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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2019 year, number 8

1.
Evaluation of the characteristics of the domain of multiple filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in air based on the single filamentation model

A.A. Zemlyanov, Yu.E. Geints, O.V. Minina
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: фемтосекундные лазерные импульсы, воздух, самофокусировка, филаментация, дифракционно-лучевая трубка, femtosecond laser pulses, air, self-focusing, filamentation, diffraction-beam tube

Abstract >>
Characteristics of the multiple filamentation domain in air are estimated on the basis of the numerical solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the single filamentation problem statement. The method of diffraction-beam tubes was used to describe the single filamentation of laser pulses. The effectiveness of this method for interpreting experimental results and predicting effects is shown, which is important when planning experiments. The characteristic size of small-scale intensity inhomogeneities in the laser centimeter-radius beam profile, which form a multiple filamentation domain for femtosecond pulses, is shown to be several millimeters. An increase in the original laser beam radius during telescoping increases the sizes of the initial small-scale intensity irregularities, which increases the filamentation start distance. An increase in initial beam power contributes to the elongation of the filaments and increases their number.
																								



2.
An experiment on the study of aircraft wake vortices at the airfield of Tolmachevo Airport in 2018

I.N. Smalikho, V.A. Banakh, A.V. Falits, A.A. Sukharev
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: когерентный доплеровский лидар, самолетные вихри, coherent Doppler lidar, aircraft wake vortices

Abstract >>
In order to study the wake vortices of landing aircrafts, we carried out an experiment on the airfield of Tolmachevo Airport in 2018, which involved Stream Line lidar, AMK-03 sonic anemometer, and MTP-5 temperature profiler. The limits of applicability of the radial velocity method for estimation of wake vortix parameters from lidar measurements were determinied depending on the aircraft type and the wind turbulence strength. The analysis of the experimental results makes it possible to identify features of the spatial dynamics and evolution of aircraft wake vortices during different states of the surface air layer. In particular, it is found that in the case of low average crosswind speed and moderate wind turbulence, the lifetime of the vortex formed behind a landing large MD-11F aircraft can attain almost 4 min.
																								



3.
Detection of an optical vortex topological charge and coordinates by analyzing branches of an interference pattern

F.Yu. Kanev1,2, V.P. Aksenov1, F.A. Starikov3, Yu.V. Dolgopolov3, A.V. Kopalkin3, I.D. Veretekhin4
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia
3Russian Federal Nuclear Center, Sarov, Russia
4National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: вихревая оптика, оптический вихрь, особая точка волнового фронта, топологический заряд, singular optics, optical vortex, singular point of a wavefront, topological charge

Abstract >>
An algorithm of optical vortex detection is considered and a computer application based on the algorithm is described. A vortex is localized as a branching point of an interference pattern. As the input data for the application, a BMP-file containing an image of interferogram is used; at the output, we obtain information about the vortex topological charge and coordinates. As is shown, accuracy of the algorithm developed is not lower than that of known analogues, while the amount of information obtained is larger.
																								



4.
Calculation of the H2O continuum absorption in IR region based on Burch’s measurements

T.E. Klimeshina, O.B. Rodimova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: водяной пар, континуальное поглощение, континуум Берча, измерения FTIR, СRDS, water vapour, continuum absorption, Burch continuum, FTIR measurements, СRDS measurements

Abstract >>
The results of calculation of continuum absorption coefficients in IR H2O spectra in 2400-10000 cm-1 spectral region are presented. The spectral line contour used in the calculation was obtained in the frame of asymptotic line wing theory and contains parameters of both classic and quantum potentials. Parameters of the classic potential were taken from absorption calculations in 8-12 mm region. Parameters of the quantum potential were derived from fitting to Burch’s data in 2400-2800 cm-1 region. Calculated data in the H2O transparency windows are consistent with CRDS measurement data and with high temperature Fourier-measurement data.
																								



5.
Peculiarities of the variability of the intensity of the luminous plankton community in the coastal area of the Black Sea in the spring and autumn periods

A.B. Polonsky1,2, E.B. Mel’nikova1, A.N. Serebrennikov1
1Natural and Technical Systems Institute of the RAS, Sevastopol, Russia
2Sevastopol State University, Sevastopol, Russia
Keywords: вертикальное распределение светящихся гидробионтов, биолюминесценция, сезонные изменения, спутниковая информация, циркуляция вод Черного моря, мезомасштабные вихри, vertical profile of hydrobiont bioluminescence intensity, bioluminescent lighting, seasonal changes, satellite information, Black Sea circulation, mesoscale eddies

Abstract >>
Variability of the hydrobiont bioluminescence intensity in the spring and autumn periods along the coast of Crimea and its causes are analyzed based on expedition data and satellite information. It is noted that synoptic and mesoscale eddy processes have a significant impact on the vertical distribution of the intensity of the luminescence of hydrobionts, and they must be taken into account when analyzing the seasonal variability of bioluminescence parameters. The concept of integrated intensity of luminescence of hydrobionts (IILH) is suggested, which allows us to estimate the total hydrobiont biomass in the depth range, under study. It was found that the average IILH in the northern part of the Black Sea in the autumn period was more than 10 times higher than in spring. It is noted that the mesoscale eddy processes have the greatest impact on the IILH in the area of the continental slope area.
																								



6.
Reconstruction of the Earth surface reflection coefficients from MODIS satellite measurements with allowance for radiation polarization

M.V. Tarasenkov, A.V. Zimovaya, V.V. Belov, M.V. Engel
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: атмосферная коррекция, коэффициент отражения земной поверхности, поляризация, метод Монте-Карло, atmospheric correction, Earth surface reflection coefficient, polarization, Monte Carlo method

Abstract >>
The algorithm of reconstruction of the Earth surface reflection coefficients with allowance for radiation polarization is considered. The algorithm was approbated for 5 channels of the MODIS device and three territories: south of the Tomsk region, Moscow region, and Irkutsk region. To estimate the error of the algorithm, test points in the center of coniferous large forest areas in summer season were used. Results obtained using the MOD09 algorithm with and without allowance for radiation polarization and results obtained without atmospheric correction are compared with measurement data considered to be reference ones. The comparison demonstrates that the average values obtained by the suggested algorithm with allowance for polarization are closer to the reference data than those obtained using the MOD09 NASA algorithm in the first, third, and fourth MODIS channels, and the difference on the same order of magnitude is observed in the second MODIS channel. In the eighth MODIS channel, one algorithm is preferable in some situations, and another algorithm is preferable in other situations.
																								



7.
Retrieval of the cloud optical depth and particle effective radii from MSU-MR daytime measurements

A.A. Filei
Far-Eastern Center of State Research Center for Space Hydrometeorology В«Planeta», Khabarovsk, Russia
Keywords: МСУ-МР, оптическая толщина, эффективный радиус, фазовое состояние, облачность, MSU-MR, optical depth, effective radius, cloud phase, cloudiness

Abstract >>
The algorithm for determining cloud optical depth and cloud particle effective radii from MSU-MR daytime measurements on-board the Russian meteorological satellite Meteor-M No. 2 is presented. It is based on the physical principles of using the reflectance at 1.6 and 3.7 mm. The algorithm results are compared with the results of the algorithm developed for the AVHRR radiometer. The comparison shows that the cloud parameters retrieved with the algorithm suggested are within the acceptable limits of accuracy.
																								



8.
Variations in the ozone concentration in precipitation

V.G. Arshinova1, B.D. Belan1, V.A. Lapchenko2, E.V. Lapchenko2, T.M. Rasskazchikova1, D.E. Savkin1, T.K. Sklyadneva1, G.N. Tolmachev1, A.V. Fofonov1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2T.I. Vyazemsky Karadag scientific station, Theodosius, Russia
Keywords: атмосфера, газ, воздух, вымывание, озон, осадки, примеси, удаление, atmosphere, gas, air, washout, ozone, precipitation, impurity, removal

Abstract >>
Changes in the ozone concentration during precipitation is studied on the basis of surface ozone monitoring data in Tomsk and on the Karadag. It is revealed that these changes can be both positive and negative. The maximal ozone content jumps are observed during frontal precipitations. During air mass precipitation, the sign and magnitude of the changes are defined by the daily ozone cycle. The analysis showed coincidence between an increase in the ozone concentration during precipitation with its increase in the daily cycle in 59% of cases in Tomsk and in 63% of cases on the Karadag. The coincidence of a decrease in the O3 concentration during precipitation with the ozone decrease wave in the daily cycle is observed even more often, in 85% of cases in Tomsk and in 79% of cases on the Karadag. Based on the aircraft sounding data, ozone sink from the boundary air layer is observed in some cases when the temperature stratification is changing to neutral in precipitation.
																								



9.
The influence of the stratospheric and tropospheric polar vortices on the Barents Sea ice extent during winter 1997/1998 and 2015/2016

V.V. Zuev, E.S. Savelieva
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: стратосферный и тропосферный полярные вихри, Баренцево море, площадь арктического морского льда, приземная температура, stratospheric and tropospheric polar vortices, the Barents Sea, Arctic sea ice extent, surface temperature

Abstract >>
A temperature decrease occurs inside the tropospheric polar vortex during winter, which is reflected in an increase in the Arctic sea ice extent. However, the Barents Sea often turns out to be at the tropospheric vortex edge in winter, where the surface temperature is higher, which leads to a decrease in sea ice extent. Based on the ERA-Interim reanalysis data and the NSIDC satellite data, we show that the Barents Sea ice extent depends on the shape and location of the tropospheric polar vortex from December to February. Based on the example of the polar vortex dynamics in 1997/1998 and 2015/2016 and using the correlation analysis, we show that the tropospheric polar vortex edge can repeat the shape and location of the stratospheric vortex from December to March. Thus, Arctic sea ice loss as a result of a change in the tropospheric vortex edge can occur under the influence of the stratospheric polar vortex in winter.
																								



10.
Optical parametric oscillator at MID-IR spectral region based on periodically polled LiNbO3 pumped by Tm3+:Lu2O3 ceramic laser

D.B. Kolker1,2, O.L. Antipov3, S.V. Larin4, L.I. Isaenko2,5, V.N. Vedenyapin2,5, A.R. Ahmatkhanov6, V.Ya. Shur6
1Institute of Laser Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
2National Research Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia
3Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod , Russia
4IRE-POLYUS, Fryazino, Russia
5V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
6Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg, Russia
Keywords: параметрический генератор света, периодически поляризованная структура, средний ИК-диапазон, Tm:LuO-лазер, optical parametric oscillator, periodically-polled structure, mid-infrared, PPMgO:LN

Abstract >>
Optical parametric oscillator based on periodically polled MgO:LiNbO3 pumped by repetitively-pulsed Tm3+:Lu2O3 ceramic laser with a fiber-laser pumping was experimentally studied. The average power at the spectral range of 3.7-4.2 mm at the OPO output was 530 mW at the power of 7.9 W of the ceramic laser. The full efficiency of energy conversion from NIR-IR to MID-IR was 6.7% and differential efficiency was 8%. For parametric conversion of two-micron radiation from lasers (for example, on Tm3+:Lu2O3 ceramics or Ho3+:YAG crystals) into the mid-IR range, KTP and KTA crystals with regular domain structures are also promising.