Publishing House SB RAS:

Publishing House SB RAS:

Address of the Publishing House SB RAS:
Morskoy pr. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia



Advanced Search

Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2019 year, number 6

1.
ON FOREST MANAGEMENT STRATEGY IN RUSSIA

V. A. Sokolov, O. P. Vtyurina, N. V. Sokolova
Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: организация лесного хозяйства, лесоустройство, лесная экономика, устойчивое лесопользование, воспроизводство лесных ресурсов, organization of forest economy, forest planning, forest economics, sustainable forest use, restoration of forest resources

Abstract >>
An analysis of a numerous official documents and publications reveals a serious crisis of forest management in Russia. Collapse of the forest economy has resulted from shocking changes at the end of the 20th century and accepting a new Forest Code, approved in 2006, in which any reference to forestry disappeared. Forest management paradigm, defined by the Forest Code ideologues, will lead inevitably to the Russian forest fund degradation. Meanwhile, forestry is a productive industry, which follows market rules. For this reason, forest management should be reconstructed in Russia. A principle of forestry revival will be impartial ecological and market economic assessment of forest resources, which would be instrumental in transition of the subsidized scheme of forest management financing to a system that would provide rational forestry and a profit. Forestry comprises an inseparable triad: forest inventory, forest economics, and forest management. It is within this triad that more specific issues of rational forestry and sustainable forest use are to be solved. When state-owned forests are under market conditions, it is impermissible to sell forest resources priced below cost of their production. In view of this, market transition of forest use is crucial to establish payments for standing timber based on rental income. This will guarantee the financing of reforestation as well as assignments to the budget at the different levels. Chief reorganization objective of forest management in Russia is outlined as follows: ensuring economic efficiency of the forest sector; sustainable use of forest resources and reforestation; forest conservation for future generations.
																								



2.
DETERMINATION OF FOREST SOIL FERTILITY BY FOREST PLANNING DATA

S. K. Farber, N. S. Kuzmik
Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: продуктивность древостоев, лесорастительные условия, данные лесоустройства, атрибутивная таблица лесотаксационных выделов, леса Красноярского Приангарья, stand productivity, forest vegetation conditions, forest planning data, attributive table of forest inventory compartments, forests of Krasnoyarsk Priangarie

Abstract >>
Values of forest inventory indicators are the result of cause-effect relationships of stands with environmental factors. Forest soils, along with the amount of heat and moisture, are the main components of forest vegetation conditions. The fertility of forest soils therefore can be evaluated (measured) by means of forest inventory parameters. The regression equations are formed. As a function, the site productivity class (bonitet) of the stand is used, as an independent variable, the indicator that quantifies forest vegetation conditions. The data of mass forest inventory - the description of forest inventory compartments--contain all the information necessary for the formation of equations. The description of the section also contains soil characteristics, including the soil name (type). We can write down: Bs = f ( S ), where: Bs is the bonitet class of the stand, depending on soil fertility; S is an indicator of forest vegetation conditions. As an indicator of forest conditions, the d / d 0 ratio was previously proposed, where: d 0 = f ( h ); d , h - diameter and height of the main tree species of the stand (Farber, 1997). In general, the advantage is of an indicator that varies less than the others. Therefore, as a measure of forest vegetation conditions in the work, the ratio of heights S = h/h 0 is used. In this case, the averaged growth line in height (regression equation, h0 = f ( A ), where A is the stand age, years) is used as a reference point. By introducing an additional argument, the accuracy of determining h 0 increases. The diameter is used as an argument of this kind, then h 0 = f(d , A). The two-factor equation defines the origin in the form of a plane. The ratio of heights S = h/h 0 is determined for each forest inventory compartment of coniferous tree stands. Next, the average Si values for the tree species and soil names, and the total weighted average S 0 for coniferous tree species and soil names are calculated. Thus, each soil type receives a quantitative measure. With the name of the soil in the description of the forest inventory compartment, regardless of the stand species composition and land category (stand, burn, logged area), we obtain a quantitative assessment of forest soils fertility with the ability to determine the potential tree species productivity. The paper demonstrates a map where, for the test site, the fertility of forest soils is shown by means of the values of S 0, and the potential productivity of coniferous trees is shown by means of yield classes.
																								



3.
DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD FOR TRANSFERRING FOREST LANDS TO FOREST COVER LANDS BY REMOTE SENSING METHODS

A. A. Karpov1,2, N. R. Pirtskhalava-Karpova1, A. P. Bogdanov1,2, R. A. Aleshko1,2, V. V. Voronin2
1Northern Federal University named after M. V. Lomonosov, Severnaya Dvina Emb., 17, Arkhangelsk, 163002 Russian Federation
2Northern Research Institute of Forestry, Nikitov str., 13, Arkhangelsk, 163062 Russian Federation
Keywords: дистанционные методы мониторинга, лесовосстановление, вегетационный индекс, SWVI, NBR, NDVI, Google Earth Engine, Архангельская область, remote sensing methods of monitoring, reforestation, vegetation indices, SWVI, NBR, NDVI, Google Earth Engine, Arkhangelsk Oblast

Abstract >>
Assessment of forest regeneration using remote sensing data is a priority scientific research topic worldwide today. Threshold values for successful reforestation can be defined using multi-temporal satellite scenes and indices for analysis of vegetation on cutting and burned areas. The analysis of successful reforestation has practical value for Russian government organizations for transferring burned and cutting lands to forest cover land. The rate of reforestation depends on climate, soil conditions in the region of studies. Collection of field data and the studies were carried out in northern and middle taiga of Arkhangelsk Oblast. This territory belongs to boreal forest. Calculations of spectral indices for each research object were made using multi-temporal scenes for 20 years based on Google Earth Engine platform. Optimal spectral index was selected based on the analysis of collected data. The optimal threshold values of the index for transferring pixel of satellite imagery to forest cover land were found using this data. Optimal spectral index for transferring non-forest cover to forest cover land SWVI was selected. The optimal threshold value for transfer to forest cover land equals 80 % recovery of the index after a disturbance in forest cover. Method for transferring land to forest cover land was developed based on analysis of dynamic of the spectral index. The result was the spatial layer of transferring land to forest cover land in 2018 on the territory of Severodvinsk and Onega forestry district of Arkhangelsk Oblast.
																								



4.
METHODS OF COMPLEX BIOINDICATIVE ASSESSMENT OF LIFE STATE PATTERNS OF WOODY PLANTS UNDER INDUSTRIAL POLLUTIONS ON URBANIZED TERRITORIES

Yu. V. Klad'ko, L. N. Skripal'shchikova
Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: городские насаждения, экологические зоны, техногенное загрязнение, древесные растения, устойчивость, urban plantations, ecological zones, technogenic pollution, woody plants, stability

Abstract >>
A method of complex bioindicative assessment of life state pattern and sustainability of woody plants in greening growing under industrial pollution in urbanized areas has been developed. A wider set of indicators is used for the assessment in comparison with the well-known methods that point clearly to industrial air pollution impact: the symmetry of the crown, outer damage of the trunk and outer features of the bark and branches, crown density, premature yellowing of foliage, evidence of chemical burns on leaves and needles, evidence of damage to needles or leaves by insects and pathogens. The proposed method was tested on woody plants belonging to 8 species: Scotch pine Pinus sylvestris L., Colorado spruce Picea pungens Engelm., silver birch Betula pendula Roth, Siberian elm Ulmus pumila L., balsam poplar Populus balsamifera L., mountain ash Sorbus aucuparia L., Maack cherri Padus maackii Rupr., and dwarf apple Malus baccata (L.) Borkh., growing in greening of the city of Krasnoyarsk under conditions of technogenic pollution of various composition and intensity. Using the developed methodology, it was found that Scotch pine, silver birch, the Siberian elm and mountain ash were least tolerant to pollution from heavy traffic in comparison to the other species. Scotch pine, Colorado spruce, silver birch, Siberian elm, mountain ash and dwarf apple occurred sensitive to specific emissions from industrial enterprises, and these species might be used as indicators of industrial pollution level caused by specific sources. Balsam poplar and Maack cherri, according to the bioindication rating scale were less sensitive to industrial and vehicle pollution - these tree species can be used to create greenings in heavily polluted areas and industrial city districts and sanitary protection zones around industrial enterprises. The developed method can be recommended for practical application in the field of green construction and environmental monitoring in urbanized areas.
																								



5.
WOODLAND: COMPARATIVE DYNAMICS OF AVERAGE DIAMETERS OF CONIFEROUS TREE STANDS OF DIFFERENT FOREST TYPES

R. A. Ziganshin
Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: возрастная динамика, текущий и средний приросты, высокогорный Хамар-Дабан, Юго-Восточное Прибайкалье, age dynamics, current and average increment, high-mountain Khamar-Daban, South-East Pribaikalie

Abstract >>
The growth rates by average diameter of different types of conifers forest stand aggregates are analyzed in the paper. Three predominant Siberian stone pine Pinus sibirica Du Tour forest types have been studied. It was found that their growth is essentially different. The growth rate of the Siberian stone pine stand of green moss-red bilberry (Pinetum sibiricae vacciniosum) forest type is especially impressive. The Siberian stone pine stand of bergenia (Pinetum sibiricae bergeniosum) forest type shows the lowest growth rate. An intermediate place occupies the Siberian stone pine stand of low herb-dwarf shrub (Pinetum sibiricae nanaherbosa-fruticosum) forest type. Two types of the Siberian stone pine stand are remarkably growing up to 140-200 years. It has been revealed that standard yield tables for different age generations are not stable models. In the Siberian fir Abies sibirica Ledeb. Stands, low growth rates are registered at bergenia (Abietum sibiricae bergeniosum) and mountain rocky (Abietum sibiricae montani-lithosum) (due to severe site conditions) forest types, but stands of gramineous-herbaceous (Abietum sibiricae poacea-geteroherbosum) forest types grow well up to 100-140 years. The Siberian spruce Picea obovata Ledeb. stands of high (wide) herbaceous (Piceetum sibiricae latiherbosum) forest type grow intensively up to 130-160 years, and have principal water conservation value. The pioneers of alpine zone - forest types of mountain pine Pinus pumila (Pallas) Regel stands (Pinetum pumilae montani-lithosum, var. fruticosum) grow slowly in severe conditions of highlands, but their principal role is the stabilization of mountain ecosystems. Mutual comparison of all types of coniferous stands of the woodland shows the better than average growth of the Siberian stone pine and the Siberian spruce stands, and worse growth of the Siberian fir and mountain pine stands. Comparison of average diameters of the Siberian stone pine and the Siberian fir stands with similar characteristic for different mountain regions of Siberia according to the yield tables have been done.
																								



6.
REFORESTATION AFTER FIRES OF DIFFERENT INTENSITY IN PINE FORESTS OF CENTRAL SIBERIA

S. V. Zhila1, G. A. Ivanova1, V. A. Ivanov2, P. A. Tsvetkov1
1Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2M. F. Reshetnev Siberian State University of Science and Technology, Prospekt Mira, 82, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russian Federation
Keywords: сосновые насаждения, интенсивность пожара, послепожарная динамика, южная и средняя тайга, Красноярский край, pine stands, fire intensity, after fire dynamics, southern and middle taiga, Krasnoyarsk Krai

Abstract >>
Every year in Siberia, there are thousands of forest fires that damage forests on huge areas. The main part of fires occurs in pine forests. In this regard, the paper discusses the features of post-fire regeneration in pine forest, depending on the fire intensity and the time after the fire. The dynamics of the number, growth and viability of natural regeneration of pine after fires in the pine forests of the southern and middle taiga were evaluated. The dependence of the number of young growth of the duration of the period after the fire exposure, which is particularly marked after high-intensity fire, a correlation coefficient of 0.81. A close relationship between the amount of undergrowth and the intensity of fire, the correlation coefficient 0.82. In the pine forest after fires of renewal takes place without a shift in the species with satisfactory performance. After low-intensity fires, the formation of life-capable undergrowth in pine forests extends for a longer period. It is established that at the initial stage of post-fire succession the accumulation of phytomass of natural regeneration in pine forests is also determined by the intensity of the fire and the time after the fire.
																								



7.
NATURAL REGENERATION AFTER PARTIAL LOGGING IN PINE FORESTS OF KRASNOYARSK FOREST STEPPE

D. A. Semenyakin
Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: спелые сосняки, интенсивность рубки, лесовозобновительный процесс, самосев, подрост, сохранность, Погорельский бор, Красноярский край, mature pine forests, logging intensity, forest regeneration process, self-seeding, undergrowth, survival capacity, Pogorel’skiy pine forest, Krasnoyarsk Krai

Abstract >>
The results of the study of the quantity and state of understory of young’s regeneration after partial logging of 20 to 53 % logging intensity in mature pine forests of Pogorel’skiy pine forest are shown. Evaluation of logging operations showed that under the canopy of the remaining part of tree stands, forest site remain close in terms of the stands that are not logged. A comparative analysis of the number and life status of pine undergrowth has been carried out in pine-herbal-green moss and cowberry - herbal-green moss. Before logging, regeneration, taking into account the life condition of the undergrowth, was assessed as insufficient and partial renewal was required for regenerations. It was noted that after the first stage of partial logging in high-grade pine forests, a large number of viable young growth appeared. The number of undergrowth on the skidtaril was less compared to cut strips. However, in the runways, 4-5 years after cutting and self-seeding, there were 3 times more than in cut strips. Thus, at all 7 sites after cutting there is a sufficient number of conditionally large undergrowth, for 4 of them it exceeds the specified minimum several times. Even a weak cutting intensity of 20 % stimulated the regeneration process, but a high number of pine undergrowth is characterized by a weakened condition, which indicates a lack of lighting and the need for and the possibility of carrying out a second partial cutting. It is shown that the best preservation and subsequent renewal of pine after cutting are marked at a cutting intensity of 35 %. An increase in the intensity of cutting up to 53 % contributes to the appearance of a large number of shoots and self-seeding, while the small, medium, large undergrowth is highly damaged mechanically. We made a conclusion about the effectiveness of using the forestry measures that stimulate the forest renewal process.
																								



8.
INTRUSION OF ALIEN TREE SPECIES IN THE CITY FORESTS OF NOVOSIBIRSK

A. P. Belanova1, Y. S. Otmakhov1, T. S. Chernikova1, L. N. Chindyaeva2
1Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russian Federation
2Novosibirsk State University of Architecture, Design and Arts, Krasny Prospekt, 38, Novosibirsk, 630099 Russian Federation
Keywords: озеленение города, ландшафтное оформление лесопарков, инвазионные виды растений, лесные массивы жилой зоны, новосибирский Академгородок, city greening, landscape formation of forest parks, invasive plant species, forests of a residential area, Novosibirskiy Akademgorodok

Abstract >>
In the course of the work, a study was conducted of urban forests in the territory of the Sovetskiy district of the city of Novosibirsk. There are 24 alien species of woody plants that are found in the forest areas of the residential zone and in the adjacent territories naturally. A significant part of these species appeared in the forest areas as a result of the city’s landscaping activities and the landscaping of forest parks. The identified species belong to 11 families and have a different geographical origin. The largest number of species (9) belongs to the Rosaceae family, the remaining families are represented by one or two species. Such species as Ulmus pumila , Syringa josikaea , Syringa vulgaris , Amygdalus nana , Grossularia uva-crispa , Clematis recta , Cerasus fruticose , Padus virginiana , Padus maackii , Juglans mandshurica , Ribes spicatum , Acer ginnala , Quercus robur , Berberis vulgaris , Ribes rubrum have been assigned the status of colonophytes. They are capable of self-renewing in places of drift, but are not characterized by active resettlement throughout the territory. The species Grossularia uva-crispa , Ribes spicatum and Ribes rubrum were not used in urban greening and are “runaways” from horticultural culture. Several alien species ( Amelanchier spicata , Rosa rugosa , Sorbaria sorbifolia , Ulmus laevis , Viburnum lantana ) are classified as potentially invasive plants. Acer negundo and Malus baccata , which are related to invasive species in Siberia and in Novosibirsk Oblast, are the most actively regenerating in the city forests.
																								



9.
HIGHLY INHERITABLE VARIABLE COMPONENTS IN THE CLONAL PLANTATION OF SCOTS PINE

V. M. Efimov1, V. V. Tarakanov2, N. B. Naumova3, V. Y. Kovaleva4, K. P. Kutsenogiy5
1Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Prospekt Akademika Lavrent’eva, 10, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russian Federation
2West Siberian Branch of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS - Branch of the Federal Research Center В«Krasnoyarsk Science Center», Zhukovskiy str., 100/1, Novosibirsk, 630082 Russian Federation
3Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Prospekt Akademika Lavrent’eva, 8/2, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russian Federation
4Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Frunze str., 11, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russian Federation
5Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Institutskaya str., 3, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russian Federation
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris L, химические элементы, наследуемость, многомерный анализ, chemical elements, heritability, multivariate analysis

Abstract >>
The variability of the data on elemental composition of needles from the clonal population of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L . , established on the long-term field experiment, was studied by principal components extraction from the normalized data matrix, and broad-sense heritability Н 2, i.e. the contribution of clones to the total data variance was calculated both for the original variables and principal components. To find the linear combinations of variables with the highest heritability the discriminant analysis was performed. The results suggest the importance of multivariate statistics for forest genetics and selection in targeting search for genetic marker traits in the populations of woody plants, in assessing genetic differentiation among populations, identification of the best genotypes via their phenotypes, etc.
																								



10.
IDENTIFICATION OF Populus nigra, P. laurifolia and P. x jrtyschensis BY LEAF PETIOLE ANATOMY

A. V. Klimov1,2, B. V. Proshkin1,2,3
1InEca-Consulting LLC, Lazo str., 4, Novokuznetsk, 654027 Russian Federation
2West Siberian Branch of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Zhukovskiy str., 100/1, Novosibirsk, 630082 Russian Federation
3Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, Dobrolyubov str., 160, Novosibirsk, 630039 Russian Federation
Keywords: тополь, дифференциация, естественная гибридизация, беккроссы, бассейн р. Томь, Кемеровская область, Россия, poplar, differentiation, natural hybridization, backcrosses, basin of Tom River, Kemerovo Oblast, Russia

Abstract >>
Remarkable variability in morphology of the Populus genus, as well as widely spread hybridization within the genus complicate taxa identification. Petiole anatomy plays an important role in plant taxonomic attribution and resolution of arguments in systematics. The aim of the study was to examine the petiole anatomy of P. nigra , P. laurifolia and P. × jrtyschensis to assess its potential use for taxa identification. The leaf petioles were collected from 252 individual trees in 8 populations of P. nigra , P. laurifolia and P.× jrtyschensis in the area of their natural hybridization in the basin of the Tom River in Kemerovo Oblast. Two of those 8 populations, located far from the hybridization centers, were regarded as controls to characterize parent taxa. Cross sections were made in the upper part of petioles. Then the sections were used to examine the shape of petiole cross sections, the contour of the adaxial sides, the vascular system types and lower ring shape. The petioles of trees growing far from hybridization areas were found to differ in their vascular systems: P. nigra had a linear, while P. laurifolia a high-arc-shaped one. The hybrids were found to belong to several types of vascular systems, namely intermediate, high-intermediate, linear and high-arc-shaped ones. The intermediate type of vascular system is characteristic of the most part of P. × jrtyschensis trees (78 % of the total samplings). Therefore most of them can be classified as F1 hybrid and others - as a recombinant species. Examination of P. nigra in its natural hybridization center allowed finding an approach to the identification back-crosses. The study confirmed provides a solid basis for the identification of parent species, hybrids and backcrosses in natural hybridization areas of taxa belonging to Aigeiros and Tacamahaca sections of Populus genus.
																								



11.
DIMENSIONAL, AGE AND SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF MIDDLE TAIGA POSTFIRE PINE STANDS ON AUTOMORPHIC SOILS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF KOMI REPUBLIC)

A. V. Manov, I. N. Kutyavin
Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Kommunisticheskaya str., 28, Syktyvkar, Komi Republic, 167982 Russian Federation
Keywords: послепожарные сосняки, строение, средняя тайга, after fire pine forests, structure, middle taiga

Abstract >>
The distribution of woody plants in terms of diameter and height was studied in virgin indigenous monodominant pine communities with the last fire of 5-130 years. High lability of morphometric characters of trees and undergrowth are shown. The types of age and vertical structure of stands are revealed. Both stepwise-different-aged and conditionally different-aged stands are formed under the influence of the pyrogenic factor. Pine stands have «regular top», «regular bottom» and «symmetrical» vertical structure. The horizontal structure of stands and undergrowth was interpreted based on the analysis of point processes using the pair correlation function. Trees are distributed on area randomly. We observed weak aggregation of young trees in stands on distances of 2-6 m. Both undergrowth and self-sowing are characterized by group distribution at small distances of up to 1-2 m. The direction of the displacement of the projections of the tree crowns centers relative to the bases of their trunks is ambiguous. The shift of the crown space towards the maximum solar radiation was detected in thinned stand with high age and big size of trees. In other types of pine forests no one-sided orientation of tree crown development was revealed. The position of the tree crowns centers on the plot shows the same spatial distribution as the base of the trunks. In phytocenoses with the presence of a young generation of trees, the effect of «convergence» of crowns is manifested due to the inclination of their thin and elongated trunks under snow pressure. It leads to a denser structure of the distribution of projections of crown centers in comparison with the position of the bases of the trunks of young trees on the plots.
																								



12.
STRUCTURE AND REGULARITIES OF TREE STAND DEVELOPMENT IN FLOOD-PLAIN FORESTS OF MARI EL REPUBLIC

Yu. P. Demakov1,2, A. V. Isaev1,3
1State Nature Reserve В«Bolshaya Kokshaga», Voinov-Internatsionalistov str., 26, Yoshkar-Ola, Mari El Republic, 424038 Russian Federation
2Volga State University of Technology, Ploschad’ Lenina, 3, Yoshkar-Ola, Mari El Republic, 424000 Russian Federation
3Mari State University, Ploschad’ Lenina, 1, Yoshkar-Ola, Mari El Republic, 424000 Russian Federation
Keywords: дуб черешчатый, липа сердцевидная, сосна обыкновенная, береза повислая, вяз гладкий, ель обыкновенная, пихта сибирская, осина обыкновенная, древостои, таксационная структура, динамика, прогноз, Quercus robur L, Tilia cordata L, Pinus sylvestris L, Betula pendula L, Ulmus laevis L, Picea abies (L.) H. Karst, Abies sibirica Ledeb, Populus tremula L, tree stands, forest inventory structure, dynamics, forecast

Abstract >>
Results of long-term studies conducted in flood-plain forests of Mari El Republic are presented. These forests are of vast diversity of species, age, and spatial structure of stands. It is found that there are three phytocenotical layers in the flood-plain forests, English oak Quercus robur L. and tillet Tilia cordata L. are dominants in the layers. All the tree species, with the exception of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. and the European white birch Betula pendula L., have an ontogenetic structure. The best vitality is typical for tillet, the worst - for the European white elm Ulmus laevis L. and English oak. The trees of Scots pine and English oak are the highest ones in the stands. High correlation between the height of trees (all species) and their diameter is revealed. It is demonstrated that there is a quantity of undergrowth in flood-plain forests, where tillet typically dominates as it is well adapted to growing under the canopy. In some temporary inundated areas, self-seeding spruce Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. and fir Abies sibirica Ledeb. trees spring up and successfully grow under the stand canopy. Young oaks, birches, and aspens Populus tremula L. grow well in the canopy openings only or after a complete death of the stand. Currently phytocenotic processes in the flood-plain forests are going with dominating positions of tillet.
																								



13.
STRUCTURAL AND ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF BROADLEAF FORESTS OF THE SUBTAIGA SUBZONE IN THE NORTH-WEST OF TATARSTAN

N. B. Prokhorenko1, S. G. Glushko2, S. G. Kurbanova1
1Kazan Federal University, Kremlevskaya str., 18, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, 420008 Russian Federation
2Kazan State Agrarian University, Karl Marx str., 65, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, 420015 Russian Federation
Keywords: неморально-бореальные леса, устойчиво-производные широколиственные леса, зональные широколиственные леса, видовой состав, обилие видов, таксационная формула древостоя, бонитет, возраст древостоя, возобновление древостоя, эколого-ценотическая структура, hemiboreal forests, settled-secondary broadleaf forests, zonary broadleaf forests, species composition, abundance of species, forest inventory formula of the tree stand, site productivity class (bonitet), stand age, renewal of the stand, ecological-coenotic structure

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the formation of modern phytocoenoses of broadleaf and small-leaved-broad-leaved forests in the subtaiga subzone of the European Russia on the site of the previously existing coniferous and coniferous-broadleaf forests. The article shows the results of detailed geobotanical and silvicultural studies of deciduous forests of different rock composition, which were carried out on trial plots in the Precamsky regions of Tatarstan. In particular, species richness and specific saturation of communities, quantitative participation of species of different tiers, stands’ species composition, stock of individual breeds and peculiarities of their renewal are analyzed. An assessment of the conditions for the growth of forest phytocoenoses was carried out on the basis of the ratio of the species of different ecological-coenotic groups. Presently the vegetation of the studied area is represented by long-term and settled-secondary plant communities of lime-birch, birch-linden and linden-oak forests, which have arisen as a result of economic activity, as well as due to climate changes. In communities with a predominance of lime over a period of more than 60 years, there was a decrease in oak stocks, as well as an increase in the share of meadow species of plants (up to 25 %). Nevertheless, broadleaf forests of the hemiboreal strip in the north-west of Tatarstan retain a complex of ecological-coenotic features, which are caused by zonal and historical conditions. At the same time, the distribution of coniferous and deciduous forests occurs in the subtaiga subzone. The obtained data can serve as a basis for monitoring the transformation of forest vegetation in the zone of taiga contact, broad-leaved forests and forest-steppes.
																								



14.
ALL-RUSSIAN CONFERENCE WITH INTERNATIONAL PARTICIPATION "FOREST ECOSYSTEMS OF BOREAL ZONE: BIODIVERSITY, BIOECONOMY, ECOLOGICAL RISKS"

A. A. Onuchin, A. V. Pimenov, E. N. Muratova
Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: boreal forests, biospheric role, dynamics, monitoring, anthropogenic and naturals risks, forest resources, forest management, selection-genetic and genomic studies, biotechnology, international cooperation, V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk, Russia