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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2020 year, number 5

1.
Laser absorption in the atmosphere of Titan

O.P. Romashenko, A.S. Kornev, B.A. Zon
Voronezh State University, Voronezh, Russia
Keywords: атмосфера Титана, лазерное излучение, коэффициент затухания, туннельная ионизация, atmosphere of Titan, laser radiation, extinction coefficient, tunnel ionization

Abstract >>
We derive general formulas for the extinction coefficient (in the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law) of laser radiation in the atmosphere taking into account nonlinear effects and significantly differing from the results of linear optics. We perform specific calculations for the atmosphere of Titan. We demonstrate that taking into account the close-to-real dependence of atmospheric gas concentration on altitude leads to a noticeable difference in the altitude dependence of the extinction coefficient from the results obtained using the barometric formula. We also give estimates of the extinction coefficient in the atmosphere of Triton.
																								



2.
The broadening of Н2О, СО, and СО2 spectral lines confined in aerogel and xerogel nanoporous

V.I. Starikov
Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: водяной пар, окись углерода, углекислый газ, уширение спектральных линий, аэрогель, ксерогель, нанопоры, water vapor, carbon oxide, carbon dioxide, half-width of spectral lines, aerogel, xerogel, nanoporous

Abstract >>
The calculation results of the broadening of absorption lines of Н2О, СО, and СО2 confined in long cylindrical and spherical porous xerogel and aerogel 20 to 90 nm diameter at a room temperature and pressures from 1 and 50 mlb are presented. The collisions of free Н2О, СО, and СО2 molecules with walls and with physically adsorbed on the surface molecules are discussed. The surface density of the adsorbed centers in porous silica aerogel is estimated. The comparison with the aviable experimental data is discussed.
																								



3.
Expert list of the SO2 molecule absorption lines in the 2000-3000 cm-1 spectral region

I.A. Vasilenko, O.V. Naumenko
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: SO, экспериментальные уровни энергии, вариационные расчеты, sulfur dioxide, energy levels, variational calculations

Abstract >>
A detailed high-accuracy list of the SO2 molecule absorption lines was obtained in the 2000-3000 cm-1 spectral region, which is important for atmospheric applications, based on a combination of the high-accuracy data on experimental energy levels and variational calculations of the intensities of vibrational-rotational transitions. The expert list contains 70565 absorption lines with an intensity cut-off 1.0E-27 cm/molecule. The results obtained are compared with published data.
																								



4.
Detection of the orbital angular momentum of a laser beam by means of its decomposition into optical vortices and its use in a communication system in the turbulent atmosphere

V.P. Aksenov1, V.V. Dudorov1, V.V. Kolosov1,2, C.E. Pogutsa1, E.S. Abramova3
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2Tomskiy Nauchnyy Tsentr SO Ran, Tomsk, Russia
3Siberian State University of Telecommunications and Information Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: орбитальный угловой момент, оптический вихрь, статистические характеристики, турбулентная атмосфера, оптическая связь, лагерр-гауссов пучок, азимутальные моды, orbital angular momentum, optical vortex, statistical characteristics, turbulent atmosphere, optical communication, Laguerre-Gaussian beam, azimuthal modes

Abstract >>
The numerical simulation of the operation of an optical data transmission system operating through an open atmospheric channel with information coding by the magnitude of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been performed. Two methods for detecting OAM based on representing the complex amplitude of the field of a laser beam transmitted through a layer of a turbulent atmosphere in the form of a superposition of a finite number of azimuthal modes (optical vortices) are considered. A statistical analysis of the dependence of the reception frequency of OAM recorded with errors due to atmospheric turbulence on the turbulence strength is performed. The analysis was carried out for a sample of 5000 random realizations of the complex field amplitude during the propagation of a laser beam along an atmospheric path with fixed turbulent parameters. Options and potential possibilities of hardware implementation of the methods proposed are discussed. Their effectiveness is compared.
																								



5.
Results of studying the physicochemical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol in 71th cruise of RV “Akademik Mstislav Keldysh”

S.M. Sakerin1, P.N. Zenkova1, D.M. Kabanov1, D.A. Kalashnikova2, A.P. Lisitzin3, V.I. Makarov4, V.V. Polkin1, S.A. Popova4, G.V. Simonova2, O.V. Chankina4, V.P. Shevchenko3
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
3P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Moscow, Russia
4V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: атмосфера Северной Атлантики, аэрозоль и сажа, содержание органического и элементного углерода, химический и изотопный состав, atmosphere of the North Atlantic, aerosol and black carbon, the content of organic and elemental carbon, chemical and isotopic composition

Abstract >>
In summer 2018 along the route of 71th cruise of RV “Akademik Mstislav Keldysh” in the North Atlantic, we carried out measurements of atmospheric aerosol characteristics, in particular, aerosol optical depth, near-surface aerosol and black carbon concentrations, contents of chemical elements in aerosol samples and organic and elemental carbon, and isotopic composition of carbon. It is shown that the average values of most aerosol characteristics several-fold decrease during transit from the Baltic Sea to the North Atlantic (57-60°N) and then to the Norwegian Sea. For instance, the average black carbon concentration decreased from 83 to 29 ng/m3. Episodic impact of continental aerosol was noted even in remote regions of ocean. Outflow of smokes from forest fires in the north of Canada to the region of measurements (southward of Greenland) exerted the strongest effect on all aerosol characteristics. The average concentrations of chemical elements in aerosol composition over the North Atlantic were several times larger than in the Arctic region and smaller than in the background region of Siberia.
																								



6.
The ionization effect on the aerosol particle formation

V.N. Morozov1, A.A. Palei2, Yu.V. Pisanko2
1The Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, St Petersburg, Russia
2E.K. Fedorov Institute of Applied Geophysics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: аэрозольные частицы, коагуляция, ионы, коронный разряд, aerosol particles, coagulation, ions, corona discharge

Abstract >>
The results of experimental study of the effect of corona ions on the new aerosol particles formation are considered. Attention is drawn to the fact that both in a controlled space (aerosol chambers), regardless of its volume, and in a natural atmosphere, the generation of a corona discharge is accompanied by the formation of new aerosol particles of nanometer size, the concentration of which exceeds the background concentration by more than an order of magnitude. The results are interpreted on the basis of theoretical ideas about the effect of the electric charge of ions on the process of condensation of various impurities. Using the coagulation theory and the continuous growth model, the growth of aerosol particles is calculated as a function of time.
																								



7.
Optical manipulation of microand nano-objects based on structured mesoscale particles: brief review

I.V. Minin1,2,3, O.V. Minin1,2,3, Yu.E. Geints4, E.K. Panina4, A. Karabchevsky5
1Siberian State University of Geosystems and Technologies, Novosibirsk, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
3Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia
4V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
5Electrical and Computer Engineering School, 8410501, Beersheba, Israel, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Keywords: мезомасштабный элемент, диэлектрическая частица, оптическая сила, фотонная наноструя, фотонный крюк, оптическое манипулирование, mesoscale element, dielectric particle, optical power, photonic nanojet, photon hook, optical manipulation

Abstract >>
The spatial resolution of conventional optics, which is necessary for non-destructive capture of microobjects, is limited by diffraction to a value equal to half the radiation wavelength. Despite this limitation, the use of optical methods is one of the main directions in biological and biomedical research, since only optical methods have a minimal impact on living organisms. Rapid progress in this area is largely based on the development of new optical technologies. Significant progress in mesoscale photonics has allowed researchers to develop methods for controlling structured beams for optical traps. Some recent trends in the field of optical manipulation based on mesoscale dielectric particles are analyzed mainly based on our studies.
																								



8.
Features of light absorption by spherical microcapsules with metal nanoinclusions

Yu.E. Geints, A.A. Zemlyanov, E.K. Panina
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: микрокапсула, наночастица, поглощение света, плазмонный резонанс, эффективная среда, microcapsule, nanoparticle, light absorption, plasmon resonance, effective medium

Abstract >>
The light absorption efficiency of a hollow spherical microparticle (microcapsule) doped with strongly absorbing gold nanoparticles of spherical and cylindrical spatial shapes is studied. By means of the FDTD numerical simulations, the absorption spectra of a doped microcapsule in the visible and near-IR spectral regions (from 0.5 to 0.9 mm) are calculated. It is found that the absorption efficiency of the capsule depends on the nanoinclusions morphology. In particular, there is a noticeable increase in capsule absorption in the regions of resonant excitation of surface plasmon modes of nanoparticles. The dispersion of absorption decreases with an increase in the volume content of nanoparticles in the microcapsule, as well as with the mixing of nanoinclusions of various shapes (spheres + rods). In this case, it becomes possible to obtain a capsule absorption spectrum close to uniform in the wavelength range under study.
																								



9.
Tropospheric aerosol layers: features of variations in aerosol parameters when changing the direction of air advection

S.V. Samoilova, Yu.S. Balin, G.P. Kokhanenko, S.V. Nasonov, I.E. Penner
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: аэрозоль, лидар, пограничный слой, свободная тропосфера, оптические и микрофизические параметры, aerosol, lidar, boundary layer, free troposphere, optical and microphysical parameters

Abstract >>
Data of multifrequency sensing make it possible to study the aerosol layers with different scattering and absorbing properties and to retrieve their optical and microphysical characteristics. The air advection effect on aerosol parameters in the lower and middle troposphere is analyzed. Low values of the extinction and backscattering coefficients and of the imaginary part of the refractive index and geometric mean radius of fine aerosol particles are characteristic of the north direction of transfer. High values of these parameters are observed at the south direction of transfer. On the contrary, the lidar ratio and the contribution of fine fraction into the total concentration of particles decrease at the change of the transfer direction from north to south.
																								



10.
Lidar complex of a small station of high-altitude atmosphere sounding of IAO SB RAS

V.N. Marichev, D.A. Bochkosvky
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: лидар, средняя атмосферы, обработка данных, температура, аэрозоль, плотность, lidar, average atmosphere, data processing, temperature, aerosol, density

Abstract >>
The lidar complex of a small station of high-altitude atmospheric sounding of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS is described. The lidar is based on a Newton telescope with a 1-m mirror and is designed to monitor the vertical stratification of aerosol and the distribution of air temperature and density in the middle atmosphere. As an illustration of the lidar operation and demonstration of its capabilities, profiles of the vertical distribution of aerosol, temperature, and density in the altitude range 10-70 km are presented.
																								



11.
Seasonal and daily variability of aerosol particle concentrations near St. Petersburg

K.A. Volkova, S.S. Anikin, E.F. Mihailov, D.V. Ionov, S.S. Vlasenko, T.I. Ryshkevich
Saint Petersburg State University, Petrodvorets, St. Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: массовая концентрация PM1, PM2.5, PM10, аэрозольная оптическая толща, аэрозольный спектрометр, GRIMM, AERONET, PM10 mass concentration, aerosol optical depth, aerosol spectrometer

Abstract >>
The measurements of mass concentrations of PM1, PM2.5, PM10 (2016-2018) using the aerosol spectrometer GRIMM carried out near Saint-Petersburg are analysed. The average concentrations of PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 for the entire measurement period are 4.5, 4.8, and 4.9 mg/m3, respectively. The hourly average PM10 concentrations were compared with the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at a wavelength of 500 nm for different seasons. It was found that the best correlation between the concentration of PM10 and AOT is achieved in autumn. According to the distribution of wind directions, the maximal concentrations of PM10 correspond to the eastern direction (from St. Petersburg). The seasonal dependence of the daily variation in PM10 mass concentration on relative humidity and the height of the atmospheric boundary layer is analyzed. The highest concentrations of PM10 (about 8 mg/m3 on the average) and the maximal amplitude of the daily variation are observed in winter.
																								



12.
Influence of the temperature of the lower subtropical stratosphere on the Antarctic polar vortex dynamics

V.V. Zuev1, I.V. Borovko2,3, V.N. Krupchatnikov2,3,4, E.S. Savelieva1
1Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
2Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
3Siberian Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute, Novosibirsk, Russia, Novosibirsk, Russia
4National Research Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: антарктический полярный вихрь, субтропическая стратосфера, полярные озоновые аномалии, Antarctic polar vortex, subtropical stratosphere, polar ozone depletion

Abstract >>
The stratospheric polar vortex persistence in the winter-spring period is one of key factors of the duration and extent of stratospheric ozone depletion in a polar region. The Arctic polar vortex reaches its peak intensity in winter, whereas the Antarctic vortex usually strengthens in early spring. As a result, the strong ozone depletion is observed every year from August to November over the Antarctic, while short-term ozone loss occasionally occurs over the Arctic from January to March. In this work, we examine the reason for the high strength and persistence of the Antarctic polar vortex in the winter-spring period. Based on the ERA-Interim reanalysis data, we show a high agreement between the seasonal variations in the temperature in the lower subtropical stratosphere and zonal wind in the subpolar and polar lower stratosphere in the Southern Hemisphere. The results of numerical simulations using PlaSim-ICMMG-1.0 show acceleration of zonal wind in the subpolar region with an increase in the temperature of the subtropical stratosphere. Thus, the winter-spring strengthening of the Antarctic polar vortex occurs due to an increase in the stratospheric equator-to-pole temperature gradient as a result of the seasonal temperature growth in the lower subtropical stratosphere in this period.