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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2019 year, number 4

TRADITIONAL ECONOMY OF YAKUTIAN ARCTIC IN 1992

Ya. M. Sannikova
Institute for Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies of the North SB RAS, 1, Petrovskogo st., Yakutsk, 677027, Russian Federation
Keywords: nрадиционное хозяйство, коренные народы, Якутия, Арктика, первый постсоветский 1992 год, traditional economy, indigenous peoples, Yakutia, the Arctic, the first post-Soviet year

Abstract

The article tells about the first post-Soviet year of 1992 in the life of the traditional economy of Yakut’s Arctic, which presents all the indigenous peoples of Yakutia - Evens, Evenks, Yukagirs, Chukchi, Dolgans, Russian old-timers, Sakha. They were historically engaged in reindeer herding, horse breeding, cattle breeding, hunting and fishing. The 15 Arctic and northern regions are divided into three groups based on natural and economic specialization: North-west-coastal, North-east, Indigirka-Kolyma. Archival documents help to show the main issues of managing the economy authorities, the real problems of the development of farms in the first post-Soviet year. The irreversible process of reorganization of the Arctic farms, the transformation in ways of management is considered. In 1992, these farms continued to be under the jurisdiction of a separate department of the agricultural complex of the North, which had a complex hierarchy of subordination and cooperation with the relevant federal and regional ministries and was now under the jurisdiction of the new Ministry of Minority Affairs of the North of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). This year, the trend towards the organization of nomadic tribal communities as an original form of traditional nature management, as a public process of reviving the economic traditions of the indigenous peoples of the North, intensified. At the same time, tribal communities were initially considered by the state as business entities. The dynamics of the indicators of the main branches of the traditional economy at the beginning and at the end of 1992 are shown on the basis of the analysis of official statistics. The most vulnerable in the first post-Soviet year were areas of the northwestern coastal group with a predominantly reindeer herding direction of economic development. An attempt was made to show an objective picture of the situation of the studied farms and problematic issues of statistical data were identified.