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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2019 year, number 9

1.
Preface

I.V. Ptashnik
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia

																								



2.
Lidar methods and means for the study atmospheric of turbulence developed at Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS

V.A. Banakh
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: доплеровский ветровой лидар, лидар для измерения интенсивности оптической турбулентности, wind Doppler lidar, the lidar for measuring intensity of optical turbulence

Abstract >>
The main results Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, on the research and development of lidar methods and means for the study of atmospheric turbulence performed at the last five years are received.
																								



3.
High-resolution molecular spectroscopy at IAO SB RAS. Current status of theoretical and experimental investigations

V.I. Perevalov, Yu.N. Ponomarev, I.V. Ptashnik, L.N. Sinitsa
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: молекулярная спектроскопия высокого разрешения, спектры поглощения, лазерная спектроскопия, Фурье-спектроскопия, оптика атмосферы, информационные системы, спектральные базы данных, high-resolution molecular spectroscopy, absorption spectra, laser spectroscopy, Fourier spectroscopy, atmospheric optics, information systems, spectral databases

Abstract >>
Results of high-resolution molecular spectroscopy investigations conducted at IAO SB RAS during the last five years are outlined in this brief review. We consider theoretical problems of vibrational-rotational spectra of basic molecules of atmospheric gases, spectral line contours, problems of the atmospheric continuum absorption, and databases of molecular spectral characteristics in gas phase. In the section of experimental investigations, the main attention is devoted to results obtained by the Fourier spectroscopy methods using laser diodes as a radiation source, as well as results obtained at a Fourier spectrometer with a multipath 30-meter cell with computer control of optical path length under temperature and pressure variations of a gas under study.
																								



4.
Comprehensive studies of tropospheric aerosol at the IAO SB RAS (stages of development)

M.V. Panchenko, M.V. Kabanov, Yu.A. Phalagov, B.D. Belan, V.S. Kozlov, S.M. Sakerin, D.M. Kabanov, V.N. Uzhegov, N.N. Shchelkanov, V.V. Polkin, S.A. Terpugova, G.N. Tolmachev, E.P. Yausheva, M.Yu. Arshinov, D.V. Simonenkov, V.P. Shmargunov, D.G. Chernov, Yu.S. Turchinovich, Vas.V. Pol’kin, T.B. Zhuravleva, I.M. Nasrtdinov, P.N. Zenkova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: аэрозоль, оптические, микрофизические характеристики, коэффициенты рассеяния, ослабления и поглощения, спектральная прозрачность, аэрозольная оптическая толща, optical communication on scattered laser radiation, Monte Carlo method, field experiments

Abstract >>
In the work dedicated to the 50th anniversary of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS, review of experimental studies that have identified important stages in the development of a comprehensive study of aerosol life in the atmosphere is presented in a certain chronology. The main results of a series of expeditionary studies of the optical and microphysical properties of aerosol of marine coastal haze, arid zone, and various geographical regions of the oceans are briefly discussed. A modern set of methods and equipment that we use to measure aerosol characteristics in the monitoring mode at the network of IAO SB RAS stations is described. The results of long-term studies of tropospheric aerosol using aircraft laboratory are presented.
																								



5.
Control of characteristics of multiple filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in air

D.V. Apeksimov, Yu.E. Geints, A.A. Zemlyanov, A.M. Kabanov, G.G. Matvienko, V.K. Oshlakov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: лазерное излучение, фемтосекундный импульс, самофокусировка, филаментация, постфиламентационный световой канал, биморфное деформируемое зеркало, laser radiation, femtosecond pulse, self-focusing, filamentation, postfilamentation light channel, bimorphic deformable mirror

Abstract >>
We present the results of studies on controlling the characteristics of the multiple filamentation domain of femtosecond laser pulses on atmospheric paths using variable initial spatial focus, beam radius, and pulse energy, as well as the structure of the light field at the initial beam aperture.
																								



6.
Laser and optical sensing of atmosphere

G.G. Matvienko, P.A. Babushkin, S.M. Bobrovnikov, A.G. Borovoi, D.A. Bochkovskii, V.P. Galilyskii, A.I. Grishin, S.I. Dolgii, A.I. Elizarov, D.V. Kokarev, A.V. Konoshonkin, A.V. Kryuchkov, N.V. Kustova, A.V. Nevzerov, V.N. Marichev, A.M. Morozov, V.K. Oshlakov, O.A. Romanovskii, A.Ya. Sukhanov, D.A. Trifonov, S.V. Yakovlev, S.A. Sadovnikov, A.A. Nevzorov, O.V. Kharchenko
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: лидар, атмосфера, рассеяние, аэрозоль, газовые примеси, lidar, atmosphere, scattering, aerosol, gas impurities

Abstract >>
An analysis is made of the development of lidar and searchlight methods of atmospheric research carried out in recent years at the Institute of Atmospheric Optics. A description is given of using the temperature dependence of the intensity ratio of the optimal combination of temperature-sensitive lines of the rotational Raman spectrum on nitrogen and oxygen molecules for the lidar determination of temperature profiles. The application of the method of differential absorption and scattering to estimate the content of gas impurities in the UV and near and middle IR ranges is described. The possibility of placing a differential absorption lidar on a space platform to determine the total content of methane and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is analyzed. The conditions for the detection of polar and silvery clouds in the atmosphere above Tomsk are studied. The lidar-optical characteristics of cirrus clouds consisting of ice crystal aggregates are also determined. The use of postfilation beams for wide-spectrum sensing of an aerosol atmosphere has been founded. The results of searchlight sensing of atmospheric formations that create the phenomenon of mirror reflection are given.
																								



7.
Metal vapor lasers

V.A. Dimaki, V.G. Sokovikov, S.N. Torgaev, M.V. Trigub, V.O. Troitskii, D.V. Shiyanov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: лазеры на парах металлов, галогениды металлов, эффективность лазера, активная теплоизоляция, генератор активной примеси, внутренний реактор, оптическая накачка, усилитель яркости, активные оптические системы, metal vapor lasers, metal halides, laser efficiency, active thermal insulation, active impurity generator, inner reactor, optical pumping, brightness amplifier, active optical systems

Abstract >>
The main stages of development of the direction associated with the engineering and research of metal vapor lasers, which exists in the IAO SB RAS since the first days of its foundation, are considered. Some of the most interesting, in the opinion of the authors, results that have both fundamental and applied nature are presented. A fairly extensive list of works published in the Institute on this subject is given, mainly in the last twenty years.
																								



8.
Atmospheric correction of satellite images of the Earth surface in the optical wave length range. Optical communication based on scattered radiation

V.V. Belov1, M.V. Tarasenkov1, M.V. Engel1, Yu.V. Gridnev1, A.V. Zimovaya1, V.N. Abramochkin2, E.S. Poznakharev1, A.V. Fedosov1, A.N. Kudryavtsev1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2Section of Applied Problems under the Presidium, N
Keywords: оптическая связь на рассеянном лазерном излучении, метод Монте-Карло, полевые эксперименты, optical communication on scattered laser radiation, Monte Carlo method, field experiments

Abstract >>
The results obtained at IAO SB RAS in 2010-2019 on problems of atmospheric correction of satellite images of the Earth surface and of optical communication based on scattered laser radiation in the optical wavelength range in the atmosphere and under water are briefly rewieved.
																								



9.
The history of the development adaptive optics at IAO SB RAS

V.P. Lukin, L.V. Antoshkin, L.A. Bolbasova, N.N. Botygina, O.N. Emaleev, F.Yu. Kanev, P.A. Konyaev, E.A. Kopylov, V.V. Lavrinov, L.N. Lavrinova, N.A. Makenova, V.V. Nosov, E.V. Nosov, A.V. Torgaev
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: атмосфера, распространение, турбулентность, фазовые флуктуации, адаптивная оптика, измерения, когерентная турбулентность, atmosphere, propagation, turbulence, phase fluctuations, adaptive optics, measurements, coherent turbulence

Abstract >>
The development of adaptive optics as an effective means of eliminating irregular distortions, which occur during light propagation through an inhomogeneous medium, using controlled optical elements is described. Many ideas developed in recent years have been suggested quite long ago, but only now, due to the creation of elemental base of optoelectronic systems and devices, they come into use in many fields of science and technology. The current status of adaptive optics systems in solar astronomy is considered; some aspects of their use in distortion correction in high-power laser systems are analyzed. The retrospective analysis of the related studies at V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, is presented.
																								



10.
Dynamics of the greenhouse gas concentrations in Western Siberia

O.Yu. Antokhina1, P.N. Antokhin1, V.G. Arshinova1, M.Yu. Arshinov1, B.D. Belan1, S.B. Belan1, D.K. Davydov1, N.V. Dudorova1, G.A. Ivlev1, A.V. Kozlov1, O.A. Krasnov1, Sh.Sh. Maksutov2, T. Machida2, M.V. Panchenko1, D.A. Pestunov1, T.M. Rasskazchikova1, D.E. Savkin1, M. Sasakawa2, D.V. Simonenkov1, T.K. Sklyadneva1, G.N. Tolmachev1, A.V. Fofonov1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Japan
Keywords: атмосфера, газ, воздух, диоксид углерода, закись азота, метан, озон, примеси, вертикальное распределение, atmosphere, gas, air, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, ozone, impurity, vertical distribution

Abstract >>
According to long-term measurements of concentrations of greenhouse gases in the surface air layer and the free atmosphere trends of changes in their concentrations in Siberia are estimated. It is established that change of concentration of CO2 in a ground layer of air changes across the territory of Siberia from 2.13 to 2.45 ppm/year, concentration of a methane increases with a speed from 5.7 to 16.3 ppb/year. Increase in concentration of greenhouse gases in the free atmosphere happens for CO2 to speed of 2.09 ppm/year in a layer from 0.5 to 7.0 km. A methane increases on average in a layer of 0.5-7.0 km with the rate of 5.1 ppb/year. Concentration of nitrous oxide grows at all heights on average with a trend of 0.78 ppb/year. In comparison with global average rates, the established trends exceed them on CO2 and CH4, and appear less for N2O.
																								



11.
Development and application of acoustic facilities for diagnostics of the atmospheric boundary layer

S.L. Odintsov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: акустическое зондирование, приземный слой, пограничный слой, содар, ультразвуковой анемометр-термометр, acoustic sounding, atmospheric surface layer, atmospheric boundary layer, sodar, ultrasonic anemometer-thermometer

Abstract >>
The paper briefly considers the main fields of research and results of investigation of the atmospheric boundary layer with methods and technical facilities of acoustic diagnostics in V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, for the last decade.
																								



12.
Atmospheric singular optics: from wave front dislocations to synthesis of vortex laser beams

V.P. Aksenov1, V.V. Dudorov1, V.V. Kolosov1
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: вихревой пучок, турбулентная атмосфера, флуктуации интенсивности, функция распределения вероятностей, vortex beam, turbulent atmosphere, intensity fluctuations, probability density functions

Abstract >>
A review of studies on the singular optics of scalar wave fields carried out in the world and IAO SB RAS is performed. The results of the study of the processes of birth and annihilation of phase singularities are generalized. The methods of reconstruction of the singular phase and their applicability to the problems of adaptive focusing of radiation in randomly inhomogeneous media are analyzed. The results of the analysis of the energy, statistical, and topological properties of vortex optical beams propagating in a turbulent atmosphere are presented. The results of the synthesis of vortex beams with on-line control of the orbital angular momentum based on the matrix approach developed at IAO SB RAS are demonstrated.