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Russian Geology and Geophysics

2020 year, number 4

1.
POSITION OF THE SIBERIAN PLATFORM AND ADJACENT CRATONIC TERRANES IN THE PALEOZOIC (from paleontological and geological evidence)

A.V. Kanygin1, T.V. Gonta1,2, A.V. Timokhin1
1Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 1, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Foldbelt, terranes, Paleozoic, tectonics, sedimentology, paleogeography, stratigraphy, chorology, Northeastern Asia, Siberian paleocontinent

Abstract >>
The comprehensive chorological analyses of benthic and planktonic faunal groups, the reconstruction of paleogeography, and the delineation and correlation of the same-type biofacies and geographic ranges of the fauna suggest that the Paleozoic tectonic blocks of the Verkhoyansk-Chukotka foldbelt (Tas-Khayakhtakh, Selennyakh, Omulevka, Omolon, Okhotsk, and Chukchi inliers) and Kotelnyi Island originated in the same epicontinental sea basin of the Siberian paleocontinent, being parts of its passive margin located at the place of the recent foldbelt. We provide a rationale for paleontological, sedimentary, and morphometric diagnostic characteristics of rift zones in complex thrust-folded structures. A rift development, with activation phases in the Ordovician and Devonian, is found to have preceded the breakup of the passive margin in the late Paleozoic.

DOI: 10.15372/RGG2019139
																				  																		



2.
THE CHUKCHI SEGMENT OF THE UDA-MURGAL AND OKHOTSK-CHUKOTKA VOLCANIC BELTS: AGE AND TECTONIC ENVIRONMENT

P.L. Tikhomirov1,2, N.V. Pravikova1, Ya.V. Bychkova1
1Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1, Moscow, 119991, Russia
2North-East Interdisciplinary Scientific Research Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Portovaya 16, Magadan, 685000, Russia
Keywords: Magmatism, geochronology, geochemistry, northeastern Asia, Uda-Murgal belt, Okhotsk-Chukotka belt

Abstract >>
We present new data on the geology, geochronology, and geochemistry of volcanic complexes of the Uda-Murgal and Okhotsk-Chukotka belts that expose on the left bank of the Anadyr River in its middle course. The structural relationships between the stratons, supplemented by the U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar dates of volcanics, indicate at least three compression events at this segment of the Pacific margin during the Cretaceous: pre-Aptian, early Albian, and late Turonian. The complexes of the Uda-Murgal and Okhotsk-Chukotka belts are separated by an early Albian unconformity, but the other two unconformities are also well pronounced. The studied segment of the Uda-Murgal belt evolved in the ensialic island arc setting till the Barremian. In the Aptian, after the accretion of the island arc to the continent, volcanism reactivated on the Andean-type margin. The main geochemical difference between the Uda-Murgal and Okhotsk-Chukotka belts is the different volume portions of silicic rocks. The less significant difference in the contents of trace elements indicates a change in the composition of the mantle protolith. The complexes of the Okhotsk-Chukotka belt show signs of geochemical zoning, both longitudinal and transverse relative to the strike of the continent-ocean boundary.

DOI: 10.15372/RGG2019149
																				  																		



3.
PETROLOGICAL AND GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND AGE OF THE ROCKS OF THE YLLYMAKH MASSIF (Aldan Shield, southern Yakutia)

E.A. Vasyukova1,2, A.V. Ponomarchuk1, A.G. Doroshkevich1,3
1V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 1, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3Geological Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Sakhyanovoi 6a, Ulan-Ude, 670047, Russia
Keywords: Alkaline rocks, Sr-Nd isotope composition, Ar-Ar age, Yllymakh pluton, Central Aldan

Abstract >>
The Yllymakh massif is one of Mesozoic ring intrusions widespread in Central Aldan. The alkaline rocks composing it are greatly diverse in composition. Based on the obtained petrological, geochemical, and geochronological data, we have recognized three groups of rocks, marking the different phases of the massif formation. The rocks of two groups resulted from the fractionation of rock-forming minerals (pyroxene and plagioclase) and accessory apatite, which is reflected in the composition trends in the variation diagrams and in the REE patterns. Assimilation of the crustal material also significantly contributed to the diversity of rock-forming melts, which is evidenced from the increase in 87Sr/86Sr from group to group. At the same time, the εNd value is steadily extremely low throughout the study area (on average, -13.5). The obtained Ar-Ar geochronological data indicate three independent stages of the massif formation: 140.0 1.9, 130.0 1.9-131.0 2.4, and 125.0 1.9 Ma, which are close in time to the evolution stages of other Mesozoic massifs in Aldan.

DOI: 10.15372/RGG2019147
																				  																		



4.
THE GOLCHIKHA FORMATION (upper Bathonian-lower Boreal Berriasian) OF THE YENISEI-KHATANGA DEPRESSION (west of the North Siberian lowland)

B.L. Nikitenko1,2, V.P. Devyatov3, A.P. Rodchenko1, L.K. Levchuk1, E.B. Pestchevitskaya1, E.A. Fursenko1,2
1Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 1, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3Siberian Research Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Mineral Resources, Krasnyi pr. 67, Novosibirsk, 630091, Russia
Keywords: Jurassic, Cretaceous, stratigraphy, microfossils, geochemistry of organic matter and oil shows, hydrocarbon biomarkers of oil, Arctic, Yenisei-Khatanga depression

Abstract >>
The uppermost Bathonian-lowermost Boreal Berriasian clay horizons (Golchikha Formation) of the Yenisei-Khatanga regional depression are regarded as probable oil source strata. Considerable core recovery in the Middle Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous sections from the boreholes drilled in the Paiyakhskaya well site and the presence of oils in the overlying strata of the Shuratovo Formation permit us to carry out integrated stratigraphic (bio-, litho-, chemo-, and seismostratigraphic) and geochemical (organic matter and oils) studies of the entire section of the Golchikha Formation and boundary beds, to reveal oil-producing horizons, and to compare the genotype and maturation level of their oils with those of the potentially oil source organic matter (OM) of the rocks. A detailed biostratigraphic zonation of the sections of the Golchikha Formation based on microfossils has been carried out. Comparison of δ13Corg variations in the Volgian and in the lower beds of the Boreal Berriasian with those in the Barents Sea shelf and in the northeast of East Siberia provided the basis for more accurate definition of the boundaries of stages and substages in the intervals free of fossils in the Paiyakhskaya area. The studied section of the Golchikha Formation has been divided into eight lithologic members calibrated with bio- and seismostratigraphic units. The distinctive features allowing the definition of the upper boundary of the Golchikha Formation are proposed using GIS data. Analysis of bio- and chemostratigraphic data allowed the correlation of the seismic reflecting horizons defined in the Golchikha Formation and its boundaries with the geologic section and relevant litho- and biostratigraphic units. It has been established that the strata with the highest content of organic matter consist of the upper part of the Golchikha Formation (the Upper Volgian and basal Boreal Berriasian). According to the vitrinite reflectance data, the OM catagenesis in the Upper Volgian interval corresponds to the oil window, which is confirmed by pyrolysis data. Thus, these strata can be considered oil-producing. The low δ13Corg values confirm the predominantly marine OM composition. Analysis of oils from the Cretaceous productive strata of the Paiyakhskaya area shows that they formed from the marine OM of the upper part of the Golchikha Formation at the same accumulation stage. The comprehensive studies of the Golchikha Formation in the Paiyakhskaya well site and complete stratigraphic coverage of the sections confirm that they can be considered a hypostratotype.

DOI: 10.15372/RGG2019082
																				  																		



5.
NEGATIVE δ13C EXCURSIONS IN FORAMINIFERAL RECORDS: THE HOLOCENE HISTORY OF METHANE EVENTS IN THE CENTRAL SEA OF OKHOTSK

S.P. Pletnev1, Yonghua Wu2, A.V. Romanova3, V.K. Annin1, I.V. Utkin1, O.F. Vereshchagina1
1V.I. Ilyichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Baltiiskaya 43, Vladivostok, 690041, Russia
2First Institute of Oceanography, Jindao, 266061, China
3Far East Geological Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. 100-letiya 159, Vladivostok, 690022, Russia
Keywords: Benthic and planktonic foraminifera, oxygen and carbon isotope compositions, methane, methane emission, Sea of Okhotsk

Abstract >>
Several negative δ13C excursions in benthic foraminifera from gas-bearing core LV50-05 sampled offshore on the eastern slope of Sakhalin Island, Sea of Okhotsk, in an area of active methane seepage record the local history of methane events (ME). The core chronostratigraphy has been contsrained from AMS 14C ages and biostratigraphic data. Benthic foraminifera ( Nonionellina labradorica and Uvigerina parvocostata ) from some core intervals show normal marine δ13C values (about -1), but some intervals are marked by extremely depleted compositions as low as -34.5 δ13C (relative to VPDB). The negative δ13C excursions are interpreted as a record of seabed methane emanation during primary and secondary biomineralization of carbonate foraminifera. The results reveal four Holocene methane events (ME) in the area: two brief (ME-1 at 700-900 yr BP and ME-2 at 1200-1400 yr BP) and two long (ME-3 at 2500-4700 yr BP and ME-4 at 7400-10000 yr BP) events.

DOI: 10.15372/RGG2019107
																				  																		



6.
HYDROCARBON MOLECULAR MARKERS AS INDICATORS OF THE LATE CENOZOIC SEDIMENTATION ON THE AMERASIAN CONTINENTAL MARGIN (Arctic Ocean)

V.I. Petrova, G.I. Batova, A.V. Kursheva, I.V. Litvinenko, I.P. Morgunova
FSBI VNIIOkeangeologia, Angliyskiy pr. 1, Saint Petersburg, 190121, Russia
Keywords: Bottom sediments, dispersed organic matter, biomarkers, Arctic Ocean, East Arctic shelf

Abstract >>
The main factors controlling the bulk sedimentation in the region of the Mendeleev Rise and the adjacent part of the Arctic Ocean during the late Cenozoic were studied using a complex of geomorphological, lithological, and organic geochemical data. Samples for the study were collected during the cruises of the R/V Akademik Fedorov in 2000, 2005, and 2007 and the icebreaker Kapitan Dranitsyn in 2012. Analysis of the group and molecular compositions of the dispersed organic matter (DOM) in bottom sediments has shown that the input of terrigenous sediments enriched with abrasion products of lithified rocks from the eastern source province determines the Holocene-Pleistocene sedimentation on the continental slope of the East Siberian Sea and the Podvodnikov Basin. The individual characteristics of DOM of the late Cenozoic deposits from the underwater mountains of the Mendeleev Rise reflect the wide diversity of sedimentary sources and depositional conditions. Subaqueous erosion and redeposition of denudation products of source rocks and pre-Holocene sediments play an important part in sedimentation together with a terrigenous flow and ice transport.

DOI: 10.15372/RGG2019084
																				  																		



7.
ORGANIC MATTER OF SEDIMENTS IN AREAS OF INTENSE METHANE RELEASE IN THE LAPTEV SEA: MOLECULAR-COMPOSITION SPECIFICS

A.A. Grinko1, I.V. Goncharov2,1, N.E. Shakhova1, Ö. Gustafsson3, N.V. Oblasov2, E.A. Romankevich4, A.G. Zarubin1, R.S. Kashapov2, E.V. Gershelis1, O.V. Dudarev5, A.K. Mazurov1, I.P. Semiletov1,5, D.V. Chernykh5
1National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, pr. Lenina 30, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
2JSC «TomskNIPIneft, pr. Mira 72, Tomsk, 634027, Russia
3Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
4P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nakhimovskii pr. 36, Moscow, 117997, Russia
5V.I. Il`ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Baltiyskaya 43, Vladivostok, 690041, Russia
Keywords: Methane emissions, organic matter, bottom sediments, hopanoids, methanotrophs, Arctic, Laptev Sea

Abstract >>
We present results of study of the molecular composition of organic matter (OM) in the bottom sediments of the Laptev Sea by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, isotope gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and Rock-Eval pyrolytic analysis. The OM of all collected sediment samples shows a significant terrigenous contribution. Compounds that are biomarkers of methanotrophic microorganisms are also found. A positive correlation between the contents of the studied biomarkers and the contents of pelite and total organic carbon is observed at the sites with documented intense methane bubbling. For example, the average content of C30 hopenes at the methane stations is twice higher than that at the background ones. The average content of C32 αβ-hopanes in sediment samples from the methane seepage area is 1.5 times higher than that at the background stations. We suggest that the increased C30 αβ-hopane content (~1.5 times higher within the methane seepage area) and the decreased moretane index relative to the C31 hopane index are due to the inflow of OM of petroleum origin. The presence of biphenyl in sediments indicates its petroleum origin, which supports our assumption of the migratory nature of petroleum hydrocarbons in the methane seepage area. Triterpenoids found in the sediment OM indicate diagenetic bacterial transformation of OM in the methane seepage areas, which shows that methane has been released for a long time. We assume the intense activity of the consortium of methanotrophs and sulfate reducers in the methane seepage areas.

DOI: 10.15372/RGG2019150
																				  																		



8.
DISCOVERY OF INTRACRATONIC RIFT IN THE UPPER YANGTZE AND ITS CONTROL EFFECT ON THE FORMATION OF THE ANYUE GIANT GAS FIELD

Jinhu Du1, Zecheng Wang2, Caineng Zou2, Chunchun Xu3, Ping Shen3, Baomin Zhang2, Hua Jiang2, Shipeng Huang2
1PetroChina Exploration and Production Company, Beijing, 100007, China
2PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing, 100083, China
3PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gas Field Company, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610051, China
Keywords: Intracratonic rift, Sinian-Cambrian, paleouplift, giant gas field, near-source accumulation, Sichuan Basin

Abstract >>
According to drilling and seismic data, the Late Sinian-Early Cambrian intracratonic rift was found in the Deyang-Anyue area of the Upper Yangtze craton. This rift is controlled by a tensional fault and extends in the N-NW direction with a N-S length of 320 km and an E-W width of 50-300 km. After three stages of the rift evolution, i.e., the formation stage, development stage, and dying stage, a favorable near-source accumulation assemblage formed. The research results indicate that: (1) the sedimentation stage of the Late Sinian Dengying Formation is the rift formation stage, during which trough-basin facies sedimentation is developed in the rift, while platform marginal-facies mounds and shoals are developed on both sides, controlling the formation and distribution of high-quality reservoirs in the Dengying Formation; (2) the sedimentation stage of the Early Cambrian Meishucun-Qiongzhusi Formation is the rift development stage, during which deep-water continental-shelf facies argillaceous rocks accumulated in the rift with a thickness of 500-1000 m, indicating the sedimentation of high-quality source rocks; (3) the sedimentation stage of the Canglangpu Formation is the rift dying stage, terminating the evolution history of the intracratonic rift by gap filling. The intracratonic rift is a key factor for the formation of the Anyue giant gas field, where the high-quality source rocks provide abundant gases for the giant gas field. A regional lateral sealing occurred during the rapid rise of the western paleouplift in Central Sichuan during the Late Yanshan-Himalayan period, favorable for the preservation of the Gaoshiti-Moxi giant gas field on the eastern wing of the rift. The intracratonic rift and its role in giant gas accumulation provide a significant reference for deep oil and gas exploration in paleocratonic basins.

DOI: 10.15372/RGG2020122