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Journal of Mining Sciences

2019 year, number 5

1.
INFLUENCE OF BACHATSKY EARTHQUAKE ON METHANE EMISSION IN ROADWAYS IN COAL MINES

M. V. Kurlenya, M. N. Tsupov, A. V. Savchenko
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: Землетрясение, сейсмическая энергия, метан, угольный пласт, горные выработки, Earthquake, seismic energy, methane, coal seam, roadways

Abstract >>
The geological information on coal reserves within fields of the Chertinskaya-Yuzhnaya and Chertinskaya-Koksovaya mines situated in the vicinity of an earthquake focus is given. Methane emission in roadways of the mines is determined, and the model diagram of methane concentrations before and after the earthquake is obtained. The earthquake load on coal seams is estimated.
																								



2.
MICROSTRUCTURE OF COAL BEFORE AND AFTER GAS-DYNAMIC PHENOMENA

E. V. Ul’yanova1, O. N. Malinnikova1, B. N. Pashichev1, E. V. Malinnikova2
1Academician Melnikov Research Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 111020 Russia
2Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography, Moscow, 107064 Russia
Keywords: Ископаемый уголь, газодинамические явления, выбросоопасные и невыбросоопасные зоны, цифровые изображения поверхности углей, статистические энтропия и сложность, Coal, gas-dynamic phenomena, outburst-hazardous and outburst-nonhazardous zones, digital images of coal surface, statistical entropy and complexity

Abstract >>
The applicability of calculated information entropy to quantification of coal structure nonuniformity at a microlevel is demonstrated. The calculations used digital images of coal surface from scanning electron microscopy after thousandfold increase. The calculated statistical entropy-complexity values enable comparing structural nonuniformity of coal sampled from outbursts, as well as from outburst-hazardous and outburst-nonhazardous zones. It is found that coal from outburst-hazardous zones contain areas of highly chaotic structure as against the ordered structure of coal from outburst-nonhazardous zones. Outburst coal is free from chaotic structures though its structure is less ordered than in coal from outburst-nonhazardous zones. The proposed method allows detecting the certainly outburst-nonhazardous zones in coal seams using digital images of coal samples.
																								



3.
STRESS-PERMEABILITY DEPENDENCE IN GEOMATERIALS FROM LABORATORY TESTING OF CYLINDRICAL SPECIMENS WITH CENTRAL HOLE

L. A. Nazarova1, L. A. Nazarov1, N. A. Golikov2,3, A. A. Skulkin1
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Trofimuk Institute of Oil&Gas Geology and Geophysics, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
3Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk, 630073 Russia
Keywords: Пороупругая среда, фильтрация, лабораторный эксперимент, криогель, дисковый образец, проницаемость, эффективное напряжение, Poroelastic medium, flow, laboratory test, cryogel, disc specimen, permeability, effective stress

Abstract >>
The laboratory setup is designed and manufactured to carry out permeability tests of cylindrical specimens with central hole modeling performance conditions of real producing wells under nonuniform stresses. The series of tests is accomplished with artificial specimens made of medium-grain sand conditioned by cryogel. The empirical dependence of permeability on effective stress is found; it is approximated by an exponential function with coefficient α = 0.0021 MPa-1, which is an order of magnitude higher than α estimated based on compressibility of geomaterials and rocks.
																								



4.
LAB-SCALE MODELING OF PORE FLUID FLOW IN SAMPLES OF MANMADE SUBSTANCE FROM TAILINGS PONDS

D. O. Kucher, T. V. Korneeva, S. B. Bortnikova
Trofimuk Institute of Oil&Gas Geology and Geophysics, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: Техногенное вещество, проницаемость, пористость, метод электротомографии, капиллярная пропитка, скорость фильтрации, Manmade substance, permeability, porosity, electrotomography method, capillary penetration, permeation velocity

Abstract >>
The flow of pore fluid is modeled on a lab scale with samples of man-made substance from tailings ponds. The data obtained in the gravimetric and apparent resistance tests are presented. It is found that capillary forces make the main contribution to flow of solutions from a pollution source. This allowed estimation of nature and velocity of the process. The experimental results show high-rate vertical and lateral spreading of solid waste substance from sources of drainage solutions, which has detrimental effect on ecology of the nearby lands and water bodies.
																								



5.
INFLUENCE OF STRESS VARIATION IN ROOF ROCKS OF COAL SEAM ON STRATA GAS CONDITIONS IN LONGWALL ADVANCING

V. A. Trofimov, Yu. A. Filippov
Academician Melnikov Research Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: Угольный пласт, напряженно-деформированное состояние, фильтрация, проницаемость, разгрузка, пригрузка, метод комплексных потенциалов, Coal seam, stress-strain behavior, permeation, permeability, relaxation, additional load, complex-potential method

Abstract >>
Mining of a horizontal isolated seam in a uniform medium in plane strain conditions is considered. The stress distribution in roof rocks of the coal seam is obtained at different stages of mined-out area development. The stresses are governed by the complex-variable function, which allows determining location and configuration of zones of stress relaxation and additional load in rock mass. This information is required for estimation of induced jointing and formation of gas pockets in the coal seam parting. The use of the analytical solution makes it possible to obtain relations for finding stress concentration factors and to present the related parameters as contour lines.
																								



6.
EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF COAL SEAM DIP ON STRESS DISTRIBUTION AND DISPLACEMENT AROUND THE MECHANIZED LONGWALL PANEL

M. Damghani1, R. Rahmannejad1, M. Najafi2
1ShahidBahonarUniversity of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
2Yazd University, Safayieh, Yazd, Iran
Keywords: Численное моделирование, разработка длинными забоями, распределение опорного давления, пакет компьютерных программ FLAC 3D, Numerical modeling, longwall mining, stress distribution, FLAC3D software

Abstract >>
The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the effect of coal seam dip on the front abutment and side abutment stresses distribution around the longwall panels by FLAC3D software. For this purpose numerical modeling of five longwall panels in coal seam with dip angle of 0, 12, 22, 32 and 42 degree have been done. The results of numerical modeling have been shown that in all models, peak value of front abutment stress was found to act at a distance about 1-3 m in front of the panel face and the difference between this stresses in front of the working face is about 9.7 MPa. In this distance, the peak vertical stress is in the order of approximately 4-5 times the in-situ stress and then gradually decreases toward the initial field stress. Moreover numerical modeling results have been shown that increasing coal seam dip has no significant effect on the peak value of side abutment stress at the edge of pillar, but the side abutment stress concentration is nearer to the edge of pillar. At coal seam dip of zero and 12 degrees, maximum vertical stress occurs at a distance of 5.4 m from the pillar edge, whereas at the coal seam dip of 42 degrees, this stress occurs within 3 m of the pillar edge. However, increasing the dip of coal seam caused to increase entry roof displacement. The results are in good agreement with field observation.
																								



7.
PROBABILISTIC-BASED STOPE DESIGN METHODOLOGY FOR COMPLEX ORE BODY WITH ROCK MASS PROPERTY VARIABILITY

M. A. Idris, E. Nordlund
LuleГҐ University of Technology, LuleГҐ, SE-971 87 Sweden
Keywords: Сложное рудное тело, вероятностный метод, изменчивость породного массива, геометрия выработки, метод точечной оценки, Complex orebody, probabilistic approach, rock mass variability, stope geometry, point estimate method

Abstract >>
This paper presents a probabilistic approach for optimizing stope design methodology while taking into consideration the variability in the rock mass properties. For this study, a complex orebody in a Canadian mine is used. Because of the variability in the rock mass properties of the orebody, it was not possible to determine precisely, the values of geotechnical design input parameters and hence the need to utilize a probabilistic approach. Point Estimate Method (PEM), a probabilistic tool, was incorporated into numerical analysis using FLAC3D to study the deformation magnitudes of various stope geometries to determine the optimal stope geometry with a minimum ground control problem. Results obtained for the distribution of the wall deformations and the floor heaves for each option of the stope geometry were compared to select the best geometry to achieve the optimum stability condition. The methodology presented in this study can be helpful in the process of underground mine planning and optimization in complex orebody.
																								



8.
METHOD TO MODEL MICROSEISMIC EVENTS DURING HYDROFRACTURE PROPAGATION

N. G. Shvarev, N. S. Markov
Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Saint-Petersburg, 195251 Russia
Keywords: Сейсмика, микросейсмическая активность, микросейсмические явления, гидравлический разрыв пласта, ESC-модель, Seismic, microseismic activity, microseismic events, hydraulic fracturing, ESC-model

Abstract >>
The physical-and-mathematical model is presented for generation of microseismic events during hydrofracture propagation. Defects (discontinuities) are described using the ESC-model. The formulas are given for the jumps of discontinuities, characteristics of seismic and aseismic events, as well as the seismic moment and seismic magnitude. The algorithm is developed to model microseismic events during hydrofracture propagation by the known geometry and physical properties of the medium as the input data. The calculations are performed for the pseudo-3D and planar models of hydrofracture propagation. It is shown that a majority of events take place at the front of the growing hydrofracture, which agrees with the observations.
																								



9.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FAILURE CRITERIA IN BUILDING MATERIALS AND ROCKS

V. D. Kurguzov
Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: Прочность, разрушение, скважина, обсадная колонна, цементная оболочка, критерии разрушения, Strength, failure, hole, casing, cement lining, failure criteria

Abstract >>
The criteria of failure and limiting state, widely used in strength assessment of rocks and building materials, are considered. The two-dimensional computer model is presented for deformation of cement lining in a cemented cased hole in rock mass under the action of internal pressure from the casing and external pressure from rock mass. The model has a number of science-based and experimentally proved strength criteria for determination of failure behavior and potential damaged zones in cement lining. A series of stress-strain analyses of cement lining is performed with varied geometrical parameters and stresses. The criticality of local and nonlocal failure criteria is analyzed. By comparing equivalent stresses, six failure criteria are selected and recommended for estimation and prediction of load resistance of cement liming.
																								



10.
STUDY ON OVERLYING STRATA MOTION RULE OF SHORTWALL MINING FACE OF SHALLOW SEAM WITH SIMULATION EXPERIMENT

Ding Lujun1, Liu Yuhong2
1Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 China
2SiChuan College of Architectural Technology, De Yang, 618000 China
Keywords: Неглубокое залегание, дневная поверхность, пласт, порода, кровля, физическое 3D-моделирование, смещения, напряжения, Shallow seam, 3D similar physical simulation, overburden strata movement, surface displacement

Abstract >>
Taking Shendong mining area as an research object, the roof strata moving law in the shallow buried deep thin bedrock was studied with 3D simulation experiment. The results showed that the surface displacement and roof pressure decrease little, and the roof does not appear the phenomenon of full thickness cutting. As the advancing distance of the working face increases, the displacement of the surface and roof increases. The old roof breaking is not easy to form a hinge structure, the roof when the pressure of mine pressure appearance is very intense.
																								



11.
SELECTING CYCLICAL-AND-CONTINUOUS PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS FOR DEEP OPEN PIT MINES

V. L. Yakovlev1, V. A. Bersenev1, A. V. Glebov1, S. S. Kulniyaz2, M. A. Marinin3
1Institute of Mining, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg, 620219 Russia
2Zhubanov Aktobe Regional State University, Aktobe, 030000 Republic of Kazakhstan
3Saint-Petersburg Mining University, Saint-Petersburg, 199106 Russia
Keywords: Циклично-поточная технология, глубокие карьеры, мобильные дробильно-перегрузочные установки, крутонаклонный конвейерный подъем, концентрационный горизонт, горно-подготовительные работы, Cyclical-and-continuous method, deep open pit mines, mobile crushing-and-rehandling unit, high-angle conveyor, accumulation level, primary mining operations

Abstract >>
The application data on different process flow diagrams of the cyclical-and-continuous method using high-angle conveyors are presented. The influence of the conveyor angle and elevation height on performance of crushing-and-conveying systems is determined. The feasibility study of the cyclical-and-continuous method with mobile crushing-and-rehandling units and high-angle conveyors in the Kostamuksha open pit mine is carried out. The relative capital and operating costs are evaluated for different conveying angles in an open pit mine 100 and 600 m deep. Different schemes of cutting accumulation levels to replace the mobile crushing-and-rehandling units in open pit mines are compared, and the performance of the cyclical-and-continuous technology with high-angle conveying system in the Muruntau open pit mine, Navoi Mining and Metallurgical Plant, Uzbekistan is described.
																								



12.
PRODUCTION SCHEDULING WITH HORIZONTAL MIXING SIMULATION IN BLOCK CAVE MINING

F. Khodayari, Y. Pourrahimian, W. V. Liu
School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, University of Alberta, T6G1H9, Edmonton, Canada
Keywords: Блоковое обрушение, производственное планирование, оптимизация, горизонтальное смешивание, математическое моделирование, Block caving, production scheduling, optimization, horizontal mixing, mathematical modeling

Abstract >>
High production rates and low operating costs highlight block caving as one of the favorable underground mining methods. However, the uncertainties involved in the material flow make it complicated to optimize the production schedule for such operations. In this paper, a stochastic mixed integer linear optimization model is proposedin order to capture horizontal mixing that occurs among the draw columns within the production scheduling optimization. The goal is to not only consider the material above each drawpoint for extraction from the same drawpoint, as traditional production scheduling does, but also to capture the horizontal movements among the adjacent draw columns. In this approach, different scenarios are generated to simulate the horizontal mixing among adjacent slices within a neighborhood radius. The best height of draw for draw columns is also calculated as part of the optimization. The model is tested for a block-cave mine with 640 drawpoints to feed a processing plant for 15 years. The resulting NPV is 473M$ while the deviations from the targets in all scenarios during the life of the mine are minimized. Using the proposed model will result in more reliable mine plans as it takes the horizontal mixing into account in addition to achieving the production goals. Using different penalties for grade deviations shows that the model is a flexible tool in which the mine planners can achieve their goals based on their priorities.
																								



13.
MECHANICAL ACTIVATION BY MILLING IN TIN-CONTAINING MINING WASTE TREATMENT

T. S. Yusupov1, L. G. Shumskaya1, S. A. Kondrat’ev2, E. A. Kirillova1, F. Kh. Urakaev1
1Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: Техногенное сырье, олово, концентраты, центробежно-планетарная мельница, обогащение, Mining waste, tin, concentrate, planetary ball mill, concentration

Abstract >>
The capacities of mechanical activation by planetary ball milling in terms of dissociation of mineral concretions and tin recovery from mining waste are demonstrated. The modes of the short-term activation treatment in the ball mill for higher quality production are determined. The variants of improvement in tin content of concentrates by including milling in hydrochemical concentration circuit are substantiated.
																								



14.
MICROPHASE HETEROGENIZATION OF HIGH-IRON BAUXITE AS A RESULT OF THERMAL RADIATION

I. N. Razmyslov1, O. B. Kotova1, V. I. Silaev1, V. I. Rostovtsev2, D. V. Kiseleva3, S. A. Kondrat’ev2
1Yushkin Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Komi Science Center, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar, 167982 Russia
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
3Zavaritsky Institute of Geology and Geochemistry, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg, 620016 Russia
Keywords: Средний Тиман, железистые бокситы, радиационно-термические преобразования, фазовая гетерогенизация, совершенствование способов переработки минерального сырья, Middle Timan, high-iron bauxite, thermal radiation-induced modification, phase heterogenization, mineral processing improvement

Abstract >>
The results of modification of the Middle-Timan high-iron bauxite by thermal radiation, including the earlier unknown phenomenon of phase heterogenization-formation of intrinsic minerals by originally endocryptically disseminated noble, nonferrous, rare and rare-earth micro-elements-are presented. It is possible to utilize this phenomenon for the purpose of commercial application of low-grade bauxite, red mud and other difficult ore.
																								



15.
RADIOMETRIC SEPARATION IN GRINDING CIRCUIT OF COPPER-NICKEL ORE PROCESSING

E. A. Burdakova1,2, V. I. Bragin1,2, N. F. Usmanova1,2, A. O. Vashlaev1,2, L. S. Lesnikova3, L. E. D’yachenko1, A. I. Fertikov4
1Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
2Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Science, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia
3Polar Division, NorNickel, Norilsk, Russia
4NorNickel R&D Center, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
Keywords: Вкрапленные медно-никелевые руды, самоизмельчение, рудная галя, рентгенорадиометрическая сортировка, контрастность руды, флотация, Disseminated copper-nickel ore, autogenous milling, lumpy ore, X-ray radiometric sorting, contrast range, flotation

Abstract >>
Lumpy ore after autogenous milling in copper-nickel ore processing at the Talnakh factory is studied. The lumpy ore is mainly presented by sizes - 80 + 40 and - 40 + 20 mm. The X-ray radiometric separation tests of the lumpy ore prove their efficiency in production of concentrate and tailings. The strength characteristics and the Bond work index of the concentrate are determined. The results of flotation of the X-ray radiometric concentrate are described.
																								



16.
REBELLIOUS TIN ORE PROCESSING WITH NEW AGENTS FOR NONFERROUS AND NOBLE METAL RECOVERY

T. N. Matveeva, V. V. Getman, M. V. Ryazantseva, A. Yu. Karkeshkina, L. B. Lantsova
Academician Melnikov Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: Оловянные руды, касситерит, серебро, флотация, собиратели, флотация, гравитация, Tin ore, cassiterite, silver, flotation, collecting agents, flotation, gravity

Abstract >>
The occurrence form of sodium dibutyl dithiocarbamate on chalcopyrite is defined by IR spectroscopy. A stable compound of lead dibutyl dithiocarbamate forms on galenite. Fat acids of tall oil are adsorbed at the surface of cassiterite as chemically adsorbed oleate and physically adsorbed calcium dioleate. Sodium oleate adsorption at quartz surface is unfound in the mineral spectra after contact with fat acids, which proves selectivity of this agent relative to cassiterite. Applicability of 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine agent to flotation of silver-bearing minerals is studied. The output of ultrasonic treatment aimed to remove slime material which deteriorates gravity separation of tin tailings at Solnechny Mining and Processing Plant is described.
																								



17.
PROMISING DISSOCIATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PREPARATION OF MINERALS TO FLOTATION

S. V. Mamonov1,2, V. N. Zakirnichny1, A. A. Metelev3, T. P. Dresvyankina1, S. V. Volkova1, V. A. Kuznetsov3, S. V. Ziyatdinov1
1Uralmekhanobr, Yekaterinburg, 620063 Russia
2UMMC Technical University, Verkhnyaya Pyshma, 624091 Russia
3Svyatogor, Krasnouralsk, 624330 Russia
Keywords: Технология, бисерная мельница, ультратонкое измельчение, мельница Vertimill, флотация, тонкое вибрационное гидравлическое грохочение, раскрытие минералов, извлечение, шлам, Technology, bead mill, ultra-fine milling, Vertimill, flotation, fine hydraulic vibratory screening, mineral dissociation, extraction, slime

Abstract >>
Milling of minerals and middlings is studied in ultra-thin bead mills, Vertimill fine milling machines and in hydropercussion-and-cavitation machines (rotary-pulsating type). Fine and ultra-fine milling provides the wanted rate of dissociation of sulphide minerals and host rocks as compared with ball milling, while hydropercussion-and-cavitation milling improves selectivity of dissociation at equal grain size composition of products from the rotary-pulsating machines and ball mills. Possible improvement of ore quality by fine hydraulic vibratory screening before deep concentration is examined. It is shown that as against hydrocyclones in pre-treatment circuits, fine hydraulic vibratory screens reduce circulation of fines with oversize flow, decrease overgrinding and increase mass fraction of optimal sizes for subsequent flotation.
																								



18.
INFLUENCES OF GRINDING ON THE CLASSIFICATION AND ENRICHMENT OF VANADIUM IN STONE COAL

Ren Liuyi1,2, Zeng Weineng1, Rong Xiaojie1, Wang Qi1, Zeng Shanglin3
1Scool of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
2University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
3Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Hunan 410012, China
Keywords: Ванадий, каменный уголь, измельчение, разделение на классы, класс крупности, Vanadium, stone coal, grinding, classification, size fraction

Abstract >>
Grinding, as an important preparation step for beneficiation is very necessary to study for the finely disseminated extent, vanadium-bearing stone coal with complex chemical composition. In this paper, grinding medium, time, degree and monomer dissociation degree were investigated in detail. The results show that the efficiency of rod milling is better than that of ball milling, especially the proportion of -0.038 mm size fraction obtained by rod milling is 10.89% higher than ball milling. The grinding degree of 8 min rod mill is -74 μm 73.19%, then the proportion of monomer is 70.68%. MLA measurement shows that roscoelite can not be dissociated by fine grinding. Vanadium concentrate with 0.97% of the grade and 89.88% of recovery was obtained by classification and shaking table technology. Tailing rate is 18.82%. The enrichment of vanadium can be realized by reasonable grinding and classification.
																								



19.
SELECTION OF FROZEN BACKFILL MIXTURE COMPOSITION

M. V. Kaimonov, Yu. A. Khokholov
Chersky Institute of Mining of the North, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yakutsk, 677980 Russia
Keywords: Рудник, льдопородная закладка, криолитозона, многолетнемерзлые породы, температура пород, смерзание, математическое моделирование, Mine, frozen backfill, permafrost zone, permafrost, rock temperatures, adfreezing, mathematical modeling

Abstract >>
Artificial frozen backfill for coal and ore mines in permafrost zone is discussed. Optimal frozen mixtures with the required strength characteristics are determined. It is shown that load-bearing capacity of backfill depends on grain size composition and volumetric content of ice. The mathematical model of layer-by-layer backfilling is developed, and the freezing time is found. Varying mixture composition and freezing parameters allows arriving at the required strength of frozen backfill at minimal filling time.