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Fundamental and applied issues of mining

2019 year, number 1

1.
FORMING THE STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF ROCK MASS AND LINING WHEN CONSTRUCTING UNDERGROUND TURBINE HALL OF HYDROPOWER PLANT

N. M. Abdulloev1, D. V. Baryshnikov2, L. N. Gakhova2,3, A. P. Khmelinin2
1Rogun Hydropower Plant, Rogun, Republic of Tadzhikistan
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
3Sayano-Shushensk Branch of Siberian Federal University, Sayanogorsk, Russia
Keywords: Подземное сооружение гидротехнического комплекса, численное моделирование, напряженно-деформированное состояние, конвергенция, Underground structure of hydropower plant, numerical modeling, stress-strain state, convergence

Abstract >>
Numerical modeling was performed for stress-strain state of the rock mass and lining of underground turbine hall of Rogun hydropower plant. The hall is located in a rock mass at great depths. Numerical modeling was conducted using the method of boundary integral equations based on the model of linearly elastic quasi-isotropic medium. The character and features of forming inelastic deformation zones near the contour of turbine hall cross-section are found. The regularities of distribution of rock mass and lining stress-strain state are determined as well.
																								



2.
STRESS DISTRIBUTION DURING HYDROFRAC INTERVAL SEALING WITH POLYMERIC BRIDGES CONSIDERING THEIR INTERACTION WITH BOREHOLE WALLS

A. V. Azarov, A. V. Patutin
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Угольный пласт, необсаженная скважина, гидравлический разрыв, напряженное состояние, интервал гидроразрыва, несъемный мост, Coal seam, uncased borehole, hydraulic fracturing, stress state, hydrofrac interval, fixed bridge

Abstract >>
The paper discusses the stress distribution in the vicinity of an uncased borehole during hydraulic fracturing. Fixed bridges made of polymeric material are used as sealing elements. The applied mathematical model takes into account piston displacement of bridges when pressure is applied to an isolated interval. The results obtained allow optimization of engineering solutions of in-mine hydraulic fracturing to intensify the degassing of coal seams.
																								



3.
FILTERING OF MICROSEISMIC DATA BASED ON INFORMATION ABOUT SIGNAL PHASES

A. V. Azarov1, A. S. Serdyukov2
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Пассивный микросейсмический мониторинг, микросейсмический шум, обработка сейсмического сигнала, Passive microseismic monitoring, microseismic noise, seismic signal processing

Abstract >>
Seismic data filtering algorithm has been developed. The proposed algorithm allows amplifying signals from the sources located inside a selected area of space. The paper presents a theory describing the principle of this algorithm. Testing on synthetic data showed that the proposed filtering method is capable to suppress signals from the sources located outside the selected area of space. On semi-synthetic data it was shown that the proposed filtering method allowed to suppress real noise and significantly increases the signal-to-noise ratio for the events located inside a selected area of space.
																								



4.
INVESTIGATION OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURE GROWTH NEAR A MINE OPENING

A. V. Azarov, S. V. Serdyukov, A. V. Patutin
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Гидравлический разрыв, горная выработка, моделирование роста трещины гидроразрыва, Hydraulic fracturing, mine opening, hydraulic fracture growth modeling

Abstract >>
The behavior of a hydraulic fracture near the mine opening in a plane-parallel formulation has been investigated. The case was considered, when the rock was under hydrostatic pressure, and the initiating crack was oriented in the direction of mine opening. It is found that the fracture path is greatly influenced by the ratio of hydrostatic pressure and critical tensile stress of rock. It is shown that when the hydrostatic pressure increases with respect to critical tensile stress, the fracture begins to deviate from the mine opening earlier and does not reach its surface. It is also shown that under various conditions, fractures cannot bypass the mine opening completely due to the occurrence of severe strains in the area between the opening and fracture
																								



5.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELING OF PENDULUM WAVES PROPAGATION UNDER DYNAMIC LOADING OF UNDERGROUND EXCAVATION SURFACE

N. I. Aleksandrova
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Блочная среда, волновое движение, полупространство, полость, численное моделирование, вязкоупругое деформирование, Block medium, wave motion, half-space, cavity, numerical simulation, viscoelastic deformation

Abstract >>
The propagation of surface pendulum waves under nonstationary loading on the free surface of a cavity located in a block half-space is studied numerically. A mathematical model of transient viscoelastic deformation of the block medium is proposed. This model is based on the idea that dynamic behavior of the block medium can be approximately described as the movement of rigid blocks due to the compliance of interlayers between them. To describe the viscoelastic behavior of the interlayers, an internal friction model is used with the merit factor of the material as the determining parameter. The medium is modeled by a three-dimensional lattice of masses connected by elastic springs and viscous dampers in axial and diagonal directions. The influence of the merit factor and the cavity depth on the amplitudes of block velocities on the surface of the half-space is investigated for the longitudinal and Rayleigh waves.
																								



6.
STRESS CONCENTRATION ANALYSIS IN ROCK PILLARS IN THE FRAMEWORK OF NON-LOCAL ELASTIC MODEL WITH STRUCTURAL PARAMETER

V. I. Altukhov1, S. V. Lavrikov2, A. F. Revuzhenko2
1Novosibirsk National Research State University, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Породный массив, целик, концентрация напряжений, структура, нелокальная модель, локальный изгиб, численный расчет, Rock mass, pillar, stress concentration, structure, non-local model, local bend, numerical calculation

Abstract >>
The model of linear elastic theory with structural parameter has been used in present paper. In plane formulation, the constitutive relationship system consists of five independent equations, whereas there are only three equations in classical elasticity theory. Two remaining equations are implicitly contained in the postulate of diffeomorphism-an assumption about smoothness of displacement field. Refusing the postulate of diffeomorphism introduces a structural parameter in the model-macrodeformations which depend on stresses and second derivatives of stresses with respect to coordinates. The boundary value problem of pillar deformation taking into account the influence of surrounding rock mass has been formulated and numerically solved.
																								



7.
STRESS STATE OF MONOLITHIC SUPPORT OF MINE OPENINGS ARRANGED NEAR THE SLOPE

S. V. Antsiferov, A. S. Sammal, A. V. Fomin
Tula State University, Tula, Russia
Keywords: Напряженное состояние, выработка, крепь, склон, расчет, собственный вес пород, Stress state, opening, support, slope, calculation, dead weight of rocks

Abstract >>
An analytical method has been developed for determining the stress state of monolithic support of parallel mine workings constructed by a closed method near an inclined Earth's surface. The influence of the Earth's surface inclination angle and mutual location of mine openings on the formation of stresses in the support of openings has been considered.
																								



8.
MECHANICAL-MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF LITHOSPHERIC GEODYNAMICS CAUSED BY INERTIAL FORCES OF THE EARTH ROTATION AND REACTION FORCES OF ASTHENOSPHERIC LAYER, LOSS OF DEFORMATION STABILITY

A. A. Baimukhametov1, K. K. Koksalov2
1Almaty Technological University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
2Kazakh National Pedagogical University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Keywords: Вязкоупругая литосфера, устойчивость деформирования, астеносфера, течение, напряженное состояние, Viscoelastic litosphere, stability of deformation, astenosphere, flow, stress state

Abstract >>
The model of lithospheric geodynamics is considered within a problem on viscoelastic litosphere deformation under the influence of inertial rotation forces and viscous forces of spherical Couette flow in an astenosphere. This flow determines the nature of internal geodynamic pressure and tangential stresses. Depending on the difference of angular velocities of lithosphere and mantle rotation, the lithospheric shell can be in comprehensive expansion or compression conditions. The mechanism of local changes in the litosphere thickness as a result of instability of deformation of the Earth’s lithospheric shell under the influence of internal pressure and volume inertial forces of rotation is found. Loss of deformation stability is investigated by the Leibenzon-Ishlinskiy’s method. Within a viscoelastic rheology of litosphere, the stress-strain state of a litospheric plate under bilateral compression is analyzed.
																								



9.
ANALYSIS OF KAISER EFFECT MODELS IN ROCKS

N. L. Beltyukov, V. N. Toksarov
Institute of Mining, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia
Keywords: Массив горных пород, естественное напряженное состояние, акустическая эмиссия, эффект Кайзера, модели трещинообразования, Rock mass, in-situ stress state, acoustic emission, Kaiser effect, cracking models

Abstract >>
The paper considers a promising method for determining stresses in rocks based on the Kaiser effect. The analysis of various models of crack formation causing the manifestation of this effect was made. It is shown that one of the reasons for the occurrence of this phenomenon in the case of initial core loading can be the activation of cracks, which formed during unloading of the rock from effective stresses in the rock mass.
																								



10.
NEOGEN-QUATENARY GEODYNAMIC REGIME OF THE GEOSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS CONNECTION ZONE OF USTURT AND BUKHARA-KHIVA REGIONS ACCORDING TO THE DATA OF SPACE IMAGE INTERPRETATION

L. R. Bikeyeva, M. G. Uldasheva
Institute of Geology and Research Prospecting for Oil and Gas Deposits, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Keywords: Линеамент, структурно-тектоническая линия, флексура, разлом, космофотоснимки, Lineament, structural-tectonic line, flexure, fracture, space image

Abstract >>
This paper discusses the possibilities of structural interpretation of space images and morphometric analysis of the latest tectonic movements, which are still poorly studied in the oil-and-gas bearing area of the junction of the Ustyurt (Takhtakairsky ridge) and the north-western part of the Bukhara-Khiva region (Khorezm monocline and Mishklinsk uplifting, Dashkalinsk and Birgutli-Shortaklinsk troughs). As a result, lineament and “strip” geodynamic zones of abnormal fracturing were identified. Their formation is probably associated with the accumulation of diagonal stresses of the gradient zones of structural-tectonic framework, within which fault-block structures are distinguished. Morphometric analysis showed that under the influence of modern tectonics, local positive structures with predominantly gas-filled traps correspond to areas of maximum activation.
																								



11.
STUDIES OF MANIFESTATION FEATURES OF THERMOMECHANICAL EFFECTS IN DIFFERENT GEOMATERIALS AT PERIODIC LOADING CLOSE TO THE LIMIT MODES

D. I. Blokhin1, V. I. Sheinin2
1Mel’nikov Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Gersevanov Research Institute of Bases and Underground Structures, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: Геоматериалы, циклическое нагружение, напряжения, деформации, тепловое излучение, Geomaterials, cyclic loading, axial stress, axial strain, infrared radiation

Abstract >>
The possibility to obtain the information on the flow of mechanical processes in geomaterials beyond the limits of elastic deformation using the variations in the IR radiation intensity was studied. The results of experiments on recording the parameters of thermal radiation from the surface of rock salt and concrete samples at close to limiting periodic loading conditions under uniaxial compression are presented. The qualitative identity of the records of mechanical parameters and thermal radiation variations characterizing changes in the stress-strain state of the tested geomaterial samples is shown. The differences in the recorded manifestations of thermomechanical effects in concrete and rock salt under the specified deformation mode are established.
																								



12.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE OPTIMAL CONFIGURING ALGORITHM FOR OBSERVATION-AL NETWORK OF GEOMECHANICAL MONITORING SYSTEM

A. V. Gladyr, A. V. Konstantinov
Institute of Mining, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Khabarovsk, Russia
Keywords: Горный удар, геомеханический мониторинг, акустическое проявление, анизотропная среда, точность локации, Rock burst, geomechanical monitoring, acoustic manifestation, anisotropic medium, location accuracy

Abstract >>
Algorithm has been developed for configuring the observational network of geomechanical monitoring system of rock pressure. A software module has been developed based on the algorithm, which allows to draw sensitivity maps of the spatial zone and adjust parameters of the geophone network. Possibility of drawing maps using control levels of the uncontrolled zone, non-guaranteed and guaranteed control zones has been implemented. These zones show confidence of seismic acoustic signals location by geomechanical system. Procedure has been developed to select number and location of geophones. Main directions are formulated for further improvement of the algorithm for observation network configuring.
																								



13.
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF THE AUTOMATED GEOMECHANICAL MONITORING SYSTEM LOCATION ACCURACY IN THE ROCK MASS ANISOTROPY CONDITIONS

A. V. Gladyr, M. I. Rasskazov, A. A. Tereshkin, A. V. Konstantinov
Institute of Mining, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Khabarovsk, Russia
Keywords: Деформирование горных пород, геомеханический мониторинг, акустическое проявление, микросейсмическое событие, анизотропная среда, точность локации, скоростная модель, Rock deformation, geomechanical monitoring, acoustic manifestation, microseismic event, anisotropic environment, location accuracy, velocity model

Abstract >>
Based on experimental studies, it was found that taking into account the influence of rock anisotropy allows to improve the location quality by 10 - 20%. It is shown that for processing the results of seismoacoustic monitoring with regard to anisotropy in the controlled area, it is necessary to develop specialized software that implements a velocity model of the wave propagation medium. Approaches to its development and implementation have been formulated. This will improve the location accuracy and, as a result, the quality and reliability of forecast estimates when conducting geomechanical monitoring of a shock hazardous rock mass due to more accurate identification of potentially dangerous seismoacoustic active zones.
																								



14.
STRESS STATE OF LINING IN SHALLOW TUNNELS SUBJECTED TO SEISMIC EFFECT

P. V. Deev, M. A. Petrukhin
Tula State University, Tula, Russia
Keywords: Тоннель, обделка, напряженное состояние, землетрясение, расчет, Tunnel, lining, stress state, earthquake, design

Abstract >>
A new analytical method is proposed for seismic analysis of multilayer linings in shallow tunnels. The method allows taking into account the influence of seismic waves reflected from the Earth's surface and Rayleigh waves. The most hazardous stress state that may take place in radial sections of the lining during the earthquake of given intensity is determined. As an example, the seismic analysis is performed for the lining of a tunnel located in a seismically active area. The envelope diagrams of maximal values of tensile and compressive stresses along internal outline of the lining cross section and corresponding diagrams of longitudinal forces and bending moments in the lining are constructed. The dependences of the maximum stresses arising in the lining during the earthquake on the tunnel depth are obtained and analyzed.
																								



15.
STUDY OF DEFORMATION MANIFESTATIONS IN THE EXCAVATION WORKING FLOOR WHEN IT IS SUPPORTED BY ROOF BOLTING

V. F. Demin1, T. K. Isabek1, N. A. Nemova2
1Karaganda State Technical University, Karaganda, Republic of Kazakhstan
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Аналитическое моделирование, напряженно-деформированное состояние, технология, приконтурный массив горных пород, крепление горных выработок, Analytical modeling, stress-strain state, technology, marginal rock mass, excavation support

Abstract >>
The diagrams for supporting workings by floor and roof bolts are considered, which allow to reduce the swelling of floor rocks and manifestations of rock pressure. The degree of influence of mining and engineering factors on the bolting effectiveness of workings is established.
																								



16.
STUDY OF REGULARITIES OF CHANGES IN STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF COAL ROCK MASS IN FRACTURED ZONES

V. F. Demin1, N. A. Nemova2
1Karaganda State Technical University, Karaganda, Kazakhstan
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Бесцеликовая технология, геомеханические факторы, технологические факторы, условные зоны, неупругие деформации, газовое давление, Pillarless technology, geomechanical factors, engineering factors, conventional zones, inelastic deformations, gas pressure

Abstract >>
The regularities of changes in the stress-strain state of coal in rock mass depending on the main mining geological and engineering factors are identified. Using these factors, it is possible to find the optimal support parameters in specific conditions to increase the stability of preparatory mine workings. The degree of influence of mining and engineering conditions of exploitation on displacements in marginal rocks with various types of support in excavation workings is investigated.
																								



17.
MEASURING SYSTEM TO INVESTIGATE GEO- AND GAS-DYNAMIC PROCESSES IN HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OF COAL SEAMS

A. N. Drobchik
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Угольный пласт, дегазация, газодинамический каротаж, гидроразрыв, лабораторный стенд, Coal seam, degassing, gas-dynamic logging, hydraulic fracturing, laboratory test bench

Abstract >>
A measuring system has been developed for a test bench allowing the study of gas-dynamic processes in large-sized rock samples when performing hydraulic fracturing of a coal seam in a borehole model. This system provides collection of the data on pressure in a hydraulic fracturing device and loading of pneumatic jacks which create compressive stresses in the borehole zone, it also records acoustic emission during crack formation. An additional capability is implemented to measure the flow rate of gas suppled to sample through the holes on its side wall and pumped from the borehole.
																								



18.
MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF DISPLACEMENTS OUTSIDE THE ELASTIC LIMITS IN TRANSVERSALLY ISOTROPIC MASSIF NEAR THE WORKING

M. E. Eskaliev1, S. Malgazhdarov2
1Kazakh National Women’s Teacher Training University, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan
2Military Engineering Institute of Radio Electronics and Communications, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan
Keywords: Упругость, пластичность, параметр, комплексный потенциал, перемещения, алгоритм, система, Elasticity, plasticity, parameter, complex potential, displacements, algorithm, system

Abstract >>
The development of limiting states near a mine in a transversally isotropic (layered) massif of complex structure is considered. In the elastic zone, the massif has an anisotropic structure and obeys the generalized Hooke’s law, and in the plastic zone it is assumed isotropic. When determining the plastic zones, the Hoek-Brown failure criterion was used for the first time. The problem is solved approximately by the P.I. Perlin’s semi-inverse method using an iterative scheme. A system of algebraic equations is constructed to find the unknown coefficients of the complex potential. The values of displacements in a plastic zone are found using the characteristics method.
																								



19.
SURVEY OF HARD ROCK MASS FOR THE PURPOSE OF SUSTAINABILITY IN ORDER TO ELIMINATE THE ACCIDENT CONSEQUENCES

S. N. Zharikov, S. S. Taranzhin, V. A. Kutuev
Institute of Mining, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg, Russia
Keywords: Взрывные работы, структура скального массива, направления залегания систем трещин, массив горных пород, сейсмическое воздействие взрыва, сейсмоустойчивость горных пород, Blasting, solid rock mass structure, direction of crack system occurrence, rock mass, seismic effect of blasting, seismic resistance of rocks

Abstract >>
The impact of seismic vibrations from blasting in the Biyankovsky gravel pit and from passing trains on the rock mass has been estimated. The beginning of work is associated with an accident that occurred in summer of 2017, as a result of which two carriages derailed. The fractured structure of the rock mass was studied, and sustainability of hard rock mass jointings within the Ashinsk track maintenance section was estimated. It was established that recorded seismic vibrations in rockfall areas were less dangerous for disturbing the rock stability than the geological features of hard rock mass, which caused inrush. Recommendations are given to prevent rock debris from rolling out onto railroad tracks.
																								



20.
STUDY OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND ROCK FAILURE CHARACTER OF ZHDANOVSKY DEPOSIT (JSC KOLA MMC) IN CONDITIONS OF UNIAXIAL AND TRIAXIAL COMPRESSION

A. V. Zemtsovsky, N. N. Kuznetsov, A. K. Pak
Mining Institute, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity, Russia
Keywords: Ждановское месторождение, хрупкость, упругая энергия, динамическое разрушение, лабораторные испытания, горные породы, Zhdanovsky deposit, brittleness, elastic energy, dynamic fracture, laboratory tests, rocks

Abstract >>
The study results of rock properties of Zhdanovsky copper-nickel deposit are presented in the article. The deposit is located in Pechenga district of the Murmansk region. The main purpose of the work was to determine the nature of the elastic energy accumulation in the rock samples studied and to assess their proneness to dynamic uncontrolled failure. Based on the performed experimental studies, the mechanical properties and energy parameters of the samples under uniaxial and triaxial compression conditions were determined. The analysis of the results has shown that the studied rocks belong to the hard rocks which are prone to dynamic failure. It is one of the conditions for classifying the deposits as rockburst hazardous.
																								



21.
TRANSITION TO FAILURE OF LOADED ROCKS BY 3D-PROBABILISTIC CELLULAR AUTOMATON

G. A. Kazunina, A. V. Cherednichenko
Gorbachev Kuzbass State Technical University, Kemerovo, Russia
Keywords: Клеточный автомат, разрушение, горные породы, импульсная эмиссия, Cellular automaton, failure, rocks, pulsed emission

Abstract >>
A three-dimensional model of a probabilistic cellular automaton, which was previously constructed on the basis of the kinetic theory of strength, is studied in this paper. It describes the process of rock damage accumulation and formation of a damage cluster structure. Comparing the kinetic curves of damage accumulation and correlation functions by means of model experiments, it was found that, depending on the probability of germination of the damage cluster perimeter, which simulates the intensity of material failure under the action of local overstresses near the existing damage clusters, two qualitatively different modes of damage accumulation are observed for a three-dimensional model. For the probabilities of germination of the cluster perimeter exceeding the value of 0.2, the process of transition to irreversible failure is significantly accelerated and becomes strongly correlated. Along with this, the best correspondence of correlation functions in model and physical experiments is observed for perimeter germination probability values smaller than 0.2.
																								



22.
ULTIMATE PRESSURE DETERMINATION IN HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OF BOREHOLES FOR DIFFERENT ROCK FAILURE CRITERIA

A. M. Kovrizhnykh, M. V. Kurlenya
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Деформация, напряжение, разрушение горных пород, гидравлический разрыв скважины, Strain, stress, rock failure, hydraulic fracturing of borehole

Abstract >>
The problem on elastoplastic deformation and rock failure around boreholes under the action of internal pressure is considered. The stress state in the intact rock mass is assumed to be hydrostatic. The hydraulic fracturing pressure is conventionally determined by the maximum normal stress criterion. However, the experimental studies described in scientific articles show that this criterion is not consistent with the results obtained in the course of laboratory tests on failure of cylindrical and spherical cavities made in rock samples. It has been known that test results on complex loading for solid samples of various materials are not confirmed by the theory of maximum normal stress both in terms of ultimate load value and direction of failure surface propagation. In this case, for the complex stress state of rocks, it is proposed to determine the ultimate pressure by the experimentally substantiated fracture criteria which are in good agreement with the results of laboratory tests on hydraulic fracturing of boreholes.
																								



23.
FEATURES OF GEOMECHANICAL PROCESSES IN THE OPEN DEVELOPMENT OF GOLD DEPOSITS IN KYRGYZSTAN

K. Ch. Kozhogulov, O. V. Nikol’skaya
Institute of Geomechanics and Development of Subsoil, National Academy of Sciences, Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic
Keywords: Золоторудные месторождения, геомеханические процессы, прибортовой массив, нагорный карьер, устойчивость борта, Gold deposits, geomechanical processes, adjacent rock mass, open pit and mountaintop removal mining, wall stability

Abstract >>
The identified features of the development of geomechanical processes in the massifs with block structure in open-pit mining of gold deposits in Kyrgyzstan are analyzed and their influence on the stability of open pit walls is determined.
																								



24.
EXPERIMENTAL METHODS OF STUDYING THE STRUCTURE, STATE AND PHYSICO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCKS

A. N. Kochanov
Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: Методы, разрушение, горные породы, структура, микротрещины, свойства, эксперимент, Methods, failure, rocks, structure, microcracks, properties, experiment

Abstract >>
The possibilities and results of using the methods of X-ray computer microtomography, ultrasonic measurements, nano-and microindentation, control of submicronic particles formation applicably to studying dynamic rock failure are discussed. The X-ray computer microtomography was used for studying pore and microcrack distribution in the sample volume. The ultrasonic method was applied to control the condition of samples before and after dynamic effect. The method of micro-and nanoindentation helped to determine hardness, Young’s modulus at various scale levels, and failure viscosity. The patterns of submicronic particle formation during the coal samples failure under dynamic effect are investigated. It is shown that investigation results are important for geomechanical support of mining operations, including studying such phenomena as rock bursts, sudden coal and gas outbursts.
																								



25.
STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF A ROCK MASS WITH A CRACK IN THE ROOF

A. A. Krasnovsky
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Напряжения, смещения, задача, граничные условия, массив пород, трещина, система уравнений, решение, Stresses, displacements, problem, boundary conditions, rock mass, crack, equation set, solution

Abstract >>
The influence of a crack formed in the opening roof on stress-strain state of the rock mass is considered. The relationships determining displacement and stress components at the boundary of an opening with rectangular shape, on contact lines of the layers and on the line containing crack are written. The examples of numerical implementation are given. The analysis of the obtained results is carried out.
																								



26.
PHYSICAL MODELING OF ROCKS ON THE BASIS OF ROCK - GAS - MOISTURE COMPOSITES

M. V. Kurlenya, V. I. Rostovtsev, R. A. Kulagin, O. R. Kulagin, B. B. Sivolap
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Физическое моделирование горных пород, гидравлический стенд, композиты “порода - газ - влага”, параметры композитов, температура, плотность, деформация, Physical modeling of rocks, hydraulic test bench, “rock-gas-moisture” composites, composite parameters, temperature, density, deformation

Abstract >>
The issues of obtaining and investigating composites consisting of coal and rock solid particles, gases (methane, hydrogen) and moisture, as well as approaches to mechanisms initiating catastrophic dynamic phenomena in mining are discussed. On the samples of different materials (coal, limestone, graphite, etc.) using the developed test bench, the dependences of physico-mechanical properties of cores on pressure are established. For longflame coal of various size, the features are shown for changing the temperature of briquette mass in increasing pressure up to 200 MPa. The composites imitating natural coal and other rocks are created.
																								



27.
ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL OF GEOTECHNICAL RISKS IN CONSTRUCTION OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE BAM TUNNELS

M. O. Lebedev, K. V. Romanevich
SJC Research, Design and Survey Institute “Lenmetrogiprotrans”, Saint Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: Геотехнические риски, оценка рисков, контроль рисков, геотехнический мониторинг, железнодорожный тоннель, Байкало-Амурская магистраль, Geotechnical risks, risk assessment, risk control, geotechnical monitoring, railway tunnel, Baikal-Amur Mainline

Abstract >>
The paper reviews a new approach to quantitative geotechnical risk assessment. This approach is applicable to a preliminary rough risk assessment based on a simplified quantitative classification of hazards for tunnel projects. We consider its applicability on the example of the railway tunnels on the Baikal-Amur Mainline. Quantitative risk assessment for the BAM tunnels is performed retrospectively - mainly the design and construction stages are taken into account. The expediency of developing similar algorithms for a more detailed assessment and forecasting of current geotechnical risks, as well as for the dynamic control of risk level changes during construction and operation using the integrated geotechnical monitoring system for both transport tunnels and other underground structures has been proved.
																								



28.
IMPROVEMENT OF DOWNHOLE PROBE CONTROL SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURING AT CONSIDERABLE DISTANCES FROM THE WORKING CONTOUR

A. V. Leont’ev, E. V. Rubtsova, Y. M. Lekontsev
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Гидроразрыв, скважинный зонд, напорный трубопровод, гидравлический распределитель, уплотнительный элемент, деформация, герметизация, Hydraulic fracturing, downhole probe, pressure pipeline, hydraulic distributor, sealing element, deformation, sealing

Abstract >>
Actual issues of improving the design of the downhole probe as part of equipment for the practical implementation of the method of measuring hydraulic fracturing in mine conditions were discussed. The variants of the probe operation control schemes are presented using a single press pipeline, designed to simplify the installation of the equipment in the borehole, especially at considerable distances from the working contour. The new design map for controlling the process of probe packing is considered. Its application eliminates unstable deformation of sealing elements, in case of the well diameter increase above the nominal value, ensuring reliable sealing of the test area.
																								



29.
FEATURES OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE COLLAPSE OVER MINED-OUT SPACE OF BLIND ORE BODIES IN SOUTH-EASTERN SITE OF THE TASHTAGOL DEPOSIT

T. V. Lobanova
Siberian State Industrial University, Novokuznetsk, Russia
Keywords: Слепые рудные тела, земная поверхность, охраняемые объекты, параметры сдвижения, провал, массовые взрывы, Blind ore bodies, the Earth’s surface, protected objects, displacement parameters, pit, large-scale blasting

Abstract >>
The problem of exposure stability of blind ore bodies which are mined by the systems with a collapse of ores and enclosing rocks in difficult mining and geological conditions is considered. The results of monitoring the processes of displacement and deformation of the Earth’s surface over the mined-out space of blind ore bodies, where the protected objects are located, are presented. Anomalous parameters of vertical and horizontal displacements, high short-period movements during large-scale blasting were established. Particular attention is paid to the parameters of displacement of the Earth’s surface above the future pit before its formation, which were significantly lower than the criteria values. The factors which influenced the pit formation are analyzed.
																								



30.
AUTOMATING EFFICACIOUS APPROACH TO PROCESS GPS OBSERVATIONS DATA IN GLOBK SOFTWARE SUITE

A. N. Mansurov
Research Station of Russian Academy of Sciences in Bishkek, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
Keywords: GPS, репер, скорости, геодинамика, GAMIT, GLOBK, SUR_GPS_GLOBK_PROCESSING, benchmark, velocities, geodynamics

Abstract >>
This paper discusses using high-precision GPS observations to compute the velocities of points on the surface of mountain massif of any scale and surrounding territories. It describes the existing technology and method for computing velocities and coordinate time series of geodetic benchmarks using GPS observation data. Then, the problems that hinder to obtain most possible precise results of this computation are reviewed in this paper. Finally, it suggests the tools to automate stages of this method that haven’t been previously automated, these tools multiply decrease labor intensity in solving these problems and applying this method in general.
																								



31.
WAVE propagation IN ELASTIC VISCOPLASTIC LAYER WITH a CAVITY ON an elastic BASE

Zh. K. Masanov1, Zh.T. Kozhabekov1, G.K. Tugel’baeva1,2
1Dzoldasbekov Mechanics and Engineering Institute, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan
2Military Institute of Land Forces of the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan
Keywords: Слой, упруго-вязкопластичность, полость, динамическая нагрузка, волна, напряженно-деформируемое состояние, Layer, elastic viscoplasticity, cavity, dynamic pressure, wave, stress-strain state

Abstract >>
This paper is devoted to the study of wave propagation in elastic viscoplastic layer with a cavity, located on an elastic base under the dynamic pressure of day surface. This problem is solved by “discontinuity disintegration” method of S. K. Godunov. Using the S. K. Godunov’s method for research and solution of wave propagation in a layered semi-sphere with cavities located on an elastic base under the dynamic pressure will further develop the solution to the same types of problems in other mechanics subdisciplines.
																								



32.
ABOUT NEW POSSIBILITIES IN STUDYING PERMANENT DEFORMATIONS IN TIEN SHAN LITHOSPHERE

V. E. Matyukov, E. A. Bataleva, K. S. Nepeina
Research Station of Russian Academy of Sciences, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
Keywords: Анизотропия электрического сопротивления, необратимые деформации, магнитотеллурические поля, естественное напряженное состояние, Тянь-Шань, Electrical resistance anisotropy, permanent deformations, magnetotelluric fields, natural stress state, Tien Shan

Abstract >>
An approach has been applied, according to which the electromagnetic field of endogenous origin is included in the impedance relations in an additive way, which allows to separate the electromagnetic field recorded on the day surface in compliance with the position of sources. Practical examples of distinguishing an electromagnetic field of endogenous origin in field recordings of magnetotelluric soundings performed in the Tien Shan region are presented. The characteristics of the distinguished electromagnetic field of endogenous origin are compared with the parameters of lunar-solar tides and anisotropic properties of electrical resistance The detected relationships of these parameters indicate new possibilities for studying permanent deformations in the Tien Shan lithosphere using magnetotelluric data.
																								



33.
DEVELOPMENT OF STATIC AND KINEMATIC APPROACHES IN GEOMECHANICAL PROBLEMS

V. E. Mirenkov
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Массив, горные породы, выработка, задача Коши, корректность, решение, Rock mass, rocks, working, Cauchy problem, correctness, solution

Abstract >>
The hypothesis of a linear stress field of a rock mass undisturbed by driving workings underlies the solution to many problems of rock mechanics. The problem of rock pressure control requires knowledge of the stress-strain state of the rock mass in the vicinity of workings, which causes the development of analytical and numerical methods for calculating the deformation. When the methods of numerical calculation were not sufficiently developed, the analytical capabilities of the selection of stress functions were used, which satisfied the conditions of small strain elasticity theory. The greatest success in this direction was achieved for the areas with angular points. The development of numerical methods shifted the point of influence of investigations to calculating the deformation of specific cases arising in a rock mass with workings. It is established in the work that analytical solutions for the areas with angular points are incorrect, and numerical solutions of Cauchy problems are also incorrect if an additional problem is not considered.
																								



34.
SOLUTION OF THREE BASIC PROBLEMS OF ELASTICITY FOR HALF-PLANE

V. E. Mirenkov
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Уравнение, решение, полуплоскость, граничные условия, некорректность, Equation, solution, half-plane, boundary conditions, ill-posedness

Abstract >>
Solution of elastic problem for half-plane is of the highest concern in almost every field of engineering. However, there are no relations binding the values of all components of the stress-strain state at the half-plane boundary This paper shows that arbitrary formulation of the boundary conditions considerably simplifies integral equations and transfers them to the class of Fredholm’s first kind equations. Considering symmetry, the problem for half-plane with mathematical cut is reduced to the problem on half-plane boundary. Regardless of the method, any solution is reduced to ill-posed problem.
																								



35.
SEISMOACOUSTIC MONITORING OF AN AUTOMATED LONGWALL FACE

M. Reuter1, M. Krach1, U. Kiessling1, Yu. Veksler1, K. N. Kopylov2, V. N. Kosterenko2, O. V. Smirnov2, Z. V. Aksenov2
1Marco Systemanalyse und Entwicklung GmbH, Dachau, Deutschland
2JSC SUEK, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: Лава, акустическая эмиссия, прогностический параметр, Longwall, acoustic emission, predictive parameter

Abstract >>
Experimental results of seismoacoustic monitoring of the rock mass in a longwall are analysed for different cases of rock bumps. Characteristic values and parameters of acoustic emission and convergence of the face are accepted as predictive parameters of the rock mass state.
																								



36.
STUDY OF MECHANICAL COMPRESSION EFFECT ON GAS FILTRATION THROUGH THE CRACK THROUGH THE CRACK FILLED WITH ACRYLATE COMPOSITION

L. A. Rybalkin, T. V. Shilova
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Угольный пласт, гидроразрыв, изоляционный экран, акрилатный состав, проницаемость, Coal seam, hydraulic fracturing, insulation screen, acrylate composition, permeability

Abstract >>
Hydraulic fracturing is a promising method used for increasing the permeability of a coal seam. Formation of an extensive network of drainage cracks contributes to increased gas recovery of coal. In this case, a negative factor is the breakthrough of cracks formed in the mine workings. In order to challenge this problem, it is proposed to screen mine workings with an additional crack filled with acrylate polymer containing solid inclusions, which prevents the closure of crack edges under the impact of rock pressure. The paper presents the results of experimental studies of acrylate screen gas permeability dependence on rock pressure.
																								



37.
DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL PLANT FOR INVESTIGATION OF COAL ADSORPTIVE CAPACITY USING METHANE

L. A. Rybalkin, T. V. Shilova
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Уголь, метан, адсорбция, проницаемость, лабораторные исследования, установка, Coal, methane, adsorption, permeability, laboratory tests, plant

Abstract >>
A thermostatic plant for studying the adsorptive capacity and permeability of coal core was developed. The plant design allows to saturate coal with methane and to filter gas at various values of axial and lateral compression of the sample. The use of an automated system for recording differential pressure and gas volumes in the inlet and outlet tanks eliminates the need for manual control, which is especially important during long-term testing of low-permeable coals.
																								



38.
MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF THE ROCK MASS IN THE VICINITY OF SUPPORTED CIRCULAR OPENING NEAR THE INTERFACE OF ROCKS WITH DIFFERENT DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS

A. S. Sammal, S. V. Antsiferov, N. S. Pavlova
Tula State University, Tula, Russia
Keywords: Горный массив, математическая модель, компьютерное моделирование, напряженное состояние, выработка, крепь, расчет, собственный вес пород, Rock mass, mathematical model, computer modeling, stress state, opening, support, calculation, rocks own weight

Abstract >>
A new analytical method for estimating the stress state of a rock mass composed of two types of rocks with a straight-line boundary near a supported circular opening is proposed. The method is based on a strict solution of the plane problem of elasticity theory for an infinite weighty medium composed of two different materials and weakened near the rock interface by supported circular opening. The obtained solution is based on the theory of analytical functions of complex variables, properties of Cauchy-type integrals and complex series. An example of stress distribution in the rock mass near the opening is considered. A comparative analysis of the calculation results obtained in accordance with the proposed method and the data of FEM computer simulation are discussed.
																								



39.
ANALYSIS OF COAL SEAM DEGASING EFFICIENCY USING BOREHOLES AND HYDRAULIC FRACTURING

S. V. Serdyukov, M. V. Kurlenya
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Угольный пласт, подземная разработка, предварительная дегазация, гидроразрыв, газовый дренаж, фильтрационное сопротивление, Coal seam, underground mining, preliminary degassing, hydraulic fracturing, gas drainage, filtration resistance

Abstract >>
The effect produced by hydraulic fracturing on the filtration resistance of coal seam zone subject to drainage by parallel boreholes is considered. The resistances to the gas inflow depending on the orientation of fractures, thickness of seam, and distance between the boreholes are analyzed. The efficiency of single and multistage hydraulic fracturing in forming multiple transverse and main longitudinal cracks is compared.
																								



40.
NEW METHODS FOR SIGNAL DIGITAL PROCESSING TO DETERMINE THE PARAMETERS OF SEISMIC WAVE PROPAGATION MODELS

A. S. Serdyukov1,2, A. V. Yablokov1,2, G. S. Chernyshov1,2
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Рудная сейсморазведка, обработка сигналов, преобразование Фурье, вейвлеты, S-преобразование, Ore mining seismic survey, signal processing, Fourier transform, wavelets, S-transform

Abstract >>
The methods based on the use of time-frequency representations are proposed. The usefull signal is reconstructed from the amplitude peaks of time-frequency spectrograms obtained by S-transform. As a result of numerical experiments, it is shown that using narrow time-frequency intervals (about 10 - 20 time reports), it is possible to determine the parameters of a pulsed-type signal with substantially longer duration
																								




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