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Philosophy of Sciences

2019 year, number 2

1.
SPINOZA ON INTELLECTUAL INTUITION

Vasiliy Pavlovich Goran
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Akademy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Спиноза, мироздание, атрибуты, модусы, необходимость, человек, познание, интеллектуальная интуиция, индивидуально-неповторимое, постигаемое само через себя, блаженство души, Spinoza, the universe, attributes, modes, necessity, human, cognition, intellectual intuition, individually unique, comprehended through itself, beatitude of the soul

Abstract >>
The article considers consequences of Spinoza’s recognition of the fact that the universe, which he names also God, is the sole and single totality of an infinite multitude of solitary modes of its universal attributes, to which human also belongs. Special attention is paid to the specificity of Spinoza's picture of the universe caused by the philosopher's recognition of the strict necessity of the «nature» of everything that exists and at the same time to his efforts to reject that which by the end of his life was called «quietism». Meanwhile, in Spinozas's view, the «last goal» of human is only an adequate perception of the world and himself. According to Spinoza, only intellectual intuition, as he says, may attain it in an undoubtedly adequate way. Naturally, the article studies thoroughly and evaluates the component of Spinoza’s teaching which deals with intellectual intuition. It is summarized not just in his statement that it is only intellectual intuition which comprehends the individually unique and the singular, i.e. that the totality of which Spinoza thinks to be the only really existing components of the universe. Its equally important feature, according to Spinoza, is the fact that clear and distinct things in that what we cognize we perceive in no other way but «through themselves». The article shows the main direction of change in the object orientation of Spinoza's research attention in his Ethics which takes place as the philosopher increases his efforts to reveal a level of importance of a person’s reliance on intellectual intuition in his cognitive activity and spiritual quest as a whole. The author analyzes how Spinoza substantiates both the absolute truth of the result of the functioning of intellectual intuition and the perpetual state of soul beatitude which feels human possessing this result.
																								



2.
GODEL'S INCOMPLETENESS THEOREM AND COMPLETENESS AXIOM

Alexandr Vladimirovich Bessonov
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Akademy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Godel's incompleteness theorem, formalization of (non)provability, provability predicate, falsifiability predicate, solvability predicate, unsolvability, completeness axiom

Abstract >>
The article considers K. Godel's incompleteness theorem of formal Dedekind-Peano arithmetic in respect to various non-Godel means of formalizing (non)provability. A solvability predicate is introduced, using which we can frame up a formula that formally expresses the completeness of arithmetic and prove its insolvability. It followed that the addition of the axiom of completeness to formal arithmetic results in a consistent system which contradicts, in a sense, Godel’s first incompleteness theorem.
																								



3.
CHAOS AND TRANSFORMATION OF THE CATEGORY OF TIME IN POST-NON-CLASSICAL SCIENCE

Andrey Vitalyevich Kolesnikov1, Svetlana Nikolaevna Sirenko2, Georgiy Gennad’evitch Malinetsky3
1Institute of Philosophy, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Republic of Belarus
2Belarusian State University, Minsk, Republic of Belarus
3Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics RAS, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: время, time, chaos, nonlinearity, foundations of mathematics, number, set theory, cellular automata, computer simulation, хаос, нелинейность, основания математики, число, теория множеств, клеточные автоматы, компьютерное моделирование

Abstract >>
Concepts of time are significantly different in philosophy and the humanities on the one hand and in mathematics and physical and mathematical sciences on the other hand. Mathematics and physics traditionally focus on reproducible periodic processes paying attention to the prediction of their results. Philosophy and the humanities as a whole consider time mostly as a historical irreproducible stream of unique events which create history and as a unique development scenario. An urgent scientific problem consists in the convergence of both concepts, which is possible on the basis of modern ideas of deterministic chaos. For an adequate description of historical time, it is advisable to use the proposed concepts of “dynamic set” and “true (or temporal) number”. The features of deterministic-chaotic processes with the participation of temporal numbers can be shown by the example of computer models of continual cellular automata, for which the rules of transition between their states include nonlinearity.
																								



4.
THE RELATIONAL INTERPRETATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS AND CONTEXTUAL REALISM

Igor Evgenyevich Pris1, Anna Yuryevna Storozhuk2, Aleksandr Leonidovich Simanov2
1Institute of Philosophy, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Republic of Belarus
2Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: реляционная квантовая механика, квантовая корреляция, квантовая система, квантовый наблюдатель, квантовое событие, квантовая теория, квантовое явление, метафизический реализм, контекстуальный реализм, relational quantum mechanics, quantum correlation, quantum system, quantum observer, quantum event, quantum theory, quantum phenomenon, metaphysical realism, contextual realism

Abstract >>
The article proposes a contextual realist interpretation of one of the most popular modern versions of quantum mechanics such as Carlo Rovelli's relational quantum mechanics. The fundamentals points are correct interpretation of the concept of reality and taking into account the categorial difference between the ideal (concepts, theories, observers) and the real (applications of a theory, real objects, observed systems). In our interpretation, the observer consciousness (subjectivity) plays no metaphysical role. Our approach may also be regarded as a return to the Copenhagen interpretation (in a broad sense) corrected within the framework of contextual realism. In our view, later interpretations of quantum mechanics turned out to be worse than the original one proposed by the founding fathers of quantum physics. Contextual realism makes it possible to avoid metaphysical problems which different interpretations of quantum mechanics face with, including the relational one, to give a non-metaphysic interpretation of a quantum event arising when measuring a physical quantity, as well as a realistic and local interpretation of quantum correlations.
																								



5.
ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERACTIONS IN LIVING SYSTEMS: PHILOSOPHICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS

Danil Sergeevich Serdyukov1,2,3
1Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the SB RAS, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3Novosibirsk National Research State University, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: живой организм, электромагнитное излучение, нетепловой эффект, парадигма, редукционизм, биодетектирование, воспроизводимость, первичные механизмы, living organism, electromagnetic radiation, non-thermal effect, paradigm, reductionism, biodetection, reproducibility, primary mechanisms

Abstract >>
The article discusses philosophical and methodological problems which arise when studying the phenomenon of the generation of superweak electromagnetic radiation by living organisms and its regulatory function. It is shown how these problems can act as limitations in the study of the phenomenon, as well as in its acceptance by the scientific community.
																								



6.
CONSCIOUSNESS FROM THE ECOLOGICAL POINT OF VIEW PART II

Valeriy Ivanovitch Silantev
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: сознание, экологический взгляд на сознание, consciousness, the unconscious, the brain, ecological conception of consciousness, бессознательное, мозг

Abstract >>
The article considers the influence of consciousness on the brain and the cognitive unconscious. We summarize views of a number of psychologists, philosophers and linguists concerning cognition and consciousness. Basing on this analysis, we develop an ecological conception of consciousness. It implies that the system «consciousness - the unconscious - the brain» should also include individual's environment as the forth element.
																								



7.
CONSCIOUSNESS AS VIRTUAL REALITY: BASIC IDEAS OF THOMAS METZINGER'S THEORY

Evgeniy Alekseevich Bezlepkin
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: сознание, самосознание, виртуальная реальность, эго, Метцингер, consciousness, self-consciousness, virtual reality, ego, Metzinger

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the theory of consciousness as virtual reality proposed by T. Metzinger. We highlight the main aspects of the theory and show its differences from other modern theories of consciousness. We analyze Metzinger's assumption of a minimum set of structures necessary for the emergence of consciousness, i.e. his concept of "minimum consciousness". Also, we show the relation of the considered theory to the issues of the ontological status of subjective experience and self-consciousness, as well as to the key philosophical issues, namely the existence of the external world, the ontological status of consciousness, the existence of free will, the possibility of creating artificial consciousness and self-consciousness.
																								



8.
ON INTUITIVISM IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMATICS: FROM THE PAST TO THE FUTURE

Maksim Viktorovich Vinarsky1
St. Petersburg University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: биологическая систематика, история научного познания, интуитивизм в науке, теория классификации, biological systematics, history of scientific knowledge, intuitivism in science, theory of classification

Abstract >>
The paper aims to discuss the problem of the intuitive knowledge in the classification of living organisms, placed in the historical context. The ‘intuitivism’ vs. ‘operationalism’dilemma is considered, and the changes in their inter-relations during the development of biological systematics are reviewed. The reasons for the neglect of intuitivism in the modern systematics and the possible consequences of this are considered.