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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2019 year, number 4

1.
THE HISTORY AND PROSPECTS OF BOTANICAL RESOURCE SCIENCE AT V. N. SUKACHEV INSTITUTE OF FOREST SB RAS

A. V. Pimenov
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: растительные ресурсы, пищевые растения, химический состав, индивидуальная изменчивость, plant resources, food plants, chemical composition, individual variability

Abstract >>
The historical aspects of research in the field of botanical resource science, current directions of research and the prospects of this study in V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS are discussed. The socio-economic and bioecological problems of resource research studies are provided. It is stated that the creation of an extensive database on localization, production dynamics, biochemical features, harvesting technologies and other consumer aspects for the main types of industrial, nutritional and medicinal plant species of Siberia should be studied; regulatory documents with recommendations on harvesting and technologies for processing vegetable raw materials should be developed. The sequence of stages and main blocks of promising areas of resource research are characterized. The following are indicated as promising areas of research: 1) assessment of the resource potential of the morphological and ecotypic intraspecies forms of conifers in pessimal environmental conditions; 2) identification of potential distribution of forest resources using data of remote sensing of the Earth and a digital elevation model; 3) diagnostics of floristic composition of economically valuable plants, phytocenotic and geoecological features of their growth in technogenic and silvicultural communities on fallow lands; 4) development of technologies for the production of vegetable nutrition for farm animals (stocks, biologically optimal timing and volume of harvesting); 5) treatment methods of raw materials (drying, grinding, thermal and physicochemical modification); 6) technologies for environmentally efficient utilization of wood sawdust using soil microorganisms and optimizing their biochemical activity with micro doses of fertilizers; 7) development of coniferous technologies for the production of technical and food products based on chips and barks. The bibliography of the most important publications at the Institute in the field of forest resources is given.
																								



2.
THE HISTORY AND PROSPECTS OF ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES OF THE NOMADS OF ASIA

B.-Ts. B. Namzalov
Banzarov Buryat State University, Ulan-Ude, Russian Federation
Keywords: виды полезных растений, природные системы, номадные этносы, этноэкология, ресурсы растительного мира, species of the useful plants, natural systems, nomadic ethnoses, ethnoecology, resources of plant world

Abstract >>
In this work on the example of nomadic ethnic groups - «owners and keepers of the Siberian taiga» - raised the problem of interaction between ethnic communities and natural systems in the historical retrospective and global time scale. The conditions and factors that allow traditional environmental management are shown. At present, there are countries and regions, especially in the central territories of Inner Asia and the Circumpolar Region where traditional management has been preserved, and nomad livestock products are still important and have prospects in providing the population with clean organic products. There is a close connection of ethnoses with the environment. The ethno-ecological analysis shows various forms of relationship of human population with the environment and allows estimating the influence of ethnic communities on their modern relationship. These studies include a wide range of problems of the interaction of ethnoses with nature, allows to solve the problems of life support of indigenous people and maintain traditional culture. The range of the problems of traditional management is very extensive, they do not only incorporate nomadic animal husbandry but also national selection of plants. In this regard, the studies of the unique gene pool food plants and the experience of traditional cultivation of species become quite urgent. The range of the problems includes «ethnobiology», «ethnobotany», «ethnoecology» and «traditional environmental management» with novel approaches to ethno-botanical research as perspective directions of the study of biological resources of the planet.
																								



3.
AN APPLE Malus Mill. IN THE HISTORY AND CULTURE OF THE UKRAINIAN AND OTHER ETHNOCES

O. A. Opalko, A. V. Konopelko, A. I. Opalko
National Dendrological Park В«Sofiyivka», National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Uman, Ukraine
Keywords: ДНК-последовательность, мистические обряды и церемонии, лексема, молекулярно-генетический анализ, фитоним, фольклор, этноботаника, Rosaceae, DNA sequence, mystical rites and ceremonies, lexeme, molecular genetic analysis, phytonym, folklore, ethnobotany, Rosaceae

Abstract >>
Ethnobotanical data on the apple tree ( Malus Mill., family Rosaceae Juss. subfamily Amygdaloideae Arn., tribe Maleae Small, subtribe Malinae Rev.) are investigated. Scientific papers published in different countries of the world, works of ancient and modern authors, as well as folklore sources devoted to the «apple» and «apple tree» phytonyms are discussed. The publications relating to their cognitive classification, names and comprehension of the common folk and metaphorical interpretation of denominations and a wide variety of connotative meanings in Ukrainian and other culturally relevant traditions, also mystical rites and ceremonies are studied. The views on the use of apple as a food, ornamental and medicinal plant are presented. The virtual scheme of the pomebearing plant genome (Malinae) formation proposed by a number of biologists from several universities of the USA, Canada and Sweden based on the results of molecular genetic analyses of the 88 genera of Rosaceae family is considered. The scheme of the identification of the relationships in the Malinae included molecular analysis of six nuclear ( 18S , gbssi1 , gbssi2 , ITS , pgip and ppo ) and four chloroplast ( matK , ndhF , rbcL and trnL-trnF ) DNA sequences. In particular, the hypothesized origin of the Malinae genome from a genus Gillenia Moench (subfamily Amygdaloideae) is reasoned by the autopolyploidization of some Gillenia ancestor and subsequent nullisomy ( x = 9 → x = 18 → 2 n = = 36 - 2 → x = 17). The necessity to use as a scientific name concerning apple cultivars cultivated in orchards nomen Malus pumila Mill. instead of formerly commonly used name Malus domestica Borkh is substantiated. While flowering crabapple cultivars are suggested be included in the collective species Malus × gloriosa Lemoine. The phenomenon of diversity of common names for apple in regional dialects of the Ukrainian and other languages as well as the phenomenon of various uses of the lexeme «apple» in the world art (poetry and prose, music and songs, myths and legends) are considered. The Malus spp. collection of the National Dendrological Park «Sofiyivka» of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine are characterize and the prospects of theirs use in the park landscaping are discussed.
																								



4.
WORSHIP AND TREES IN INDIA

S. Chauhan, S. V. S. Chauhan
Academy of Life Sciences, Agra, India
Keywords: Бог, Богиня, мифология, ритуалы, церемонии, знаки зодиака, древесные растения, God, Goddess, mythology, rituals, ceremonies, zodiac signs, woody plants

Abstract >>
Trees are significant in many of the world’s mythologies and religions and have been given deep and sacred meanings throughout the ages. In India, large numbers of herbs, shrubs and trees are traditionally worshiped and most of them are known for their uses in worship of several lords. India is a country showing diversity in religion and it is believed, that there are more than 33 million Gods and Goddesses worshiped in various traditional ways throughout the year. The trees and their products are part of Indian rituals and ceremonies and various Gods and Goddesses are associated with different trees. In Indian culture trees are believed to have consciousness similar to humans so they can feel pain as well as happiness like us. Human beings, observing the growth and death of trees and the annual death and revival of their foliage, have often imagined them as powerful symbols of growth, death and rebirth. The people in India believe that life cannot exist without trees. Trees are the main natural sources of solar energy vital for our existence that bring flowers, fruits, wood and medicines. Therefore, tree worship is one of the most widespread forms of popular religion in India. Indians worship offering roots, stem, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds to God since time immemorial and this is done as a symbol of gratitude because they believe that life cannot exist without trees. Present communication provides botanical names and families of more than 60 angiosperm trees used in worship of various Gods and Goddesses. The trees have been listed and their significance has been considered. Gymnosperms used in worship have also been discussed. Selection of plantation site and day, time, month of worship, list of flowers and plants prohibited in worship and interesting description of trees worshiped as per the zodiac signs have also been given.
																								



5.
BIOLOGICAL SPECIFICITY OF THE FRUIT WOODY AND ARBORESCENT PLANTS OF THE TROPICAL ZONE

E. N. Muratova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: каулифлория, рамифлория, гибридизация, полиэмбриония, числа хромосом, полиплоиды, секвенирование, вегетативное размножение, сравнительная геномика, транскриптомика, caulifloria, ramifloria, hybridization, polyembryoy, chromosome numbers, polyploids, sequencing, vegetative reproduction, comparative genomics, trascriptomics

Abstract >>
Tropical Flora of the Earth contains inexhaustible stock of genetic resources. Review of the main fruit trees and woody plants of this region has been carried out. Their characteristics, biological features, data on their places of origin and regions of cultivation are given. Information on the results of karyological studies of these species, use of molecular cytogenetics methods, comparative genomics and transcriptomics for some of them are presented. In tropical countries the trees, such as Indian mango, one of the most delicious and popular fruits, are grown. Widely used for food the fruits such as bread fruit tree, jackfruit, papaya, cheese fruit tree, tomato tree, bilimbi tree are also common. Information on such interesting fruit trees and woody plants as durian, mangosteen, pitahaya, longan, litchi, rambutan, pulasan, kanistel, ackee and others are given. A review of fruit plant species of the genera Annona, Psidium, Syzygium, Averrhoa, Ziziphus, Passiflora has been presented. Different species of Citrus and banana cultivars are of great importance in fruit production in the tropics and subtropics. It was established that among tropical fruit trees and woody plants there are diploids, tripolids, tetraploids, while in karyotypes of some species B-chromosomes may occur. Many tropical fruit woody plants are polyploid (mango, bread fruit tree, jackfruit, species of the genera Psidium, Syzygium and Ziziphus ). The results of the genomes sequencing indicate that some species possibly are ancient polyploids. A number of tropical fruit trees exhibit the phenomena of caulifloria and ramifloria (jackfruit, chempedak, papaya, durian) when flowers and then fruits are formed on the trunk and large branches. Some species reproduce vegetatively. Among fruit woody plants, as well as in many other plants, hybridization is widely spread (mangosteen, species of genera Citrus, Annona, Hylocereus, Musa ) and polyembryony may be found.
																								



6.
ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES OF COMMON HAWTHORN Crataegus monogyna Jacq

G. Г–zyurt, Z. YГјcesan, N. Ak, E. Oktan, A. Г–. ГњГ§ler
Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey
Keywords: изменение климата, засуха, недревесная продукция леса, методы размножения, генеративное и вегетативное размножение, climate change, drought, non-wood forest product, generative and vegetative propagation

Abstract >>
Climate change as a fact of global warming requires the development of different perspectives on the planning and implementation of sustainable forestry techniques. Increasing temperatures cause drought on a global basis. In connection with, this using drought tolerant species in afforestation work is of great importance. In recent years Crataegus L. species (hawthorn) are also involved in afforestation. One of these species, C. monog y na , is characterized by drought tolerance. Furthermore, C. monog y na is the most important non-wood forest product species of Turkey. Hawthorn is widely used in medicine (treatment of coronary heart diseases), and cosmetics industry, agriculture and animal husbandry and human nutrition. On the other hand, it is used in erosion control, afforestation, industrial energy resources and for landscaping. Economic and ecological contribution of hawthorn to the national economy is quite high. Therefore, determination of suitable generative and vegetative reproduction techniques and vast production of seedlings of hawthorn species are extremely important. The characteristics of generative and vegetative propagation of Crataegus are discussed. For generative propagation of hawthorn species, the most effective and suitable procedure is treatment of seeds in ash solution. For vegetative propagation in culture in vitro the growth induced by BA (benzyladenine) and IBA (indole butyric acid) hormones increases the rate of callus formation and rooting. The best grafting technique is that splicing.
																								



7.
IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON PHENOLOGY OF Rhododendron arboreum Sm., Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don AND Alnus nepalensis D. Don

M. Panta1, R. A. Mandal2
1Lord Buddha College, Kathmandu, Nepal
2Pokhara University, Kathmandu, Nepal
Keywords: температура, количество осадков, сезон, муссон, рост, высота, цветение, плодоношение, лесная растительность, фенологическая динамика, Непал, temperature, rainfall, season, monsoon, growth, height, flowering, fruiting, forest vegetation, phenology dynamics, Nepal

Abstract >>
This study was objectively carried out to show the trend of climatic variables to determine the effect of climatic variables on seasons and assess the response of phenology of a tree rhododendron Rhododendron arboreum Sm., kaphal Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don and the Nepalese alder Alnus nepalensi s D. Don at Bakte, Devithan and Nagarkot forests of Kavreplanchok district, Nepal. Climatic data such as rainfall and temperature from 1947 to 2016, were collected. Maps of selected sites were prepared and stratified into tree rhododendron, kaphal and Nepalese alder block. Altogether 60 samples having 10 × 10 m were collected from different directions (South, North, East and West). The diameter and height of seedlings were recorded and temperature was registered between February 18 to March 15, 2018. The total of 50 households was surveyed to get familiar with the ideas about climate change and its impacts on phenology. The result showed the highest average annual temperature around 17.41 °C in 2012, while rainfall was recorded highest about 2345.5 mm in 1985. The estimated highest monsoon temperature was 22.61 °C in 2012 and the lowest 8.93 °C in winter 1997. The (1947-2016) winter rainfall shows increasing by 0.05 mm but monsoon rainfall is decreasing by 2.99 mm annually. Direct measurements of temperature for 26 days showed the highest 26.5 °C on March 14 and the lowest 21.8 °C in February 18, 2018. The highest number of flowers of tree rhododendron and kaphal was found in southern aspect. The flowering started 15-30 days earlier its normal date, which was also confirmed by local people. Height growth of seedlings of tree rhododendron was 1.5 cm at southern aspect. This research will be useful for science community and policy makers.
																								



8.
EVALUATION OF BERRY RESOURCES OF THE RED BILBERRY FAMILY SPECIES IN TOMSK OBLAST, THEIR RATIONAL USE AND PROTECTION

E. E. Timoshok, S. N. Skorokhodov
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Tomsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: лесные ягодники, управление ресурсами, Vacciniaceae, запасы, рациональное использование ресурсов, wild berries, resource management, Vacciniaceae, supplies, conservation, sustainable land use

Abstract >>
The recently accepted «Doctrine of the Food Safety of the Russian Federation» suggests the formation of state-sponsored informational resources on the supplies of edible plants including wild berries. The most important wild berries for Tomsk Oblast are Vaccineaceae family plants: cowberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., bilberry Vaccinium mirtillus L., blueberry Vaccinium uliginosum L. and cranberry Oxycoccus palustris Pers. We used methodological approaches of the Siberian researchers and resource management archive data on the forests to investigate the supplies. The research is based on our own 20-year long experience of the investigations in the field stations of Siberia. During the investigations we analyzed the types of ecosystem which include wild berries, the environmental conditions forming such ecosystems and studied the dynamics of the wild berry productivity and peculiarities of their biological characteristics. Our studies were performed in 12 key sampling areas with multiple plots, which were annually monitored. It allowed us to study close correlations between ecological peculiarities of the survey plots and productivity of various berry species. The research made it possible to estimate the resource base, evaluate the supplies and potential harvest volume. Our investigations showed that any plots with productivity above 150 kg/ha may be used for the harvesting and should be included into the resource base. The resource base of the cowberry is mostly low- and average-density pine forests with cowberry or lichens-cowberry ground storey; the resource base of bilberry is old-age Siberian stone pine forests of low or average density and green mosses-bilberry or long-leaf mosses-bilberry ground storey; the resource base of blueberry are medium-age and old-age shrubby pine forests with longleaf mosses-blueberry or sphagnum-bilberry ground cover; the resource base of cranberry is sphagnum swamps, pine forests with sphagnum-dominated ground cover and swamped pine forests. The exploitable supplies of t cowberry and cranberry are located in the northern and central parts of Tomsk region and exploitable supplies of bilberry in the northern parts of Tomsk Oblast. Net resource base of all the four species in Tomsk region is 1470K ha; total biological supplies of all berries - 58620 tons, exploitable supplies - 11170 and safe harvesting volume 5520 tons. Sustainable exploitation of the wild berries implies strict harvesting terms, safe methods, which will not harm root systems of colonies and clones, conservation of high-yield plots up to the creation of resource reserves or assigned lands.
																								



9.
SCIENTIFIC HERITAGE OF V. N. SUKACHEV INSTITUTE OF FOREST SB RAS: BOOK REVIEWS

T. S. Sedel’nikova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: лесные ресурсы, пищевые растения, Сибирь, forest resources, food plants, Siberia

Abstract >>
The reviews are presented for the books of: G. A. Bogdanova, and Yu. M. Muratov «Red bilberry in the forests of Siberia», Novosibirsk: Nauka. USSR Acad. Sci., Sib. Br., 1978. 117 p. (in Russian), and of V. L. Cherepnin «Food plants of Siberia», Novosibirsk: Nauka. USSR Acad. Sci., Sib. Br., 1987. 182 p. (in Russian).