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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2019 year, number 11

1.
Variability of the aerosol microstructure under the forest fire smoke effect retrieved from spectral characteristics of light extinction in the near-surface air layer and the atmospheric column

V.V. Veretennikov, S.S. Men'shchikova, V.N. Uzhegov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: ослабление света, микроструктура аэрозоля, дымы, обратные задачи, регрессия, extinction of light, aerosol microstructure, smoke, inverse problem, regression

Abstract >>
The features of the aerosol microstructure are investigated in the near-surface layer and vertical column of the atmosphere when smoke enters the atmosphere. The aerosol microstructure parameters were determined by solving the inverse problem for spectral measurements of the aerosol extinction coefficient using the base method, and of the aerosol optical thickness, using the solar photometry method in the clean atmosphere and under conditions of the smoke-polluted atmosphere near Tomsk. The geometric cross section, volume concentration, and mean radius of aerosol particles of submicron and coarse fractions were calculated. For background conditions, the coarse fraction prevails in the total volume of the aerosol. The submicron fraction becomes dominant under the condition of the smoke-polluted atmosphere. As a result, the particle radius averaged over the total ensemble decreases in the smoke-polluted atmosphere. The regression relations between the microstructure parameters of different aerosol fractions and the spectral characteristics of the light extinction significantly change in the smoke-polluted atmosphere.
																								



2.
Features of temporal variability of aerosol optical depth in the Middle Urals according to long-term observations at the urban and background sites

A.P. Luzhetskaya, V.A. Poddubny
Institute of Industrial Ecology Ural branch of RAS, Ekaterinburg, Russia
Keywords: аэрозольная оптическая толща, мониторинг атмосферы, влияние города, фоновый район, aerosol optical depth, monitoring of the atmosphere, city effect, background area

Abstract >>
The generalized statistical characteristics of the results of long-term two-point measurements of atmospheric aerosol parameters carried out in the Middle Urals are presented. The characteristics of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the features of the temporal variability of aerosol atmospheric turbidity in Yekaterinburg and the rural background area are compared. The differences in the mean values, interannual, annual, and diurnal variability of AOD, and of coarse and fine AOD modes are found.
																								



3.
Remote analysis of methane content in the atmosphere by an IR DIAL lidar system in the 3300-3430-nm spectral range

O.A. Romanovskii, S.A. Sadovnikov, O.V. Kharchenko, S.V. Yakovlev
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: лидар, инфракрасный диапазон, параметрическая генерация света, дифференциальное поглощение, метан, lidar, infrared region, optical parametric oscillator, differential absorption, methane

Abstract >>
A differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system based on optical parametric oscillators (OPO) with nonlinear KTA and KTP crystals is designed. The crystals allow laser radiation tuning in the IR wavelength region. A series of experiments on remote monitoring of methane along a horizontal surface sounding path in the 3300-3430-nm spectral range was carried out. Based on the experimental results, the CH4 concentrations along the 800 m surface path are retrieved in the spectral range under study with a spatial resolution of 100 m.
																								



4.
Calculation of mid-latitude temperature by linear transformation of astronomical insolation

V.A. Tartakovsky, N.N. Cheredko, V.G. Maksimov
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: астрономическая инсоляция, приземная температура, средняя широтная температура, astronomical insolation, surface temperature, mid-latitude temperature

Abstract >>
The series of long-term average temperatures obtained at 927 weather stations of the Northern hemisphere from 1955-2014 are compared with the known data on astronomical insolation for the same intervals and localizations. It is shown that the average annual astronomical insolation as a function of latitude subjected to linear transformation should be considered as the average value of long-term average temperatures at weather stations of the corresponding latitudes for the period under consideration, i.e., like mid-latitude temperature. The justification of this result is carried out by regression of the compared data and by grouping the weather stations. The estimates of the increase in the mid-latitude temperature in the period 1985-2014 are compared with those in 1955-1984. The contributions to the temperature variability of the components, determined by astronomical insolation and by stochastic processes in the geosphere, do not contradict well-known estimates, which verifies the introduced linear transformation of astronomical insolation.
																								



5.
Variability in resources of solar and wind energy in the Russian sector of Arctic

K.N. Pustovalov1,2, E.V. Kharyutkina1, V.A. Korolkov1, P.M. Nagorskiy1,2
1Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: Арктика, возобновляемые источники энергии, солнечная радиация, скорость ветра, Arctic, renewable energy sources, solar radiation, wind speed

Abstract >>
Based on observational data of meteorological stations and reanalysis data, seasonal-daily values of total radiation and wind speed in the Russian sector of the Arctic were estimated over the time interval 1987-2016. Possible climate change effect was also considered. It was revealed that the total solar energy flux reached the peak values in June (7-8 kW h/m2); moreover, its increase was noted in summer months, when moving from west to east. The median values of wind speed in the region were 4-6 m/s and they were not significantly changed during a year. Minimal values of wind speed increased from winter to summer, and the maximal ones decreased. When moving from west to east, as well as from north to south a decrease in median and extreme wind speed values was observed. It was established that the frequency of wind speed less than 1.5 m/s, on average in the region, was 9%, and it varied from 4 to 20%, and the duration of windless periods did not exceed 3 hours (p = 95%). The probability of appearance of intervals with wind speed less than 1.5 m/s decreased with an increase in the length of these time intervals according to the exponential distribution law. Thus, a joint usage of solar and wind energy potential in the northern regions of Russia gives rise to all prerequisites in accelerated development of renewable energy sources in the Russian Arctic.
																								



6.
Estimation of atmospheric pollution from gas flaring according to data of remote observations of flare thermal radiation

M.N. Alekseeva1, V.F. Raputa2, T.V. Yaroslavtseva3, I.G. Yashchenko1
1Institute of Petroleum Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Tomsk, Russia
2Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
3Novosibirsk Scientific Research Institute of Hygiene of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: тепловые космические снимки, нефтяные месторождения, сжигание попутного нефтяного газа, загрязнение атмосферы, модель оценивания, thermal satellite imagery, oil fields, associated gas flaring, air pollution, model of estimation

Abstract >>
The use of Landsat 8 satellite images made in winter allow one to detect the existing installations for associated petroleum gas flaring in the west of the Tomsk region. The zones of their thermal impact on the landscape of oil fields are determined. A model for estimating regional pollution of territories from a set of sources is suggested. The fields of relative pollution of oil producing areas in winter and summer periods are numerically reconstructed according to the data on flare thermal radiation and the estimation model.
																								



7.
Evaluation of the vegetation dynamics of oil and gas deposits in Tomsk region with the use of satellite data

T.O. Peremitina, I.G. Yashchenko
Institute of Petroleum Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: спутниковые данные, вегетационный индекс, геоинформационные системы, окружающая среда, нефтегазоносная провинция, satellite data, vegetation index, geoinformation systems, environment, oil province

Abstract >>
The use of satellite data for quantitative assessment of the status of remote areas of oil and gas fields of the Tomsk region is considered. Time series of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), which is a modified Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) with reduced sensitivity to the influence of atmospheric conditions, were calculated using. MODIS data with a spatial resolution of 250 m for the period from 2007 to 2017. The average values of EVI were calculated for the territories of five hydrocarbon fields of the Tomsk region: Archinskoye, Shinginskoye, Zapadno-Ostaninskoe, Yuzhno-Tabaganskoye, and Kazanskoy.
																								



8.
Investigation of the method for correction of gas content in air by the outgoing radiation of the atmosphere

S.A. Shishigin
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: атмосфера, метан, температура, однородный слой, ИК-излучение, спектр, метод, atmosphere, methane, temperature, homogeneous layer, IR radiation, spectrum, method

Abstract >>
A model of the atmosphere is considered as a sequence of homogeneous layers 100 m thick from the Earth’s surface to a height of 5 km. Layer parameters are defined for a standard atmosphere. Contribution to the outgoing radiation of the atmosphere in the spectral regions of the methane absorption band of the P- (1240.901-1240.949 cm-1) and R-branches (1327,12-1327,17 cm-1) is equal to the contributions to the outgoing radiation of the Earth by all non-uniform layers. A possible method for adjusting the temperature of the atmospheric layer and the underlying surface according to the convergence of the results of simultaneous calculations of the content of the test gas in atmospheric layers using outgoing radiation in the P- and R-branches of the absorption band of this gas is shown.
																								



9.
Study on variations in water vapor and cloud liquid using microwave radiometry

D.M. Karavaev, G.G. Shchukin
Alexander Mozhaysky Military Space Academy, St Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: влагозапас атмосферы, водозапас облаков, структурная функция, микроволновый радиометр, water vapor, cloud liquid, microwave radiometer, temporal structure functions

Abstract >>
In article the possibilities of modern microwave radiometers to the study of variations of characteristics of atmospheric moisture are discusses. Based on analysis of ground-based, ship and satellite microwave radiometers investigated variations of atmospheric water vapor and cloud liquid in a wide range of time scales in different regions over the ocean and over land, to describe the approximation obtained temporary structural function of water vapor.
																								



10.
Experiments on lightning data assimilation gathered from lightning detection network

K.G. Rubinstein1,2, I.M. Gubenko2, R.Yu. Ignatov2, N.D. Tikhonenko3, Yu.I. Yusupov3
1Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, Moscow, Russia
2Nuclear Safety Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, Moscow, Russia
3Npts В«Map Maker», Moscow, Russia
Keywords: грозы, конвективные осадки, усвоение данных, WRF-ARW, сети грозопеленгации, thunderstorms, convective precipitation, data assimilation, WRF-ARW, lightning detection networks

Abstract >>
The work is devoted to the analysis of our first results about the impact of lightning data assimilation on the numerical weather forecast. We present a brief overview of the methods for lightning data assimilation in weather prediction models, a description of the algorithm used, and the results of numerical experiments on convective storms over Krasnodar region, Russia, observed in 2017. It is found that the average absolute errors are reduced. It is shown that the configuration of prognostic precipitation fields and their intensity is much closer to the observations. This is especially clearly seen for light precipitation (0-7 mm).
																								



11.
Eddy covariance measurement of CO2, CH4, and H2O fluxes: Use of a mobile tower and taking into account the changing fetch

L.A. Krivenok1,2, G.G. Suvorov1, V.K. Avilov3, A.A. Sirin1
1Institute of Forest Science, Russian Academy of Sciences (ILAN), Moscow region, Russia
2 A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
3 A.В N.В Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Moscow, Russia, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: метод турбулентных пульсаций, торфяник, удельные потоки, метан, диоксид углерода, водяной пар, зона охвата, дальность зоны охвата, фильтрация данных, eddy covariance method, peatland, fluxes, methane, carbon dioxide, water vapor, footprint, fetch, data filtering

Abstract >>
A possibility of short-term (from 1–2 days) eddy covariance measurements with the use of mobile complex of equipment is shown as well as with fetch and wind direction as filtering parameters for flux separation from concrete site (the case of secondary waterlogged peatland in Moscow region). Obtained СО2, СH4, and H2O fluxes allow to deduce diurnal dynamics in different meteorological conditions and from different contiguous areas with one changes in the wind direction. Application of the multiple-stage filtering leads to separate representative amount of 30-minutes average values, which afterwards could be used for analyzing of the dependences between fluxes and ecological parameters, modeling, making estimates for longer periods, comparing with data obtained by chamber method and are complement for the inventory of greenhouse gas sources and sinks.