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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2019 year, number 10

1.
The dimer absorption within the water vapor bands in the IR region

Yu.V. Bogdanova, T.E. Klimeshina, O.B. Rodimova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: водяной пар, континуальное поглощение, димеры воды, континуум Берча, измерения FTIR, СRDS, water vapor, continuum absorption, water vapor dimers, the Burch continuum, the FTIR and CRDS measurements

Abstract >>
Contributions of the water dimer absorption to the continuum absorption within the IR water vapor spectrum are examined. They are deduced as the difference between experimental data and the asymptotic line wing theory (ALWT) calculation data. In the ALWT calculations, the line contours are used with parameters fitted to the Burch experimental data and to the FTIR measurements in the IR water vapor windows. Calculation with the line contour describing the Burch data in the 2000-3000 m-1 region gives a good agreement with the CRDS data between other water vapor bands. Within the water vapor bands both contour types provide close absorption values presumably due to stable dimers.
																								



2.
Lidar estimates of the degree of anisotropy of wind turbulence in the stable atmospheric boundary layer

I.N. Smalikho1, V.A. Banakh1, A.V. Falits1, A.M. Sherstobitov1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: когерентный доплеровский лидар, ветровая турбулентность, анизотропия, устойчивый пограничный слой атмосферы, coherent Doppler lidar, wind turbulence, anisotropy, stable atmospheric boundary layer

Abstract >>
To determine the degree of anisotropy of wind turbulence from measurements of the Stream Line lidar during experiments, we used a conical scanning by the probing beam, alternately setting the elevation angle equal to 35.3 and 60° after each scan. An experiment with such measurement geometry was carried out at the Basic Experimental Complex of IAO SB RAS in July 2018. The analysis of the measurement results at night in the presence of a low-level jet (LLJ) in the atmosphere showed that the variance (integral scale) of the horizontal component of the wind velocity is 2.26 (3.4) times larger than that of the vertical component. In the central part of the LLJ, the integral scales of the horizontal and vertical wind components are on average equal to 183 and 54 m, respectively.
																								



3.
Features of formation of wave front slopes on the telescope aperture at different vertical profiles of optical atmospheric turbulence

A.Yu. Shikhovtsev1, P.G. Kovadlo1, L.A. Bolbasova2, V.P. Lukin2
1Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Irkutsk, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: оптическая турбулентность, волновой фронт, астрономический телескоп, optical turbulence, wavefront, astronomical telescope

Abstract >>
Possibilities of retrieving the vertical profiles of atmospheric turbulence from measurements of local wavefront slopes are discussed. The estimates of characteristics of amplitudes of the wavefront distortions for different atmospheric altitudes are given. The height of atmospheric layer when maximum angles of light arrival correspond to mean image jitter from total atmosphere is found.
																								



4.
Forecast of microphysical and optical characteristics of grid-scale clouds and its radiative effect with the mesoscale weather prediction model COSMO

M.V. Shatunova1, Yu.O. Khlestova2, N.E. Chubarova2
1Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, Moscow, Russia
2Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: облачность, солнечная радиация, модель COSMO, cloudiness, solar radiation, COSMO model

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the study of micro- and macrophysical characteristics of clouds and radiative effect according to the operational and experimental schemes of cloud-radiation interaction of the COSMO mesoscale model and ground-based measurements at the Meteorological Observatory in Lindenberg (Germany). Statistically significant deviations of the model cloud characteristics from the measurements are found. The probable reasons of ice cloud water content deviations in the upper troposphere are determined.
																								



5.
Correction of the aerosol refractive index using the regression relationship between the volume concentration of particles and measurements of aerosol optical depth

V.V. Veretennikov, S.S. Men’shchikova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: аэрозольная оптическая толщина, обратные задачи, микроструктура аэрозоля, показатель преломления, регрессия, aerosol optical depth, inverse problems, aerosol microstructure, refractive index, regression

Abstract >>
A method of regression correction of the real part of the refractive index of the aerosol matter is suggested for solving the inverse problem of spectral measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) t(l). The correction is based on the use of similarity relations that must be fulfilled for the microstructure parameters of the scattering media with equivalent spectral extinction at variations in the refractive index of the aerosol. For the correction, the minimization of the discrepancy between the volume concentrations of the aerosol retrieved from the solution of the inverse problem and calculated using the regression equations, which are constructed for a certain reference period, is carried out by the refractive index. The results of testing the method are presented based on the AOD measurements with a multiwave sun photometer, performed at IAO SB RAS during an annual cycle of observations.
																								



6.
Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation in the region 200-300 nm in the EarthВўs atmosphere

E.I. Lipatov, V.F. Tarasenko, M.V. Erofeev, V.S. Ripenko, M.A. Shulepov
High Current Electronics Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: излучение Вавилова-Черенкова (ИВЧ), атмосфера Земли, солнечный ветер, ультрафиолетовое излучение, Vavilov-Cherenkov (VCh) radiation, Earth's atmosphere, solar wind, ultraviolet radiation

Abstract >>
The results of studies of the emission spectra of the Earth’s atmosphere in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible spectral regions are presented. The input window of the spectrometer was directed to the Sun or located at different angles to the axis passing through the center of the solar disk. For the first time, a Vavilov-Cherenkov (VCh) emission spectrum was recorded with a standard spectrometer in the region 200-300 nm. The threshold energy of electrons for the occurrence of VCh emission in air and the maximum angle of propagation of VCh emission with respect to the direction of electron motion are calculated. It is assumed that the VCh emission occurs when high-energy particles of the solar wind are braked in the Earth’s atmosphere.
																								



7.
The effect of thin high altitude clouds and aerosol layers on the solar radiation transfer to the Earth surface in twilight conditions

Yu.E. Belikov, S.V. Dyshlevsky, A.Yu. Repin
E.K. Fedorov Institute of Applied Geophysics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: аэрозоли, облачные слои, индикатриса рассеяния, сумеречный эффект рассеяния, климат Арктики, климатические изменения, aerosols, cloud layers, scattering phase function, twilight scattering effect, Arctic climate, climatic change

Abstract >>
The effect of thin clouds and aerosols in the upper troposphere and stratosphere on the solar light transmission by the tropospheric cloudiness is considered. A simplified model of the radiation transfer in the near-IR range with the different values of the single-scattering albedo in the lower troposphere is suggested. The analytic formulae are derived which show a possible increase in the transmission of the solar light by the tropospheric cloudiness under twilight conditions in the case of the emerging of high thin tropospheric clouds and aerosol layers over it. This effect may play a key role in the climatic changes and sea ice melting in the Arctic.
																								



8.
Wind effect on saltating particle size distribution

G.I. Gorchakov1, D.V. Buntov1, A.V. Karpov1, V.M. Kopeikin1, S.F. Mirsaitov2, R.A. Gushchin1,2, O.I. Datsenko1,2
1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Moscow Technological University, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: ветропесчаный поток, сальтирующие алевритовые частицы, квазинепрерывная сальтация, распределение алевритовых и песчаных частиц по размерам, алеврит-песчаная фракция, алевритовая фракция, зависимость пороговой скорости от размера частиц, windsand flux, saltating aleurite particles, quasi-continuous saltation, aleurite and sand particle size distribution, aleurite-sand mode, aleurite mode, threshold velocity dependence from the size particle

Abstract >>
Saltating aleurite and sand particle size distributions have been measured in a windsand flux over desertified area in Astrakhan oblast and approximated using lognormal distributions for aleurite - sand and aleurite modes. A wind velocity threshold for the total saltating particle concentration during non-intermittent saltation was determined. The threshold velocity dependence on the saltating particle size has been derived. Empirical dependences of the total particle concentration and differential number aleurite and sand particle concentrations on the wind velocity have been received.
																								



9.
Estimates of variations in CO2 radiative forcing in the last century and in future

Yu.M. Timofeev, Ya.A. Virolainen, A.V. Polyakov
Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: радиационный форсинг, углекислый газ, уходящее тепловое излучение, радиационный баланс, спутниковый мониторинг, radiative forcing, carbon dioxide, outgoing thermal radiation, radiative balance, satellite monitoring

Abstract >>
Based on the analysis of the radiative transfer equation in the integral form, we investigate the physical causes of changes in the Earth outgoing thermal radiation (OTR) due to increasing atmospheric CO2 content. CO2 concentration growth can lead to both increase and decrease in various components of the OTR depending on the optical density of a spectral interval. We calculate and analyze the spectra of OTR fluxes in the range 3-30 µm for five climate atmospheric models and various concentrations of carbon dioxide from pre-industrial (280 ppm) to present (407 ppm) and projected in the future values (800 and 1200 ppm). Seasonal and spatial variations in CO2 radiative forcing (RF) currently reach about 20% and 40%, respectively. Comparison of OTR measurements with different instruments in different years (for example, SI-1 in 1977 and 1979 and IKFS-2 in 2015-2017) demonstrates a decrease in the OTR values in the CO2 absorption bands caused by the upward displacement of radiating layers in the troposphere. We estimate the RF due to the growth of CO2 concentrations from pre-industrial to present values to be in the range -(0.94-1.62) W/m2.
																								



10.
Temporal variations in CO2, CH4 and CO concentrations in Saint-Petersburg suburb (Peterhof)

S.Ch. Foka, M.V. Makarova, A.V. Poberovsky, Yu.M. Timofeyev
Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: углекислый газ, метан, монооксид углерода, годовой ход, суточный ход, тренды, carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, annual cycle, diurnal cycle, trends

Abstract >>
The annual and diurnal variations and trends in the concentrations of CO (during 2013-2017) and CO2 and CH4 (2013-2018) in a suburb of Saint-Petersburg (Peterhof, 59.88 N, 29.83 E) are studied. The growth rate of CO2 concentrations is 2.43 ± 0.15 ppmv/year, of СН4, 8.7 ± 0.6 ppbv/year, and of CO, -3.3 ± 0.5 ppbv/year. The results are comparable with the gas concentration variations on the global scale.
																								



11.
Estimation of parameters of dangerous weather phenomena associated with atmospheric precipitates using the optical rain gauge

V.V. Kalchikhin, A.A. Kobzev
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: оптический осадкомер, интенсивность осадков, количество осадков, опасные метеорологические явления, optical precipitation gauge, precipitation intensity, total rainfall, dangerous weather phenomenon

Abstract >>
Prospects of the optical precipitation gauge OPTIOS for determination of dangerous weather phenomena associated with atmospheric precipitates are considered. The results of the heavy shower (more than 50 mm/h) measurement are presented. It is shown that the optical precipitation gauge OPTIOS allows estimation of precipitation characteristics to provide prompt warning of dangerous phenomenon occurrence.
																								



12.
Study of sedimentation of pollen particle (individual grains and their clusters) of anemophilous plants growing in Western Siberia

V.V. Golovko1, K.A. Hlebus2, A.P. Belanova3
1V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
3Central Siberian Botanical Garden of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: скорость седиментации, пыльцевые зерна, кластеры, анемофильные растения, импульс воздуха, sedimentation rate, pollen grains, clusters, anemophilic plants, air impact

Abstract >>
The sedimentation of pollen particles of the weeds of several species growing in Western Siberia is studied. The percentage of individual grains and their clusters resulting from spraying is calculated. The sedimentation rate of clusters, consisting of one to six pollen grains, is determined. The sedimentation rate of clusters is found to depend on the number of pollen grains involved.