa - are significantly higher (0.163 and 0.162, respectively). The obtained values of the inbreeding coefficients F IS and F IT for seed orchards I and II orders indicate that they are in equilibrium according to Hardy-Weinberg. The genetic structure of seed orchards I and II orders is characterized by homogeneity because coefficients F ST and G ST have low values (not higher 0.011 and 0.012, respectively). Assessment of degree of genetic differentiation revealed a similarity of the genetic structures of the studied seed orchards and spruce stands of natural origin of production forests.
																								



3.
GENETIC POLYMORPHISM OF mtCOI LOCUS IN BELARUSSIAN POPULATIONS OF PINE BARK BEETLE Ips acuminatus Gyll

S. V. Panteleev1, L. V. Mozharovskaya1, O. Yu. Baranov1, V. A. Yarmolovich2, V. E. Padutov1
1Institute of Forest, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Gomel, Republic of Belarus
2Belarusian State Technological University, Minsk, Republic of Belarus
Keywords: митохондриальная ДНК, гаплотип, секвенирование, mitochondrial DNA, haplotype, sequencing

Abstract >>
Sequencing and annotation of the pine bark beetle Ips acuminatus Gyll. mitochondrial genome (registration number in NCBI GenBank MK988441), including the insect barcoding marker - the part of the subunit I of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (mtCOI), were carried out. A comparative assessment of the level of polymorphism among mtDNA loci revealed that mtcoI has moderate level of variability. A preliminary study of the Belarusian populations of the pine bark beetle showed 18 haplotype variants at the mtCOI marker locus ( mtcoI gene fragment). Significant portion of the studied individuals (50 %) were heteroplasmic - contained at least two mtCOI haplotypes in the genome together. Studying the level of genetic differentiation between haplotypes using the Jukes-Cantor (JC) and Kimura (K80) models revealed a wide range of variation in the values of the evolutionary distance indicator D - from 0.001 to 0.066, which corresponded to 1-46 nucleotide substitutions for the studied region (690 nr) in individual haplotypes. Analysis of the peptide sequences of the pine bark beetle mtCOI locus using 3D modeling technology, as well as using Ramachandran maps and the NCBI CDART database, showed that the domain architecture of the protein remains unchanged for the majority (94 %) of haplotypes and the functionality of allozymes is not violated, that indicates the relatively selectively neutral nature of the detected polymorphism. Based on the obtained total molecular genetic data, it was concluded that the degree of informational content of the mtCOI marker (based on mtcoI ) is sufficient to carry out population-genetic studies of the pine bark beetle, including an assessment of its migration activity.
																								



4.
CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY AND FOREST GENETIC RESOURCES IN SERBIA

M. Nonić1, J. Milovanović2, M. Šijačić-Nikolić1
1University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
2Singidunum University, Belgrade, Serbia
Keywords: in situ, ex situ, сохранение ЛГР, лес, экосистема, in situ, ex situ, FGR conservation, forest, ecosystem

Abstract >>
The Republic of Serbia is ranked among the countries with high endemism and a very high floristic diversity. Forest genetic resources (FGR) take a significant place in the total biodiversity of Serbia, including about 250 indigenous tree species. This paper was aimed to give a review of the state of biodiversity and forest genetic resources in Serbia, and previous activities on conservation of these resources. Today we are recording a large number of various destructive activities, which significantly reduce areas under forests. Conservation of forest genetic resources should be considered as the efforts to preserve specific genotypes or populations and the combination of genes within them. The first step in the conservation of forest genetic resources provides the protection of biodiversity which is essential for present and future human well-being. The predominant form of FGR conservation in Serbia is in situ , which is mainly applied through the establishment of seed stands, but different types of ex situ conservation are also applied, through seed orchards, progeny tests, and provenance trials. An important gene pool is kept in the arboreta and botanical gardens.
																								



5.
MOLECULAR GENETIC IDENTIFICATION OF SCOTS PINE AND SIBERIAN LARCH POPULATIONS IN PERM KRAI BASED ON POLYMORPHISM OF ISSR-PCR MARKERS

Ya. V. Sboeva1, Yu. S. Vasil’eva1, N. V. Chertov1, N. A. Pystogova1, S. V. Boronnikova1, R. N. Kalendar2, N. A. Martynenko1,3
1Perm State National Research University, Perm, Russian Federation
2National Center for Biotechnology, Nur-Sultan, Republic of Kazakhstan
3Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation
Keywords: полиморфизм ДНК, генетическое разнообразие, ISSR-анализ, Larix sibirica Ledeb, Pinus sylvestris L, генетические формулы, штрих-коды, DNA polymorphism, genetic diversity, ISSR-analysis, genetic formulas, barcodes

Abstract >>
The use of DNA-fingerprinting of forest-forming woody plants is considered the most promising tool for genetic control of wood’s geographic origin, the formation of a reliable management system for harvesting and turnover of lumber. The purpose of this work was to search for identification markers, genotyping trees, and molecular genetic identification of previously not studied 2 populations of the Siberian larch Larix sibirica Ledeb. and 4 populations of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. of different regions of the Perm Krai. To DNA extraction, from each plant specimens wood were individually obtained and a modified method of extracting DNA from wood was used. In total, the analysis used the DNA of 114 Scots pine trees and 55 Siberian larch trees. For genetic testing, we used ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats)-method of DNA polymorphism analysis. Genetic identification was performed based on the original author’s method proposed by S. V. Boronnikova and I. V. Boboshina (2014). As a result of molecular genetic analysis, 74 ISSR markers were found and analyzed in populations of Scots pine, 85 ISSR markers were identified in populations of the Siberian larch, and the share of polymorphic loci in both species was high. As a result of molecular genetic identification, identification of species and polymorphic ISSR-markers and their combinations were found that characterize the belonging of trees to a species, as well as to a specific population. Molecular genetic formulas and barcodes for each individual population of two species have been compiled. The effectiveness, stability, and reproducibility of detected identification markers and their combinations have been proven through anonymous testing. The data obtained are the basis for determining the place of origin of wood, which will allow us to recommend measures to counter illegal logging and reduce the damage to the budget of logging regions of Russia, such as the Perm Krai.
																								



6.
TUDY OF THE GENETIC VARIABILITY OF ADVENTIVE MICROSHOOTS of Picea pungens Engelm. Using DNA Markers and Flow Cytometry

T. V. Zheleznichenko1, D. S. Muraseva1, S. V. Asbaganov1, M. S. Voronkova1, A. V. Zaushintsena2, T. I. Novikova1
1Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
2Kemerovo State University, Kemerovo, Russian Federation
Keywords: культура in vitro, регенерация микропобегов, тидиазурон, ISSR- и RAPD-анализ, проточная цитометрия, ель колючая, in vitro culture, microshoots regeneration, thidiazuron, ISSR and RAPD analysis, flow cytometry, blue spruce

Abstract >>
For the first time, the genetic variability/stability of blue spruce Picea pungens Engelm. microshoots obtained in vitro by direct regeneration from zygotic embryos under the influence of a synthetic growth regulator with cytokinin activity N-phenyl-N′-1, 2, 3-thidiazurol-5-urea or thidiazuron (TDZ) using ISSR and RAPD analysis, as well as by flow cytometry, was studied. Shoot formation was induced at ½ LV medium using two concentrations of TDZ (0.5 or 1 μM) for 28 days, then plant material was transferred to a hormone-free nutrient medium ½ LV for 35 days. The formed microshoots were separated from the explant’s tissues and cultured on the same hormone-free medium for another 35 days, than their genetic stability was evaluated. To evaluate the effect of each concentration of the growth regulator on the genome’s stability, microshoots formed by three different genotypes of donor plants were used. ISSR analysis revealed a slight polymorphism between the blue spruce microshoots formed by the same genotype. The genetic variability of regenerants in individual genotypes ranged from 1.29 to 1.58 %, while other genotypes have 100 % genetically stable microshoots. At the same time, RAPD analysis did not show differences between the analyzed samples; all studied primers initiated monomorphic spectra. Flow cytometry found that all the studied samples were diploid. The DNA content (2C) in microshoots ranged from (38.86 ± 0.55) - (40.35 ± 0.30) pg, and the genome size (1C) was (18 961.79 ± 256.91) - (19 933.27 ± 526.35) Mbp. The obtained results indicate a low somaclonal variability of blue spruce microshoots formed in vitro under as a result of direct regeneration from zygotic embryos under the influence of the studied concentrations in the TDZ .
																								



7.
CONTRIBUTION OF RESEARCHERS OF KAZAKH RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF FORESTRY AND AGROFORESTRY IN SELECTION AND GENE POOL CONSERVATION OF WOODY PLANTS (BRIEF HISTORICAL OVERVIEW)

N. K. Chebot’ko, T. N. Stikhareva, V. Yu. Kirillov
Kazakh Research Institute of Forestry and Agroforestry, Shchuchinsk, Republic of Kazakhstan
Keywords: семеноводство, лесообразующие виды, научные исследования, опытные объекты, рекомендации, ученые-селекционеры КазНИИЛХА, seed-growing, forest-forming species, scientific studies, experimental objects, recommendations, scientists-breeders of KazRIFA

Abstract >>
The article shows the contribution of the Kazakh Research Institute of Forestry and Agroforestry (KazRIFA) to selection, seed-growing and gene pool conservation of tree species, the most detailed for Scots pine Рinus sylvestris L. and silver birch Betula pendula Roth, i. e. the main forest-forming and economically valuable species in Kazakhstan. The main scientific developments of a number of leading scientists of the Institute, starting from the moment of its organization. I.e.. for a 60-year period, are given. Systematic comprehensive researches on selection and seed production have been carried out in KazRIFA since 1961 after the establishment of the Laboratory of Selection, Seed production and Introduction. The results and stages of labor activity in KazRIFA of the following scientists are more fully reflected: Stanislav Aleksandrovich Petrov, Viktor Aleksandrovich Dragavtsev, Vladimir Ivanovich Mosin, Vladimir Vasil’evich Shul’ga, Alla Ivanovna Breusova, Anatoliy Matveevich Danchenko. The results of scientific research in the field of selection, seed production and gene pool conservation of forest species in the Republic of Kazakhstan have a scientific novelty, as evidenced by the received protection documents (author’s certificates for inventions, patents for selection achievements). A great scientific achievement is the varieties of Scots pine, selected both on the basis of decorativeness, and productivity and resistance to pests and diseases. Unique scientific objects for the regions of Kazakhstan (geographical cultures, test cultures, clone archives of plus trees, etc.) were laid, which served as the basis for creation a constant forest seed base and they are used for further scientific researches. Thus, a scientific and methodological base has been created for the further development of selection, seed production, variety production and gene pool conservation of woody plants in the Republic of Kazakhstan.
																								



8.
ELITE TREES OF SCOTS PINE AND INTRA-CENOTIC FACTORS OF THEIR FORMATION

M. V. Rogozin
Perm State National Research University, Perm, Russian Federation
Keywords: Рinus sylvestris L, биогруппа, площадь питания, возраст, Пермь, Рinus sylvestris L, biogroup, nutrition area, the age, Perm

Abstract >>
In a 184-year-old stand of Scots pine Рinus sylvestris L. of the 1st class of bonitet on two plots on an area of 2.2 ha with a stand height of 32.1 and 33.5 m, average diameters of 39.8 and 42.1 cm, and a fullness of 0.91 and 0.95, candidates for plus trees (hereinafter referred to as candidates) with an excess of 30 % in diameter were studied. All live (735 pieces), and fall away trees for 14 years were plotted on the plan with an accuracy of ± 10-35 cm. To determine the age, we took cores from 40 trees with diameters of 30-61 cm. On one of the two sites, the feeding area of 326 trees aged ≈ 170 years and the maximum feed area was 79.9, the minimum was 5.1, the average value was (25.8 ± 0.58) m2. The average area of their nutrition was 19.7 % larger in the sample of 18 candidates, than in the sample of ordinary trees, but the difference is not significant. Polygons represented the area that the tree inherited at the age of 170 years and it was used as a factor determining the size of the tree in 184 years. It was found that it affected the diameter of trees with a force of 7.7 % and to the height of the trunk with a strength of 0.0-2.4 %. The age of the trees ranged from 173 to 195 years, candidates were both from 174 years to 193 years. Probably, either they had rapid growth due to genetics, or there are exceptionally favorable places in the biotope, where the pine settled later and not only caught up with its neighbors, but also reached an outstanding size. Perhaps such places may be due to the influence of lithology. It was concluded that for selection purposes, trees of maximum age with the largest feeding area should be rejected from candidates.
																								



9.
REPRODUCTION STRATEGIES OF Populus SPECIES IN THE AREA OF INTROGRESSIVE HYBRIDIZATION IN THE BASIN OF TOM RIVER

B. V. Proshkin1, A. V. Klimov2,3
1Kuzbass Institute of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Novokuznetsk, Russian Federation
2InEca-Consulting LLC, Novokuznetsk, Russian Federation
3West-Siberian Branch of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch - Division of the Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: тополь, клоны, вегетативное размножение, гибридизация, интрогрессия, беккроссы, Кемеровская область, poplar, clones, vegetative propagation, hybridization, introgression, backcrosses, Kemerovo Oblast

Abstract >>
Riverbed poplars are often a complex formation consisting of individuals of seed and vegetative origin. In the northern part of the Altai-Sayan mountain country, a significant proportion of them is formed by species of different sections of black poplar Populus nigra L. (section Aigeiros Lunell) and laurel-leaf poplar P. laurifolia Ledeb. (section Tacamahaca Mill.), which differ in the strategy of clone formation. In areas of joint growth, a process of their natural introgressive hybridization occurs. The aim of this work was to study the strategy of clone formation in parental taxa and hybrids in the zone of introgressive hybridization. Studies were conducted at five test sites in the river basin Tom. It was found that clone formation begins in the early stages of planting development and is stimulated by mechanical damage. Black poplar is characterized by compact clones of 2-10 ramet arising from the accessory buds at the base of the stem of a young plant. In the absence of further damage, the clone gradually decays with age, that is, it exists during the life of one generation. Clones of laurel-leaf poplar develop in several stages. At the first stage, a linear clone is formed of several ramets located parallel to the river bed. Subsequently, it grows greatly due to root offspring. These clones are capable of retaining developed territory for a long time. Clones of Irtysh poplar P. jrtyschensis Ch. Y. Yang in the education strategy may deviate towards one of the parent species or differ in intermediate characters. Study of the strategy of clone formation in backcrosses in the river basin Tom confirmed the previously identified direction of asymmetry during introgressive hybridization from laurel-leaf poplar to Black poplar. Probably, in suboptimal conditions of the river basin Tom, namely hybridization and subsequent introgression, provides not only an increase in general variability, but also a unidirectional transfer of valuable adaptive characters from laurel-leaf poplar to Black poplar. The latter, to a large extent, provides opportunities for the development of Black poplar (back-crosses), which are not characteristic of mountain habitats.
																								



10.
THE EVOLUTIONARY PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABILITY OF FOREST COMMUNITIES

V. G. Storozhenko
Institute of Forest Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Uspenskoe, Russian Federation
Keywords: устойчивость лесов, еловые формации, возрастные структуры, мозаичность, подрост ели, гнилевые фауты, forest sustainability, spruce formations, age structures, mosaic, undergrowth of spruce, rotten fouts

Abstract >>
The article discusses the problem of sustainability of forest communities. The structures of indigenous virgin forests of different ages of spruce formations of the southern taiga subzone located in the nature reserve «Kologrivsky Forest» (Kostroma Oblast) were studied. In the tree stands of three biogeocenoses, dynamic characteristics are different - de-mutational, digressive, and close to climax. In the most productive types of forests, sample plots are laid, on which the age-related, horizontal structures of stands with the division into age-related generations were determined and mosaics of age generations the number and volume of wood mortality at the stages of decomposition of dead trunks, parameters of natural regeneration of the main and associated breeds, the magnitude of the damage to trees and stands by wood-destroying fungi of the biotrophic complex, composition and structure of species of fungi of biotrophic and xylotrophic complexes. All studied biogeocenoses have a different age structure, but a different ratio of tree volumes in age generations. On the area of biogeocenoses, mosaics of various sizes are distinguished, which belong to different age generations of the age group of tree stands. The number of undergrowth of spruce and other species was determined by gradations of height and age, characteristic of spruce forests of the southern taiga subzone in comparison with the northern taiga subzone. Values of affliction of stands by rotten faunas caused by tree-destroying fungi of the biotrophic complex are considered. The species composition of wood-destroying fungi belonging to different types of nutrition is determine All the studied indices of the structures of indigenous spruce forests of the southern taiga are necessary in shaping the quality of sustainability of forest communities not only of spruce forest formations, but also of forests of other species formations.
																								



11.
MONITORING OF THE ARCHIVE AND FOREST SEED ORCHARDS’ CONDITION USING HIGH RESOLUTION PLEIADES SATELLITE DATA

D. S. Dubovik1,2, V. V. Tarakanov1,3
1West-Siberian Department of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
2Siberian State University of Geosystems and Technologies, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
3Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: инвентаризация, селекционно-семеноводческие объекты хвойных пород, космические снимки Pleiades, визуальное дешифрирование, inventory, breeding and seed growing objects of coniferous species, Pleiades satellite scenes, visual decoding

Abstract >>
Thousands of hectares of forest seed orchards and archival uterine plantations of plus trees have been created in the Russian Federation. Their inventory and monitoring can be carried out using ultra-high resolution satellite imagery. The purpose of the work was to test this approach based on Pleiades 1A data, optimal in terms of price/quality ratio, for inventory and assessment of the state of archival plantations and forest seed orchards of conifers, concentrated on an area of about 200 hectares of the joint stock comp. Berdskiy forestry enterprise breeding nursery (Iskitimskiy district of the Novosibirsk Oblast). The inventory was carried out on the basis of visual interpretation of the synthesized multispectral images with increased resolution due to the panchromatic channel, taking into account passport and other data on the territory of the nursery. To control the results of visual decoding, a selective field inventory was carried out. The brightness of the pixels of the initial multispectral image in the central parts of the crowns of various trees and plantation areas not covered by crowns is compared. The results obtained illustrate the possibility of identifying healthy trees of cultivated species, as well as fallen and replaced by deciduous self-seeding trees. The described approach can be used for operational remote monitoring of archival plantations and forest seed orchards of conifers.
																								



12.
Resolution of the 6-th International Conference on Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources