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Philosophy of Sciences

2020 year, number 1

1.
THE SUBJECTIVE-IDEALISTIC COMPONENT IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF R. DESCARTES

Vasiliy Pavlovich Goran
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8, Nikolaev st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Декарт, философия, субъективный идеализм, материализм, объективный идеализм, бог, человек, ум, тело, бестелесность, дуализм, рефлексия, Descartes, philosophy, subjective idealism, materialism, objective idealism, god, human, mind, body, incorporeity, dualism, reflection

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the qualitative specificity of the work of Descartes as a philosopher. It is revealed that it includes the joint development of subjective-idealistic, materialistic and objective-idealistic components of his philosophical concept; in the future, their competition will determine the historical peculiarity of the whole modern philosophy. This made it possible to define the outstanding role of Descartes as one of its founders as a unique feature. The main attention is paid to the subjective-idealistic component of Descartes's philosophy. His efforts to justify it are critically assessed. The conclusion is made that these efforts failed.
																								



2.
FRAGMENTALISM AS CONTEXTUAL REALISM

Igor Evgenievich Pris
Institute of Philosophy, National Academy of Sciences, Belarus, 1, bd. 2, Surganova st., Minsk, 220072, Belarus
Keywords: фрагментализм Кита Файна, контекстуальный реализм, конвенционализм Пуанкаре, грамматический метод Витгенштейна, специальная теория относительности, Kit Fine's fragmentalism, contextual realism, Poincare's conventionalism, Wittgenstein's grammatical method, special relativity

Abstract >>
We interpret Kit Fine's fragmentalism in terms of contextual realism, according to which ontology is contextual. Real objects (facts) are identified with the help of contextual norms (rules, concepts) implanted in reality, which are used to «measure» it. The fragmented reality is a set of contexts. We illustrate fragmentalism understood as a contextual realism on the example of special relativity. One can understand relativistic time dilation and length contraction either as real or as conventional depending on the point of view. One can also give meaning to Newtonian absolute time and absolute space. We also insist that Lorentz's dynamic (constructive) relativity theory, Poincare's conventional relativity theory and Einstein's special relativity (a theory-principle) are complementary aspects of one and the same theory. We pay special attention to Poincare's philosophical and scientific views, which we believe to be ahead of their time and can be interpreted in terms of Wittgenstein's later philosophy. We mean that Poincare's conventionalism is a precursor of Wittgenstein's grammatical method with regard to the language of science.
																								



3.
THE THESIS OF EXISTENCE AND SCIENTIFIC REALISM

Evgeniy Alekseevich Bezlepkin
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: научный реализм, определение существования, тезис существования, метафизическая установка, scientific realism, definition of existence, thesis of existence, metaphysical principle

Abstract >>
The concepts of scientific realism, firstly, include the statement of the existence of objective reality and, secondly, imply the division of this statement into two components: "the thesis of existence" and "the thesis of independence". Relying on a brief historical analysis of the definitions of the concept of existence, we suppose that this concept is relative and depends on metaphysical principles adopted in a particular era. We show that during the naturalistic turn, there were attempts to make the thesis of existence invariant relative to metaphysical interpretations. In future, it will enable to strengthen the foundations of the concept of scientific realism.
																								



4.
HYPER-INTENSIONALITY IN RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RUSSELL'S RAMIFIED THEORY OF TYPE AND SUBSTITUTIONAL THEORY

Vitaliy Valentinovich Tselishchev, Aleksandr Valerievich Khlebalin
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: интенсиональность математического дискурса, теория типов, подстановочная теория, универсальность логики, гиперинтенсинальный парадокс, intensionality of mathematical discourse, theory oftype, substitutional theory, universality of logic, hyper-intensional paradox

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the problem of intensionality of mathematics in B. Russell's logicism program. We argue that the intensional approach applied in Principia Mathematica is associated with the emergence of the hyper-intensional paradox in Russell's substitutional theory. Russel considered his substitutional theory as a tool for resolving paradoxes in terms of preserving a universalist interpretation of logic, which is incompatible with his theory of type. The reproduction of the hyper-intensional paradox in the substitutional theory resulted in giving it up in Principia Mathematica in favor of the ramified theory of type.
																								



5.
INTERACTIVE PROOF: VERIFICATION AND GENERATION OF NEW MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGE

Aleksandr Valerievich Khlebalin
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: компьютерное доказательство, автоматизированные системы верификации в математике, гомотопная теория типов, доказательство, вычисление, computer-assisted proof, automate verification systems in mathematics, homotopy type theory, proof, calculation

Abstract >>
The article discusses the classical issues of the epistemology of mathematics in connection with the use of computer systems in mathematical research. It is shown that the problems of epistemological description of computer-assisted mathematical results are often due to the confusion over the content of traditional concepts of the epistemology of mathematics, such as proof, calculation, truths, and verification. The example of characteristics of the logical and theoretical foundations of interactive computer systems based on the theory of types demonstrates their potential in explicating the traditional concepts of the epistemology of mathematics.
																								



6.
QUANTUM PROPERTIES IN THE PHYSICS OF THE BRAIN: AMPLIFICATION OR LEVELING?

Dmitriy Vladimirovich Vinnik
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: квантовая биология, сознание, психика, квантовая теория сознания, квантовая механика, синергетика, критические состояния, амплификация, нейрофизиология, нейронная сеть, эфапатическая передача, несинаптическая связь, quantum biology, consciousness, psyche, quantum theory of consciousness, quantum mechanics, synergetics, critical states, amplification, neurophysiology, neural network, ephaptic coupling, non-synaptic connection

Abstract >>
The article reviews and analyzes theoretical and empirical arguments for the quantum brain hypothesis and against it. Supporters of the idea of amplification of quantum properties to macrostates of the brain (including psychological states and behavior) and the idea of ephaptic coupling, i.e. "field" non-synaptic connection of axons, are among proponents of the theory. Its opponents insist that all quantum events in nerve tissue are being statistically averaged and leveled to the point where quantum fluctuations do not matter at all; thermodynamic conditions of the nerve tissue functioning impede the occurrence of macroscopic quantum effects. Now, sceptics' positions are stronger, but to date there is accumulated a substantial amount of empirical evidence, which is worth thorough considering. If supporters of amplification are true, it must result in an unexpected answer to the question of the human nature and man's place in the world. Seen in that light, all beings which have nervous system appear to be full agents of the primeval chaos world: they are means capable to reinforce random quantum-mechanical events to macro-scale realizing them not only in inner states of their brains, but also outside, i.e. in their behavior.
																								



7.
BOSE-CONDENSATE CONCEPT IN THE INTERPRETATION OF CONSCIOUSNESS

Svetlana Sergeevna Popova
Institute of laser physics Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 15B Ac. Lavrent’ev str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: бозе-конденсация, квантовая теория, сознание, bose-condensation, quantum theory, consciousness

Abstract >>
The quantum consciousness concept is inextricably linked with the problem of the possibility of the existence of quantum objects under conditions which are suitable for the existence of living organisms. The article considers a physical concept regarding the implementation of such quantum state and the genesis of this concept. It also analyzes the use of the concept in quantum theories of consciousness.
																								



8.
QUANTUM BASIS OF CONSCIOUSNESS, OR ONTOLOGY OF PSYCHOPHYSICAL QUANTUM REALITY

Aleksander Leonidovich Simanov1, Aleksander Nikokaevich Spaskov2
1Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Institute of Philosophy NASB, 220072, Belarus, Minsk, Surganova Street 1, Corp. 2
Keywords: сознание, квантовая механика, онтология, реальность, психика, consciousness, quantum mechanics, ontology, reality, psychics

Abstract >>
The article discusses the possibility of substantiating the quantum basis of consciousness. We put forward a hypothesis which suggests interpreting the reduction of the wave function in quantum mechanics as the realization of psychophysical wholeness in the act of interaction of the objective physical world and the researher's subjective world. Aspects are noted which can constitute a categorical basis for a hypothetic substantial-informational ontology. Unlike the well-known informational approaches, we introduce the concept of an information source of a substantial nature.
																								



9.
SOME COGNITIVE ASPECTS OF MODERN ECOLOGY "SOCIALISATION" IN RUSSIA

Alexandra Lvovna Rizhinashvili
St.Petersburg Branch of S.I. Vavilov Institute for the History of Science and Technology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 5, Universitetskaya emb., St.Petersburg, 199034, Russia
Keywords: экология, В«социализацияВ», уровни организации живой материи, экосистема, часть и целое, ecology, "socialisation", levels of living matter, ecosystem, part and whole

Abstract >>
The article briefly outlines some cognitive reasons for the fuzzy understanding of the subject and tasks of ecology, both among biologists themselves and in society as a whole. In this study, the author took as a basis the idea of the levels of organization of living matter. The analysis is carried out on the background of the historical development of ecology in the twentieth century. Data from the history of aquatic ecology are widely used. It is shown that the difficult perception of ecology is based on both the initial heterogeneity of environmental objects and the inclusion of human society and the geographical landscape in the orbit of environmental studies on the wave of interest in environmental problems. The author considers that necessary to comprehend the biological essence of the ecosystem, organized as a whole due to the vital activity of individuals of the populations included in it.
																								



10.
RATIONALITY AND WITTGENSTEIN'S RELATIVISM OF THOMAS KUHN

Oksana Ivanovna Tselishcheva
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Akademy of Sciences, 8, Nikolaev st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: релятивизм, скептицизм, Кун, Витгенштейн, рациональность, парадигма, форма жизни, skepticism, Kuhn, Wittgenstein, rationality, paradigm, form of life

Abstract >>
The article considers how the philosophy of late Wittgenstein influenced the concept of the structure of scientific revolutions developed by T. Kuhn. It is shown that Kuhn's concept of paradigm has an analogue in Wittgenstein's concept of language game. Kuhn's relativism in respect to the objectivity of scientific theories is compared with S. Kripke's skeptical interpretation of "Philosophical Investigations" by Wittgenstein. A violent conflict between T. Kuhn and E. Morris reflected in Morris's book "The Ashtray" is presented as a conceptual focus of the discussion. The conclusion is made that Kuhn's reliance on Wittgenstein in issues concerning the nature of rational science was a mistake in view of the latter's complete disinterest in science.
																								



11.
KRIPKE'S SKEPTICAL ARGUMENT AND THE COGNITION OF THE WORD

Alina Sergeevna Zaykova
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Aсademy of Sciences, 8, Nikolaev st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: скептический парадокс, Витгенштейн, форма жизни, простота, skeptical paradox, Wittgenstein, form of life, simplicity

Abstract >>
The paper considers Kripke's skeptical argument and its skeptical solution. The example of studies of how the word is cognized shows that the form of life, and in particular simplicity as one of its proto-phenomena, should be the basis for a conventional solution of the skeptical paradox.