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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2019 year, number 6

Measurements of physical-chemical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol at “Ice Base Cape Baranov” in 2018

S.M. Sakerin1, L.P. Golobokova2, D.M. Kabanov1, D.A. Kalashnikova3, V.S. Kozlov1, I.A. Kruglinsky4, V.I. Makarov5, A.P. Makshtas6, S.A. Popova5, V.F. Radionov6, G.V. Simonova3, Yu.S. Turchinovich1, T.V. Khodzher2, O.I. Khuriganowa2, O.V. Chankina5, D.G. Chernov1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2Limnological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Irkutsk, Russia
3Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
4National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
5V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
6Federal State Budgetary Institution "Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute", St. Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: аэрозоль, сажа, ионный, элементный, изотопный состав, Северная Земля, aerosol, black carbon, ionic, elemental, isotopic composition, Northern Earth

Abstract >>
We discuss the results of measurements in the region of Cape Baranov (the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago) of the set of physical-chemical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol: aerosol optical depth, aerosol and black carbon concentrations, elemental and ion composition of aerosol, organic and elemental carbon contents in aerosol, and isotopic composition of carbon in the aerosol and snow samples. It is shown that the average values of the most aerosol characteristics, measured in April-June 2018, are much lower than in the Arctic settlement Barentsburg (Spitsbergen archipelago) and several-fold smaller than in the south of Western Siberia in the same period of time.

Black carbon in surface air in the Pechora-Ilych nature reserve: measurements and sources

A.A. Vinogradova1, V.M. Kopeikin1, N.S. Smirnov2, A.V. Vasileva1, Yu.A. Ivanova1
1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Pechoro-Ilychskiy Gosudarstvennyy Prirodnyy Zapovednik, Komi Republic, Troitsko-Pechorskij r-n, pos. Yaksha, Russia
Keywords: атмосфера, приземный слой, загрязнение, черный углерод, непрерывный мониторинг, Печоро-Илычский заповедник, антропогенные источники, Black carbon, in surface air, Pechora-Ilych nature reserve, measurements and sources

Abstract >>
The new data on the surface atmospheric black carbon (BC) concentration derived from continuous daily sampling during October 2017 - March 2018, that is, cold half year without wildfires as BC sources, in the remote area of Pechora-Ilych Nature Biosphere Reserve are analyzed. Average BC concentrations (with standard deviations) are equal to (296 ± 172) and (175 ± 82) ng/m3 for settlement Yaksha and in its neighborhood, respectively. Monthly average BC concentrations measured are compared with related monthly average satellite data ( A good agreement between them may be regarded as their inter-calibration and confirms the reliability of both result types. The analysis of air mass trajectories at the observation point shows the main anthropogenic BC sources to be situated at a distances of less than 500 km in industrial areas of the Central Urals, gas and oil production areas of Yamalo-Nenets and Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District, towns and settlements of Perm region, Udmurtia, and Komi Republic.

Motion of fractal-like aggregates: settling velocity of particles and thermophoresis

S.A. Beresnev, M.S. Vasiljeva, L.B. Kochneva
Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg, Russia
Keywords: скорость оседания, термофорез, фракталоподобные частицы, settling velocity, thermophoresis, fractal-like particles

Abstract >>
The theoretical approach for calculations of fractal-like particles characteristics on the basis of gas-kinetic results for homogeneous spheres is presented. It consists in replacement of a real fractal aggregate by an equivalent sphere with the mobility radius and approximations of the density and heat conductivity of the aggregate by their effective values. The validity of the method has been confirmed in the comparison with the known experimental data. The theory suggested has two important restrictions: fractal aggregate should consist from a great number of primary particles (100 and more) and primary particles should be monodisperse. Violation of these conditions leads to considerable divergence between theoretical and experimental results.

Trends in parameters of atmospheric aerosols in Moscow according to long-term AERONET observations

E.Yu. Zhdanova, Yu.O. Khlestova, N.E. Chubarova
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: атмосферный аэрозоль, аэрозольная оптическая толщина, AERONET, многолетние измерения, Москва, atmospheric aerosols, aerosol optical thickness, AERONET, long-term measurements, Moscow

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Trends in aerosol optical thickness (AOT) in Moscow are determined based on long-term (2002-2016) AERONET network observations. The trend in AOT at a wavelength of 550 nm (AOT550) is characterized by the negative sign in warm season. It is shown that trends in AOT are negative and have different values in different months. The largest negative trend is in April, if the impact of forest fires in other months of the warm season is neglected. The joint analysis of changes in AOT550 and indices of atmospheric circulation is performed. It is shown that the Scandinavian index has an additional effect on the interannual changes in AOT550 in April. It is ascertained that fine weakly-absorbing aerosol is the most representative for Moscow. No pronounced changes in the frequency of aerosol types have been identified in recent decades.

Surface properties of aerosol particles obtained by dispersing a cassiterite crystal under tropospheric conditions

V.S. Zakharenko1, E.B. Daibova2
1Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture and Peat, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: минерал касситерит, осажденный аэрозоль, условия окружающего воздуха, состав адсорбированного слоя, фотодесорбция, квантовый выход, cassiterite mineral, precipitated aerosol, ambient air, composition of adsorbed layer, photodesorption, quantum yield

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The adsorption layer of aerosol microparticles from cassiterite mainly containing tin dioxide is studied under ambient conditions, as well as the kinetics of dark and photoinduced processes. The quantum yield of carbon dioxide photodesorption is estimated and its spectral dependence is derived. Carbon dioxide photodesorption is observed in the intrinsic absorption region of tin dioxide; it is one of the stages of carbon monoxide photocatalytic reaction.

Variations in soot concentrations in megacities of Beijing and Moscow

V.M. Kopeikin1, G.S. Golitsyn1, Gengchen Wang2, Pucai Wang2, T.Ya. Ponomareva3
1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Institute of Atmospheric Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
3Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: сажевый аэрозоль, массовая концентрация аэрозоля, загрязнение атмосферы мегаполисов, обратные траектории переноса воздушных масс, soot aerosol, mass concentration of aerosol, pollution of megacities atmosphere, reverse trajectories of air mass transfer

Abstract >>
The results of BC concentration measurements in Moscow in 2003-2013 and in Beijing in 2004-2010 are presented. Measurement ranges of single BC concentrations in 2004-2010 are 0.1-77 mg/m3 in Beijing and 0.1-22 mg/m3 in Moscow. The seven-year average daytime BC concentration in Beijing is 2.5 times higher than in Moscow. The seasonal variability of the BC concentration is more pronounced in Moscow (in summer it is 33% lower than in winter) than in Beijing (in summer it is only 13% lower). A significant increase in the BC concentration in the air of Beijing occurs when air masses are transferred from industrialized regions south of Beijing. The air pollution with BC mainly decreases in Moscow due to advection under arrival of air masses from northern regions.

Smog and smoke haze over Northern China Plain in June 2007

G.I. Gorchakov1, A.V. Karpov1, I.A. Gorchakova1, R.A. Gushchin1,2, O.I. Datsenko1,2
1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Moscow Technological University, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: смог, дымная мгла, аэрозоль, тонкодисперсная фракция, грубодисперсная фракция, аэрозольная оптическая толщина, спектр ослабления, аппроксимация спектров ослабления, альбедо однократного рассеяния, аэрозольный радиационный форсинг, эффективность форсинга MODIS, AERONET, smog, smoke haze, aerosol, fine mode, coarse mode, aerosol optical depth, extinction spectrum, extinction spectrum approximation, single scattering albedo, aerosol radiative forcing, radiative forcing efficiency

Abstract >>
Aerosol optical depth (AOD) spatial distribution for wavelength 550 nm over Northern China Plain (NCP) and adjacent areas for the smog in summer 2007 has derived on satellite monitoring (MODIS/Terra) data. Increased AOD areas determinated by anthropogenic air pollution regional sources in the neighbor of Beijing and Shanghai are revealed. Substantial increasing AOD on the south-west NCP was produced by the smoke haze which arose of an agricultural biomass burning. Optical and microphysical characteristic similarity of the aerosol in smoke haze over NCP and in smoke haze in Russia is revealed: (1) dominant contribution in the optical characteristics of the smoke aerosol gives a fine mode; (2) extinction spectra at wavelength 340-1020 nm are approximated (in logarithmic coordinates) by parabola or polynomial functions with four power. According to the monitoring data at AERONET station Beijing single scattering albedo in the summer smog over NCP (0.91) in average is less than in the smoke haze over Russia (0.95-0.96). It is shown that radiative regimes of the atmosphere are distinct substantially in the summer smog over NCP and in the smoke haze over Russia: aerosol radiative forcing efficiency on the top of the atmosphere in the smog is less approximately by 30 percent and on the bottom of the atmosphere is more by 30 percent that in the smoke haze.

Estimation of SO2 emission in the air of Norilsk region

V.F. Raputa1, D.V. Simonenkov2, B.D. Belan2, T.V. Yaroslavtseva3
1Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
3Novosibirsk Scientific Research Institute of Hygiene of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: атмосфера, диоксид серы, дымовой шлейф, эмиссия примеси, модель оценивания, atmosphere, sulfur dioxide, smoke plume, emission of impurity, estimation model

Abstract >>
The numerical analysis of the data of the aircraft sounding plume of impurity carry-over in the summer atmosphere of the Norilsk industrial region has been carried out. A two-parameter model was constructed for numerical retrieval of impurity concentrations in directions transverse to the plume and, based on it, estimates of the lower limits of sulfur dioxide emission corresponding to different emission time. Considerable variability of emission estimates was established due to the nonstationarity of sulfur dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. The average emission of SO2 into the atmosphere was estimated as 1.86 million tons/year, which is close to the official statistics.

Simulation of transport coefficients of aerosols and nanofluids with hollow nanoparticles

V.Ya. Rudyak, S.L. Krasnolutskii
The Novosibirsk State University of architecture and Civil Engineering, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: наночастицы, полые наночастицы, аэрозоль, наноаэрозоль, наногазовзвесь, наножидкость, диффузия, вязкость, nanoparticles, hollow nanoparticles, aerosol, nanoaerosol, gas nanosuspension, nanofluid, diffusion, viscosity

Abstract >>
Diffusion of hollow nanoparticles in low-density and rarefied gases and the viscosity of aerosols with such particles are studied with the previously developed kinetic theory and molecular dynamics method. Interaction between molecules of a carrier medium is simulated with Lennard-Jones potential, between these molecules and the nanoparticle, with RK potential, and between the nanoparticles, with RKI potential. Nitrogen-based aerosols with hollow and solid aluminum and uranium nanoparticles are considered at a temperature of 300 K and atmospheric pressure. Diameter of the nanoparticles is varied from 5 to 100 nm; the thickness of walls of hollow nanoparticles is 1 nm. It is shown that the diffusion coefficients of hollow nanoparticles always exceed those of solid particles of the same size and the same material, but this difference does not exceed 1%. The viscosity coefficient of aerosol with hollow nanoparticles is always lower than of aerosol with solid particles. The diffusion of hollow and solid aluminum nanoparticles with diameters of 2 and 4 nm in argon of the density ρ = 0.707 at a temperature of 300 K is also molecular dynamics (MD) simulated. It is shown that diffusion coefficients of hollow and solid nanoparticles of the same diameter and the same material in rarefied gases and liquids are the equal.

Study of the cluster composition of pollen particles entering the atmosphere during the bloom of anemophilic plants

V.V. Golovko1, A.P. Belanova2, G.A. Zueva2
1V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Central Siberian Botanical Garden of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: пыльца, анемофильные растения, атмосферный аэрозоль, кластеры, pollen, anemophilous plants, atmospheric aerosol, clusters

Abstract >>
Results of the study of pollen particles in the atmosphere are presented. A fraction of clusters, which consist of two and more pollen grains, of the total number of pollen particles entering the atmosphere is estimated. It is shown that although the anemophilous plants exhibit morphological peculiarities that prevent cluster formation, many similar clusters were formed in all experiments. The fraction of pollen grains could exceed 50% of the total number of pollen grains entering the atmosphere.

Effect of anomalous environmental conditions on methane emission on the Bakchar bog nearby Plotnikovo in summer 2018

A.V. Dyachkova1, D.K. Davydov1, A.V. Fofonov1, O.A. Krasnov1, E.A. Golovatskaya2, D.V. Simonenkov1, T. Nakayama3, S.S. Maksyutov3
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
3National Institute for Environmental Studies, Ibaraki, Japan
Keywords: болотные экосистемы, газообмен на границе В«почва - атмосфераВ», летучие органические соединения, метан, эмиссионные потоки, wetland ecosystems, terrain-atmosphere gases exchange, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methane, emission flows

Abstract >>
The measurements of methane fluxes (CH4) obtained by the automatic chamber method in the characteristic plant associations on the Plotnikovo section of the Bakchar bog (the Great Vasyugan Mires) in June 2018 are presented. Air sampling was carried out in wet phytocenoses on the hollow-ridge landscape. The period under consideration was characterized by anomalous weather conditions compared with the same periods of previous years: extreme precipitations and high air temperatures. On the basis of the research, the daily dynamics of CH4 emission was revealed. The correlation analysis made it possible to describe the dependences of CH4 fluxes on the hydrometeorological conditions of the surface and upper layers of the bog soil. The high flood of bog waters inhibits the methanogenesis during the period of observation.

Algorithm for detection of gas flaring units and assessment of emissions

M.N. Alekseeva, I.G. Yashchenko
Institute of Petroleum Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: температура земной поверхности, тепловые космические снимки Landsat-8, факельные установки, попутный нефтяной газ, загрязняющее вещество, атмосфера, temperature of the earth's surface, Landsat-8 thermal satellite images, flare units, associated petroleum gas, pollutant, atmosphere

Abstract >>
An automated algorithm is suggested for detection of gas flaring units. It is based on the calculation of the land temperature from Landsat 8 satellite imagery using two methods for retrieving the Earth’s surface temperature. The methods include calculation of the Earth’s surface emissivity and solution of the equation accounting the atmospheric water vapor content. The difference between Earth's surface temperature calculated and the temperatures measured at meteorological stations does not exceed 2 °C. Two gas flaring units were detected with the algorithm in Tomsk Oblast and in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug. Carbon monoxide prevails in the emissions associated with gas flaring. The emissions of carbon, nitrogen, and methane oxides significantly contribute to environmental degradation of oil and gas producing regions and to the greenhouse effect.

Technique for measurements of the drag coefficient of a spherical particle in nonstandard conditions

V.A. Arkhipov, A.A. Antonnikova, S.A. Basalaev, K.G. Perfilieva
National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: коэффициент сопротивления, сферическая частица, вдув газа с поверхности частицы, неизотермические условия, гравитационное осаждение, вязкая жидкость, drag coefficient, solid spherical particle, gas injection from the particle surface, non-isothermal conditions, gravity sedimentation, viscous fluid

Abstract >>
A technique and results of the experimental study of a drag coefficient of a spherical particle in nonstandard conditions are presented. The effect of the gas injection from a surface of a solid spherical particle on the drag coefficient is analyzed under variations in the ratio of the gas injection velocity and the velocity of airflow around the particle. The dependence of the drag coefficient on the velocity of the gas injection from a particle surface is derived. The influence of the temperature difference between the fluid and particle on the drag coefficient during particle sedimentation in a viscous fluid is studied; the corresponding dependence is found.

Manifestation of equatorial processes in the water vapor variability on the European territory

O.G. Khutorova, V.E. Khutorov, G.M. Teptin
Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russian Federation
Keywords: приземное парциального давления водяного пара, Эль-Ниньо-Южное колебание, планетарные волны, surface water vapor partial pressure, El Nino-Southern Oscillation, planetary waves

Abstract >>
The variability of time series of the integral moisture content of the atmosphere and the surface partial pressure of water vapor for the territory of Europe are studied over a long period. It is established that the contribution of fluctuations on time scales from 2 to 5 years is from 35 to 60% of the interannual variance. The spatial dependences of the local coherence of harmonics on the scales of 2-4 Nino3.4 index and the partial water pressure in Europe are found. It is found that the correlation of these variations is 0.7-0.9. It is shown that planetary waves propagating from east to west play a significant role in the energy transfer from equatorial processes to middle latitudes. Their energy begins to increase in winter in the year of El Niño and reaches the maximum in a year.

Multisensor oriented solar irradiance meter

S.V. Zuev
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: суммарная солнечная радиация, прямая солнечная радиация, рассеянная солнечная радиация, пиранометр, total solar irradiance, direct solar irradiance, diffuse solar irradiance, pyranometer

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This paper describes the multisensor oriented solar irradiance meter without moving parts for measuring total, direct, and diffuse irradiance and sunshine duration.