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Journal of Mining Sciences

2019 year, number 3

1.
FLUID FLOW RATE UNDER HYDRAULIC IMPULSE EFFECT ON THE BOTTOM-HOLE AREA IN OIL RESERVOIR

D. S. Evstigneev1, M. V. Kurlenya1, V. I. Pen’kovskii2, A. V. Savchenko1
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: Нефтяная залежь, импульсы давления, двухфазная фильтрация, призабойная зона, Oil reservoir, pressure pulses, two-phase percolation flow, bottom-hole area

Abstract >>
The solution is presented for the problem on oil percolation flow in reservoir at the present and time-varying pressure difference between the injection and production wells. The zone of capillary water blockage in the bottom-hole area is determined. The algorithm is proposed for calculating fluid pressure on the bottomhole by the reading of echosounder installed at the well mouth. The invasion zone of the pressure fluctuations in the reservoir is estimated, and their effect on influence enhanced well production is shown.
																								



2.
INVESTIGATION OF ACOUSTIC EMISSION IN LAYER OF GEOMATERIAL UNDER SHEAR DEFORMATION

G. G. Kocharyan, K. G. Morozova, A. A. Ostapchuk
Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119334 Russia
Keywords: Акустическая эмиссия, волновая форма, прерывистое скольжение, амплитудно-частотное распределение, динамический срыв, Acoustic emission, wave form, discontinuous slip, amplitude-frequency distribution, dynamic breakaway

Abstract >>
The new method is proposed for interpreting data of acoustic emission during initiation and growth of dynamic breakaways. The method is based on the analysis of wave form of the emitted acoustic pulses. Clustering of the pulses by the wave form criterion shows that in the localization zone of strains different-scale processes described with various scaling relations take place. All classes of acoustic pulses obey the power-series amplitude-frequency distribution. The sharp-arrival acoustic pulses posses unaltered scaling relations in the period of nucleation and growth of dynamic breakaways whereas the smooth-arrival pulses demonstrate the nonlinear change in the scaling relations. At the final stage of the dynamic breakaway formation, the proportion and amplitude of acoustic pulses with smooth arrival increase.
																								



3.
PHYSICAL MODELING OF DEFORMATION PROCESSES IN PIT SLOPE WITH STEEP DIP BEDDING

S. V. Tsirel’, A. A. Pavlovich, N. Ya. Mel’nikov, B. Yu. Zuev
Saint-Petersburg Mining University, Saint-Petersburg, 199106 Russia
Keywords: Слоистость, борт карьера, физическое моделирование, эквивалентные материалы, коэффициент запаса, механизм разрушения, смещение, Bedding, pit slope, physical modeling, equivalent materials, safety factors, failure mechanism, displacement

Abstract >>
The results of physical modeling of deep pit slopes with equivalent materials are presented. The checking calculation is preformed using the limit equilibrium method. The displacements in the model are determined, and the safety factors of stable slopes are calculated at all stages of modeling. The pattern of deformation and failure of pit slopes is analyzed starting from the first manifestations till total instability at different strength characteristics of bedding interfaces. It is found that failure mechanism of pit slopes with seep dip bedding is governed by shear strength of contacts. When the contacts and rock mass have similar strength characteristics, pit slope deforms along a smooth curved sliding surface by the similar mechanism of isotropic slope. In the presence of contacts with much lower strength characteristics than the rock mass strength, the slope deformation has the mechanism of flexure toppling. In an intermediate variant, it is most probable that failure follows the mechanism of bending with subsequent shear of the layers along a curved surface.
																								



4.
ASSESSMENT OF EXCAVATABILITY INDEX OF FREEZABLE BLASTED ROCK MASS

S. V. Panishev, E. L. Al’kova, M. S. Maksimov
Chersky Institute of Mining of the North, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yakutsk, 677980 Russia
Keywords: Смерзание, прочность на срез, угол внутреннего трения, структурное сцепление, показатель трудности экскавации, Adfeezing, shear strength, internal friction angle, structural cohesion, excavatability index

Abstract >>
The regularities of change in mechanical characteristics of heterogeneous structure of frozen geomaterials depending on grain size composition, temperature, moisture content and density of sample packing are determined. It is found that the major influence is exerted on the shear strength, internal friction angle and cohesion in the samples structurally commensurable with blasted rock mass by temperature, moisture content and packing. In the size range of 10-40 mm of inclusions in a sample, the internal friction angle drops by 2 times while the cohesion jumps by the same value. It is shown that blasted frozen rocks prone to re-adfreezing is a complex medium possessing properties of intact uniform rock mass.
																								



5.
ANALYTICAL AND NUMERICAL APPROACH FOR ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING PIT SLOPE STABILITY AT DORLI OCP-II, INDIA

Satyanarayana Inumula1, G. Budi2
1Directorate General of Mine Safety, Dhanbad, 826001 India
2Department of Mining Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM), Dhanbad, 826004 India
Keywords: Устойчивость бортов разреза, методы LEM, FEM, FDM, коэффициент безопасности FoS, анализ устойчивости, Pit slope stability, factor of safety, stability analysis

Abstract >>
In order to determine the slope stability of an open-pit mine effectively at Dorli Opencast Project-II (Dorli OCP-II) of M/s Singareni Collieries Company Ltd. (SCCL), India, from available geotechnical data, this paper proposes analytical and numerical models. Physico-mechanical properties of the rock materials required for establishing these models were obtained by laboratory tests conducted on core samples taken directly from the mine. In this research, the influence of 6 discriminant factors on the pit stability by changing one-factor-at-a-time (OAT) and keeping all other factors fixed is studied. The study utilizes Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM) based software (SLIDE), Finite Element Method (FEM) based software (RS2) and Finite Difference Method (FDM) based software (FLAC/SLOPE) to analyze the sensitivity of each factor on the Factor of Safety (FoS) of pit slope for high accuracy and validation of models. The results from these methods of analyses are compared and comparison of the outputs of analyses shows a very good agreement with nominal difference (<1%) in the FoS.
																								



6.
USE OF CUMULATIVE CRITERION FOR DETERMINATION OF TENSILE STRENGTH AND FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF ROCKS

V. P. Efimov
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: Разрушение, бразильский метод, прочность на растяжение, трещиностойкость, интегральный критерий прочности, Fracture, Brazilian tests, tensile strength, fracture toughness, cumulative strength criterion

Abstract >>
The method of determining strength characteristics of rocks subjected to tension is tested; the method is based on processing of data from fracture tests of specimens with axial holes of different diameters subjected to loading along diameter. The test data of specimens of rocks and simulating media in the form of cores with axial holes and fractured along diameter are processed based on the integral strength criterion of Novozhilov. The comparison shows good agreement between the fracture toughness and tensile strength values obtained using the proposed method and in standard measurements.
																								



7.
FEATURES OF METHODOLOGY FOR CREATION AND APPLICATION OF NATURE-LIKE MINING TECHNOLOGIES IN DEVELOPMENT OF MINERAL RESOURCES IN THE ARCTIC

K. N. Trubetskoy, Yu. P. Galchenko, G. V. Kalabin
Academician Melnikov Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: Арктическая зона, биота, минерально-сырьевой комплекс, криолитозона, температурный ресурс, природоподобные технологии, Arctic zone, biota, mineral resoirces and reserves, permafrost zone, temeprature resource, nature-like technologies

Abstract >>
The problem of finding ways of overcoming antagonistical contradictions between the techno- and bio-spheres in development of mineral resources in the Arctic is discussed. It is shown that one of the main avenues of advancement under these conditions is creation and application of nature-like mining technologies. It is found that the hierarchical peak influence on natural biota destruction in permafrost zone is connected with accumulation of solid mining and processing waste on the ground surface, which predetermines the principate of the closed-cycle circulation of solid in lithosphere within the cluster of a nature-like mining technology. The idea is developed and proposed to accord the functional structure of a mining technology with the internal structure of a cryo-georesource and with relation of its components in space and time.
																								



8.
COAL QUALITY CONTROL IN MINING COMPLEX-STRUCTURE DEPOSITS

E. A. Khoyutanov1, V. L. Gavrilov1,2
1Chersky Institute of Mining of the North, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yakutsk, 677980 Russia
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: Уголь, зольность, управление, Эльгинское месторождение, качество, резервы, оценка, Coal, ash content, ontrol, Elga deposit, quality, resources, estimation

Abstract >>
The expediency of allowance for the links in the georesource-open pit-preparation plant chains as an integral information, technology and management space is considered. The methodical approaches to improvement of useful qualities of coal, in the first turn, its ash content graded as a rank of components are substantiated. In terms of the Elga deposit in South Yakutia, potentiality of increase in completeness and quality of coal extraction based on the studies into structure and contact zones of seams is illustrated. The schemes are proposed for ash content control in coal mining through extraction of dirt and high-ash interbeds of various thickness. The process charts for mining thin coal and dirt interbeds are proposed. The recommendations are provided for development of coal seams composed of bands of different ash content and washability.
																								



9.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF WATER INRUSH FROM THE DEEP COAL FLOOR BY MINING ABOVE THE CONFINED AQUIFER

H. T. Yu1,2, S. Y. Zhu1,2, Y. Chen1,2
1Institute of Mine Water Hazards Prevention and Controlling Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, China
2China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province 221116 China
Keywords: Глубокозалегающий уголь, структурная сложность, фрактальная размерность, коэффициент прорыва воды, численное разделение, Deep coal, structural complexity, fractal dimension, water inrush coefficient, quantization partition

Abstract >>
In order to evaluate water inrush risk from the deep coal floor by mining above the confined aquifer in Yongxia mining area of Henan Province, the structural complexity of the study area was partitioned by fractal dimension method. Moreover, the water inrush coefficient was calculated, and quantization partition was also carried out using the distribution law of the water inrush coefficient contour. Comparing the results of the two methods, it is found that the structural complex area and the water inrush danger zone have good coincidence in parts of study area, which increases the estimating reliability of the water inrush risk. At last, water inrush risk. The research results have an important reference value for realizing safe and efficient mining of the second level coal seams.
																								



10.
CONDITIONS OF BUBBLING IN ELECTROLYTIC FLOTATION

V. A. Chanturia1, N. L. Medyanik2, I. V. Shadrunova1, O. A. Mishurina2, E. R. Mullina2
1Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 111020 Russia
2Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University, Magnitogorsk, 455000 Russia
Keywords: Электролитическая флотация, пузырьки, газы, параметры процесса, извлечение, Electrolytic flotation, bubbles, gas, process parameters, recovery

Abstract >>
The results of the experimental studies into formation conditions of gas dispersion during electrolytic flotation are presented. The facing factors of electrolytic bubbling are considered. The influence exerted by the electrolysis process parameters and electrolytic compositions of water solutions on the dispersion state and gas content of electrolysis solutions is analyzed. The effects on the electrical state of the bubbles during electrolysis are studied.
																								



11.
METHOD FOR SELECTING STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF HYDROCARBON FRAGMENT IN MOLECULE OF A COLLECTING AGENT

S. A. Kondrat’ev
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: Флотационные реагенты-собиратели, структура углеводородного радикала, N-ацилированные аминокислоты, оксиэтилированные алифатические спирты, Collecting agents in flotation, hydrocarbon radical structure, N-acidilate amino acids, oxyethylated aliphatic alcohols

Abstract >>
Based on the relationship between collectability of flotation agent to flow thickness of its physically attached species desorbed from mineral surface to gas-liquid interface, the backbone of the method for selecting structure and composition of the collecting agent molecule is developed. The method application discloses effects exerted by the structure and composition of hydrocarbon fragment in the collecting agent molecule on the useful component recovery and concentration quality. In terms of the known colleting agents (branched carboxylic acids, N-acidilate amino acids and oxyacids, as well as nonsulphide flotation regulating agents-oxyethylated aliphatic alcohols), the reasons of the selections as collecting and regulating agents in flotation of apatite, quarts, hematite and magnetite are shown. Influence of some structural features of hydrocarbon radical on collecting ability of an agent is found, namely, length and arrangement of side chains, distance between carboxylic and amide groups in N-acidilate amine acids, number of oxyethyl groups and their arrangement in hydrocarbon g\fragment of alcohols or oxyacid.
																								



12.
SUBSTANTIATION OF GRAVITY CONCENTRATION TO THE SHALKIYA DEPOSIT LEAD-ZINC ORE

Sh. A. Telkov1, I. Yu. Motovilov1, M. B. Barmenshinova1, N. L. Medyanik2, G. S. Daruesh1
1Satpaev Kazakh National Research Technical University, Almaty, 050013 Kazakhstan
2Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University, Magnitogorsk, 455000 Russia
Keywords: Свинец, цинк, фракционный анализ, кривые обогатимости типа Анри - Рейнгардта, индекс гравитационной обогатимости, легкая фракция, тяжелая фракция, Lead, zinc, float-and-sink analysis, Henry-Reinhard-type washability curves, gravity washability index, light fraction, heavy fraction

Abstract >>
The research results on gravity concentration of the Shalkiya deposit lead-zinc ore are presented. Using the float-and-sin analysis data, the Henry-Reinhard-type washability curves are calculated and plotted for separation size grade 40-8 mm. The separation density required for recovery of light fraction at minimum possible loss of lead and zinc, as well as the the gravity washability indexes are determined. It is found that the overhead product of the gravity concentration of coarse ore is tailings containing silicon, calcite and carbon black dioxides. The loss of lead and zinc is minor. Processing of coarse crushed ore should be carried out in heavy medium.
																								



13.
FLOW REGIME OF MINERAL SUSPENSIONS WITH PRESERVED STRUCTURE OF FLOCS

A. A. Lavrinkenko, G. Yu. Gol’berg
Academician Melnikov Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: Флокуляционные структуры, флокулянты, минеральные суспензии, режим течения, неизотропная турбулентность, напряжение сдвига, деструкция, Flocs, flocculants, mineral suspensions, flow regime, nonisotropic turbulence, shear stress, destruction

Abstract >>
The breakage mechanism of flocs in mineral suspensions under shearing is considered. The relationship of limiting dynamic shear stress, diameter of particles and flocculant consumption is determined. It is calculated that for the floc structure to be preserved, it is required that the maximum allowable flow velocity of suspensions in pipelines 0.2-0.6 m in diameter is on average 1.8, 2.6 and 3.9 m/s at flocculant consumptions of 50, 100 and 200 g/t, respectively. The inverse problem on minimum allowable diameters of pipelines is solved. At the suspension flow rates of 100-1000 m3/h and flocculant consumption of 50-200 g/t, these values range from 0.1 to 0.4 m. The increase in the flocculant consumption by 2 times, all other things being equal, conditions reduction in the allowable diameter of pipelines by 20%.
																								



14.
DRESSING TECHNOLOGY FOR THE EAST SAYAN QUARTZITES

A. I. Nepomnyashchikh1, A. P. Zhaboedov1, M. G. Volkova1, A. M. Fedorov1, V. N. Yashin2
1Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, 664033 Russia
2Baikal Finance and Production Company, Ulan-Ude, 670000 Russia
Keywords: Кварц, минеральные примеси, флюидные включения, кварцевый концентрат, кварцевое стекло, Quarts, mineral impurities, fluid inclusions, quartz concentrate, quartz glass

Abstract >>
The research results are presented for dressability of quartzites from the Garga quartzite region of the East Sayan. From the detailed analysis of the structure, texture, mineral and fluid inclusions in the chemical constitution, bright veined quartzites and coaly veined quartzites were distinguished in the Urda-Gargan block. Both kinds are readily dressed up quartz concentrates of deep concentration. The fist quartzite kind can be used in manufacturing of transparent optical quartz glass, whereas the second variety is a promising feedstock for carbothermal production of silicon.
																								



15.
REAGENT DOSAGE CONTROL FOR THE ANTIMONY FLOTATION PROCESS BASED ON FROTH SIZE PDF TRACKING AND AN INDEX PREDICTIVE MODEL

Cao Bin-fang1,2, Xie Yong-fang1, Yang Chun-hua1, Gui Wei-hua1, Li Jian-qi3
1School of Information Science and Engineering, Changsha, 410083 China
2College of Physics and Electronics Science, Hunan 415000 China
3, Hunan 415000 China
Keywords: Пенная флотация, контроль расхода реагента, размер пузырьков, функция распределения случайных величин, управление средствами нечеткой логики, Froth flotation, dosage control, bubble size, probability density function, fuzzy control

Abstract >>
The control of flotation processes has always been an important research subject. Many experts and scholars have carried out extensive research to avoid the problems encountered when operating in a manual mode. By combining long-term worker tracking experiments and observations of froth appearance characteristics in a gold-antimony flotation plant, a reagent dosage hybrid control strategy for the antimony flotation process is proposed in this work. This strategy consists of two parts: reagent dosage tracking control based on a froth size probability density function (PDF) and reagent dosage compensation control based on a distributed-machine vision predictive model. The proposed method was tested on a gold-antimony flotation process, and it improved tailings qualification rate to 96.67%, and reduced the tailings standard deviation. This method also efficiently accounts for the influence of disturbances on the flotation system and improves the stability and effectiveness of the flotation system.
																								



16.
ADSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF STARCH DIGESTED WITH ALKALI ON FINE HEMATITE PARTICLES

Tang Min, Wen Shuming
Kunming University of Science and Technology, Yunnan, 650093 China
Keywords: Щелочь, обработка, крахмал, флокуляция, мелкодисперсный гематит, Alkali, digestion, starch, flocculation, fine hematite

Abstract >>
In this paper, the influence of alkali on the flocculation of starch on fine hematite was investigated through a series of tests, like turbidities, paste titration, adsorption, conductance, scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurement, and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopic analysis (FTIR) as well. The results pointed out that alkali concentration has a strong influence on physicochemical changes of starch granules, inducing different adsorption densities on mineral surfaces. A maximum amount of adsorption density (10.5 mg/g hematite) on minerals particles was harvested for the starch digested with sodium hydroxide at a concentration of 0.4 N/g starch. It is worthy to note that starch is not fully digested in the presence of alkali at a concentration of less than 0.4 N/g starch. Higher concentration of hydroxide ions, however, tends to obtain less adsorption density of starch on hematite because too small size/weight remnants in the starch gel have inverse effects on adsorption capacity.
																								



17.
SUBSTANTIATION OF LIFE EXTENSION METHOD FOR TWO-STAGE AXIAL FLOW FANS FOR MAIN VENTILATION

A. M. Krasyuk, I. V. Lugin, P. V. Kosykh, E. Yu. Russky
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: Вентилятор, рабочее колесо, вентиляционный канал, гироскопический момент, структура воздушных потоков, аэродинамические и конструктивные параметры, жесткость опор, критическая скорость, изгибные колебания, Fan, impeller, ventilation passage, gyroscopic moment, air flow structure, aerodynamic and structural parameters, bearing assembly rigidity, critical rotor speed, bending vibrations

Abstract >>
The article substantiates the retrofit method for two-stage axial flow fans including an impeller and a flow straightener in each stage. In this method, the two-stage rotor is replaced by a high-rate one-stage rotor within the inlet guide vanes-impeller-flow straightener circuit. As a result, the air flow at the impeller input is uniform per standard, the operational life of the rotor bearing assembly is extended while the rotor mass is largely reduced. The procedure is developed for design and selection of aerodynamic and structural parameters of the remodel axial mine fans. The procedure takes into account the influence of the variable frequency drive and gyroscopic moment of the impeller, as well as the rigidity of the bearing assemblies and ratio of mass-inertia properties of the rotor, which allows determination of critical rotor speeds at early stage of design.
																								



18.
EXPERIMENTAL RANGE TEST OF FLAME SPREAD IN DUST-AIR MIXTURES

A. A. Sechin1, Yu. F. Patrakov2, A. I. Sechin1
1National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 Russia
2Federal Research Center of Coal and Coal Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo, 650065 Russia
Keywords: Угольная пыль, пожаровзрывоопасные свойства, экспериментальная установка, Coal dust, fire/explosion hazard characteristics, experimental plant

Abstract >>
The experimental procedure is presented for range test of critical flame spread in the conditions of uniform distribution of particles in dust cloud under varied temperature of the ignition initiation source. Fire and explosion hazard of coal dust is estimated by the method of successive approximations. The feasibility of studying the cold flame effect in inflammation of coal dust suspension in air and its transition to the hot mode burning when dust concentration grows is demonstrated, which is of importance for the theory of safety technology.
																								



19.
COAL DUST BLAST ISOLATION BY HYDRO VORTEX INERTIAL COAGULATION

V. N. Makarov, N. V. Makarov, A. V. Ugol’nikov, E. P. Afanasenko, M. B. Nosyrev
Ural State Mining University, Yekaterinburg, 620075 Russia
Keywords: Экотехнология, пылеподавление, коагуляция, гидрофобность, циркуляция, угол смачивания, адгезия, энергия поглощения, присоединенный вихрь, Ecotechnology, dust contorl, coagulation, hydrophobicity, circulation, wetting angle, adhesion, absorption energy, added vortex

Abstract >>
The mathematical model of hydro vortex inertial kinematic coagulation is proposed; the model largely improves energy efficiency of coal dust blast isolation. The graphical model of interaction between liquid drop and explosive aerosol particle at the contact zone at the moment of collision in the liquid-solid system is refined using the theory of added vortexes. The hypothesis on weakening of the wedge effect of a gas medium in the zone of contact between the explosive aerosol particle owing to an added vortex caused by the drop and particle rotation, is put forward and proved. The equations are obtained for calculating energy required for total absorption of explosive aerosol particles, minimum diameter of the particles and wetting angle in hydro vortex inertial coagulation.
																								



20.
IMPLEMENTATION AND VERIFICATION OF A “WI-FI AD HOC” COMMUNICATION SYSTEM IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE ENVIRONMENT

H. Ikeda1, Y. Kawamura1, Z. P. L. Tungol1, M. A. Moridi2, H. Jang2
1Akita University, Akita, 010-8502 Japan
2Curtin University, Kalgoorlie, 6430 WA, Australia
Keywords: Система связи, система Wi-Fi ad hoc, беспроводные сенсорные сети, шахта, система мониторинга, Communication system, Wi-Fi ad hoc, wireless sensor networks, mine, monitoring

Abstract >>
The authors present a WI-Fi ad hoc wireless senor communication network for information transmission between data loggers and mobile station (smartphones). The wireless data transmission follows from an underground station to a worker’s smartphone and, then, after the worker has left the mine, to a data logger on the surface. The serviceability of this system was tested by measurement of communication quality indexes in various environments. The tests show that wireless communication between a stationary point and a mobile devise is possible at transfer speeds up to 2 MB/s with a PER below 25% either at a maximum distance of 110 m in a straight path or at a distance of 20 m in case of a corner or turn of the path. The proposed system allows the transmission of 39.6-79.2 MB of monitoring data to a worker moving at 20 km/h.