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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2019 year, number 2

1.
LANDSCAPE-ECOLOGICAL APPROACH TO THE RECREATIONAL FOREST USE IN THE MOUNTAINS OF THE SOUTH OF KRASNOYARSK KRAI

Zh. R. Suleymanova, D. I. Nazimova, M. A. Korets
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: горные ландшафты, лесная рекреация, ландшафтно-эстетическая ценность, высотная поясность, mountain landscapes, forest recreation, landscape-aesthetic value, altitudinal belts

Abstract >>
For the mountain profile of the Western Sayan located in the south of the Krasnoyarsk Krai, the recreational value of forest areas was assessed according to such characteristics as landscape-aesthetic value, stability, forest health and hygienic effect, digression, assessment of the types of sites. The estimation of recreational resource of the territory is given according to the typology of tourist forest use: the functions of tourist forest use, the motivation of tourist behavior and the types of tourist recreation. Recreational and touristic characteristics and landscape-aesthetic value of natural complexes are estimated in relative units. Specially Protected Natural Areas are given as examples of objects in which recreational activities are conducted. A landscape approach was used with the allocation of altitude-belt complexes and their characteristics in terms of climatic indicators, biodiversity, seasonal aspectivety, which made it possible to estimate territories from the point of view of recreational forest use and perspectives of recreation and tourism. The complex of studies made it possible to assess the recreational potential of mountain forest areas and determine their functional feasibility for existing and prospective types of recreation and tourism.
																								



2.
DISTRIBUTION OF SOME WOODY SPECIES AT THE NORTHERN BOUNDARY IN UST’-LENSKIY NATURE RESERVE (YAKUTIA). COMMUNICATION I. KAYANDER LARCH Larix cajanderi Mayr

E. G. Nikolin1,2, I. A. Yakshina2
1Institute for Biological Problems of Cryolithozone, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Yakutsk, Russia
2Ust’-Lenskiy State Nature Reserve, Tiksi, Russia
Keywords: лиственница, формы роста, местонахождения, продвижение на север, р. Лена, larch, forms of growth, locations, northern progression, Lena river

Abstract >>
The distribution of the Cayander larch Larix cajanderi Mayr within the northern boundary, on the right bank of the Lena river in Ust’-Lenskiy nature reserve in Yakutia is discussed in the article. In the studied area, normal, curved, curtain, semi-shelter and elfin forms of growth of the Cajander larch were recorded, and the geographical coordinates of their locations are given. Larch communities are distributed over 6 ecological-topological areas of the terrain: along the banks of the Lena river, between the Tit-Ary island and the mouth of the Chinke river; in the interfluve of the Chinke and Sobol’-Yuryage rivers; below the mouth of the Sobol’-Yuryage river; on the left bank of the Chinke river valley; on the right bank of the valleys of the Chinke and Chinke Salata rivers. On the right bank of the Lena river between the Tit-Ary island and upstream from the mouth of the Chinke river, larch forests are common with small gaps. Their last locations are found in the mouth part of the Chinke river. In the interfluve between the Chinke and Sobol’-Yuryage rivers there is a small number of semi-elfin forest growth forms of larch trees. The last reliably registered larch communities were found at a distance of 2.1 km below the mouth of the Sobol’-Yuryage river. On the left bank of the Chinke river valley, on the slopes of the northern exposure, 5 locations of larch were found. All of them are located below the confluence of the Chinke-Yuryage and the Chinke-Salata rivers, at a distance from the Lena river up to 1.4 km. On the right side of the valley of the Chinke and the Chinke-Yuryage rivers, on the slopes of the southern exposition, larch communities are more common and were observed at a distance of 3 km from the Lena river to (thirteen locations). In the valley of the Chinke-Salata river larch is found only in one place, on the slope of the southern exposure, at a distance of 0.5 km from the confluence with the Chinke-Yuryage river. The conservation regime of the territory eliminates the anthropogenic impact on the natural process of larch moving to the north, which makes it possible to organize and conduct long-term monitoring observations of the dynamics of forest vegetation in the far north.
																								



3.
DISTRIBUTION OF SOME WOODY SPECIES AT THE NORTHERN BOUNDARY IN UST’-LENSKIY NATURE RESERVE (YAKUTIA). COMMUNICATION II. SHRUBBY ALDER Duschekia fruticosa (Rupr.) Pouzar

E. G. Nikolin1,2, I. A. Yakshina2, N. N. Lashchinskiy3
1Institute for Biological Problems of Cryolithozone, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch
2Ust’-Lenskiy State Nature Reserve
3Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: ольховник, местонахождения, продвижение на север, р. Лена, alder bush, locations, northern progression, Lena river

Abstract >>
The distribution of the shrubby alder Duschekia fruticosa (Rupr.) Pouzar at the northern boundary, on the right bank of the Lena river in Ust’-Lenskiy nature reserve in Yakutia has been studied. Shrubby alder stands growing in 11 landscape-topological compartments of the area: along the banks of the Lena river, between the Tit-Ary island and the mouth of the Chinke river; ibid, between the mouth of the Chinke river and the mouth of the Sobol’-Yuryage river, ibid, below the mouth of the Sobol’-Yuryage river; on the banks and in the floodplain of the Chinke and Sobol’-Yuryage rivers and on the islands of the Lena delta. On the right bank of the Lena river between the Tit-Ary island and the mouth of the Chinke river shrubby alder groves stretch with small gaps, and downstream of the Lena river they are fragmentary, represented by limited, usually undersized brakes within the predominant tundra spaces. The maximum site of individual shrubby alder plants east of the bank of the Lena river is 2.2 km. The locations of growth of this species in the continental part of the nature reserve, in the north correspond to the coordinates of 72°12′22.6″N, 126°57′53.7″E; in the east - 72°06′33.1″N, 127°02′38.5″E and in the delta of the Lena river, on Samoylovskiy island - 72°23′15″N, 126°28′37″E. The altitudinal boundary of the distribution of shrubby alder in the mountainous part of the studied area is 30-50 m a. s. l. The conservation regime of the territory prevents anthropogenic influence on the natural process of moving shrubby alder to the north, which makes it possible to organize and conduct long-term monitoring observations of the dynamics of forest vegetation in the far north. The published results represent the second part of the cycle of authors’ publications devoted to the study of forest boreal flora in the tundra zone of Yakutia, downstream of the Lena river.
																								



4.
THE GENERATION OF INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS IN (Populus alba x P. bolleana) x P. x сanescens BY in vitro CULTURE

A. A. Erst, S. V. Shishkin, M. S. Voronkova
Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: тополя белый, Болле, сереющий, сибирский серебристый, гибридное потомство, морфогенез in vitro, БАП, poplars white, Bollea, gray, Siberian silver poplar, hybrid progeny, morphogenesis in vitro, BAP

Abstract >>
Eight variants of the Siberian silver poplar hybrid N. 12 (Populus alba × P. bolleana) × P. × canescens obtained by the method of hybridization on the harvested branches were studied. 100 % germination of in vitro hybrid seeds was noted. According to the type of morphogenic response, multiplication factor, the parameters of growth and development in vitro and ex vitro, there was a high variability in the characteristics of the variants obtained. Variants N. 1, 6 and 8 were characterized by the development of a conglomerate of adventive buds at the base of shoots in response to the presence of 0.5-2.5 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in the nutrient medium, for other variants the growth of the base of the shoot and the lower leaves was followed by the formation of adventive buds. The maximum multiplication factor (20.1 pss/exp) was obtained for variant N. 8 on a medium with 2.5 µM BAP. The use of a BAP concentration of more than 2.5 μM had a negative effect, since it only led to a significant expansion of the shoot bases, lower leaves and a decrease in the multiplication factor. 100 % rhizogenesis was observed on a hormone-free medium 1/2 MS. For variant N. 8, an increased accumulation of anthocyanins by the root system was noted. When grown under ex vitro conditions, differences in the shape of the leaf plate of the hybrids were observed, as option variant N. 8 was characterized by the presence of leaves without lobes. It is shown that the combination of classical hybridization methods and in vitro methods allows the maximum use of the genetic potential of new poplar hybrids in breeding.
																								



5.
BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTIVITY OF THE NATURALLY DEVELOPING AND DISTURBED BY WINDFALL LICHEN PINE FOREST (KOMI REPUBLIC)

I. N. Kutyavin, A. V. Manov
Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Syktyvkar, Russian Federation
Keywords: постветровальные среднетаежные сосняки, фитомасса, продукция, Северное Приуралье, after windfall middle taiga pine forests, phytomass, production, the Northern Cis-Ural

Abstract >>
The evidence characterizing the changes in the structural organization and productivity of the post-windfall middle-taiga lichen pine forest growing in the Northern Ural region are presented. It is shown that the stand after the windfall changes from a relatively uneven age with demutative phases of the dynamics of the age structure type to a conditionally uneven age. Pine undergrowth in both the background and disturbed areas is characterized as «healthy». It has been established that with an increase in the height of undergrowth, the number of individuals of the oppressed categories decreases. It was revealed that in naturally developing lichen pine forests of the same age, the morphometric indicators of trees (diameter, height), the reserves of organic matter of phytocenoses are higher than in post-windfall pine stand. A comparative analysis is made of the accumulation of the deposition of plant organic matter of naturally developing and post-windfall pine forests. Ten years after the windfall in the lichen pine forest, 91.8 t ha-1 of phytomass is concentrated, which is 1.4 times less than in the background pine forest. Ten years after the windfall, the bulk of organic matter is concentrated in large tree residues, whereas in naturally growing cenosis in growing trees, the annual production of phytomass of disturbed pine trees is 1.9 times less than in the background, makes up 1019 kg ha-1. The accumulation of phytomass production in the post-windfall lichen pine forest is equivalent to the role of woody plants and plants of ground cover, whereas in the background pine forest the main role is played by woody plants. It was revealed that after windfall there was a decrease in the participation of lichens and an increase in the participation of shrubs and mosses in the formation of ground cover. Annually, the decomposition constants of large wood residues in the windfall were 0.02 year-1.
																								



6.
STRUCTURE OF WOODY DEBRIS OF VIRGIN SPRUCE FORESTS OF THE NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN TAIGA IN THE EUROPEAN PART OF RUSSIA

V. G. Storozhenko, V. A. Zasadnaya
Institute of Forest Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Uspenskoye village, Russian Federation
Keywords: коренные ельники тайги, структура древостоев, древесный отпад, дереворазрушающие грибы, ксилолиз древесины отпада, indigenous taiga spruce forests, tree structure, fallen trees, wood-destroying fungi, wood xylolysis

Abstract >>
Woody decay is a multifunctional consort in the overall cycle of the substance and energy cycle of the forest community, taking an active and multifaceted part in the formation of structures and sustainability of forests. The age structures of forest stands, tree fallout, types of wood-destroying fungi and their infestation of forest stands were studied in indigenous virgin spruce forests of the subzones of the northern and southern taiga of the European Russia. The structures of virgin spruce forests have different dynamic characteristics, but they are always of absolutely uneven age. The affection of trees by fungi of the wood-destroying complex in the age generations of indigenous northern spruce forests increases from the last generations to the first and can reach 50-70 % of the number of trees in the generations. Rotten foots of tree trunks and roots in 80 % of cases are the causes of windfalls and windbreaks that shape the structure of the deadwood which is part of the total mass of the forest tree. In the studied spruce forests, the number of windbreak trunks is 2.6 to 3.8 times higher than windfall trunks. This is associated with a greater spread in the stands of rotten butt and stem parts of living trees than the number of rotten roots. The main types of wood-destroying fungi of the complexes of biotrophs and xylotrophs, which cause the decay of living trees and decompose the trunks of dead trees are determined. Wood decay amount runs to impressive figures from 12.5 to 35.0 %. The number, volume, phytomass of deadwood stems and the mass of СО2, Н2О and Q (energy) released during the decomposition of dead trees at the stages of decomposition in terms of 1 ha area of the analyzed spruce forests are calculated.
																								



7.
AN ANALYSIS OF FOREST FIRE AND CLIMATIC PARAMETERS’ TREND USING GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY: A CASE STUDY IN THE STATE OF CHHATTISGARH, INDIA

F. Ahmad, L. Goparaju
Vindhyan Ecology and Natural History Foundation, Mirzapur, India
Keywords: лесной пожар, горячие точки, климатические данные, крикинг, коэффициент V Крамера, forest fire, hotspots, climate data, kriging, Cramer V coefficient

Abstract >>
It is essential to study forest fire occurrences and the climate of any region to address the issue of forest fire vs global warming and global climate change. Studies at regional and global level help to understand the forest fire characterization microscopically. The present study has made an assessment of the long-term forest fire events in the state of Chhattisgarh, India and identified forest fire hotspot areas. We have generated a spatial pattern of climate data and made a statistical analysis. Cramer V coefficient (CVC) was calculated and its relationship with forest fire events was suggested. The study revealed that the Baster and Dantewada districts of Chhattisgarh state of India show the highest forest fire percentage equivalent to 24 and 33 %, respectively. Generally, three forest fire hotspot zones were identified. In January, February and March zone 1 received less rainfall and showed relatively high maximum temperature and potential evapotranspiration when compared with zone 2 and 3. The number of rainy days in January and February in Dantewada and Bastar district (zone 1) was 0.72 to 0.92 and was found lowest among all districts of the state. The climate parameters were more favorable to forest fire events over zone 1 compared to other zones. The evaluation of CVC value of climate data with forest fire events showed that rainfall, maximum temperature, the number of rainy days and potential evapotranspiration were in decreasing order and in the range from 0.74 to 0.32. The highest value (0.74) showed that was closely related with forest fire events. In June, these areas receive adequate rainfall (90-177 mm) which leads to an increase in the moisture content and hinders forest fuel burning capacity. Geospatial technology proved capable of analyzing thematic datasets and various modules/algorithms used in mapping, allowing to draw logical conclusions in solving various research problems.
																								



8.
THE METHOD FOR CALCULATION OF COMPENSATION COSTS AND CALCULATION OF DAMAGE EXTENT ON ILLEGAL LOGGING, INJURIES, AND DESTRUCTION OF GREEN STANDS

I. M. Danilin1,2, V. A. Sokolov1, I. A. Tselitan1, V. S. Sinyavin1
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation
2M. F. Reshetnev Siberian State University of Science and Technology, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: зеленые насаждения, В«белые пятнаВ», земли муниципалитетов, расчет размера ущерба, Березовский район, Красноярский край, green stands, В«white spotsВ», municipality lands, calculation of the damage extent, Berezovskiy District, Krasnoyarsk Krai

Abstract >>
The methodology for calculating the compensation cost and calculating the amount of damage caused by illegal logging, injuries and destruction of green stands developed for land owned by the municipality in the territory of the Berezovskiy Region of the Krasnoyarsk Krai is discussed. The compensation value of green stands is a derived value of replacement value. The compensation value is calculated by applying correction factors to the replacement cost and taking into account the influence of such factors as location, actual state, ecological and social significance of green stands on the value of the stands and is determined by the formula: Сct = Сr × Кt × Кс × Кses × Кtr, where Сct is the compensation value of the tree; Cr - the replacement cost of the tree; Kt - territorial factor; Кс - the tree condition coefficient; Кses - coefficient of social and environmental significance; Ktr - the number of trees to be removed (all in Russian Rubles). Territorial coefficients and coefficients of social and environmental significance are applied. With green stands simultaneously belong to different categories, selected to take into account their social and ecological significance, the maximum value of a similar coefficient should be included in the cost calculations. The amount of damage caused by illegal logging and (or) destruction of green stands is calculated taking into account compensation value of cut down and (or) destroyed green stands using Km = 5 multiplying factor. If the green stands are damaged and do not cause growth to stop, the damage is estimated at 0.5 of the compensation value of the damaged green stands. The compensation cost of cut-off green stands in case of forced demolition and damage caused by illegal logging, injuring or destruction of green stands shall be paid to the budget of the municipal entity in Berezovskiy District of the Krasnoyarsk Krai. The method can be recommended to be used in other regions of Siberia that are similar in natural climatic conditions, with adjustments of territorial coefficients.
																								



9.
ON THE 60TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE INSTITUTE OF FOREST AND FOREST PARK MANAGEMENT OF THE PRIMORSKY STATE AGRICULTURAL ACADEMY

G. V. Gukov1, B. S. Petropavlovskiy2
1Primorsky State Academy of Agriculture, Ussuriysk, Primorsky Krai, Russian Federation
2Botanical Garden-Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Far-Eastern Branch, Vladivostok, Russian Federation
Keywords: леса Дальнего Востока России, высшее лесное образование, современное управление лес, forests of the Russian Far East, higher forest education, contemporary forest management

Abstract >>
«The forest is the national wealth and heritage of our country. Russia is a great forest power» - is stated in many government decrees, as well as in textbooks, manuals and other publications. In order to use forest resources in the Russian Far East wisely, in 1958, the leaders of the former Soviet Union established the Faculty of Forestry in the city of Ussuriysk, Primorsky Krai. In 1963, the first year groups were formed, with 50 students recruited. Forty nine of them got the diplomas of forestry engineers. All the graduates were qualified as specialists in forestry and forest industries, many of them became industry managers, six graduates were awarded the degrees of PhDs and Doctors of Science. Over the past fifty years 55 groups of students were awarded the diplomas. They were qualified as forest engineers, later as Bachelors and Masters of Forestry. Forest industry of the Russian Far East has acquired several thousand specialists with higher forest education. The past 60 years have been associated with radical reforms in the field of social relations (the collapse of the Soviet Union, the transition to market economy), as well as in forest management. The Forest charter adopted by the State Duma in December of 2006 incorporated many ideas of forest science developed in our country and abroad. On the other hand, at present higher professional education is challenged by closing universities, introducing two-tier higher education, closing dissertation councils, increasing requirements to the applicants for doctoral degrees, and so on. We believe that Russia as a great forest power should have its own Ministry of Forestry which should a supplement to other Ministries.