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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2019 year, number 3

Climatic patterns in the vegetation cover’s spatial structure of the Kodar-Kalar orobiome

M. V. Bocharnikov
M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: климатическая ординация, биоклиматические показатели, ценотическое разнообразие, высотная поясность, оробиом, Северное Забайкалье, climatic ordination, bioclimatic indicators, cenotic diversity, altitudinal zonality, orobiome, the Northern Transbaikalia

Abstract >>
Bioclimatic substantiation of the vegetation spatial structure of the Kodar-Kalar orobiome on the basis of altitudinal vegetation divisions using the global climate model (BioClim) and data from the meteorological observing stations is carried out. It is shown that the values of mean annual temperature and mean annual rainfall identify vegetation belt and sub-belts of orobiome. For the first time climatic ordination of geographic-genetic vegetation complexes of the Northern Transbaikalia is carried out on the basis of quantitative data - temperature and moisture supply parameters, including derived characteristics (the indicator of potential evapotranspiration, the Mezentsev wetness coefficient). It is proposed the scheme that determines the diversity of vegetation of the Kodar-Kalar orobiome with account of its development in different geographic variants in the integral system of bioclimatic factors, according to which the vegetation complexes are divided according to the gradients of temperature and moisture supply. The analysis of a complex of bioclimatic characteristics made it possible to identify specific regional features in the structure and diversity of the vegetation of the mountain systems of the Northern Transbaikalia at the regional level.

Reconstruction of the Holocene dynamics of forest fires in the Central part of Meshchera Lowlands (according to antracological analysis)

D. A. Kupriyanov1, E. Yu. Novenko1,2
1M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
2Institute of Geography of RAS, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: лесные пожары, палеоэкология, анализ макрочастиц угля в торфе, спорово-пыльцевой анализ, голоцен, Мещера, forest fires, paleoecology, macrocharcoal analysis, pollen analysis, the Holocene, Meshchera Lowlands

Abstract >>
The paper presents the reconstruction of Holocene dynamics of forest fires and its influence on vegetation in the central part of Meshchera Lowlands. The studies are based on macrocharcoal and pollen analyses and radiocarbon dating of peat deposits from the peatland Studencheskoye. According to obtained results, changes in the structure of the plant cover were largely determined by fire regime during the Holocene. In the period of high forest fires intensity (~9200 - 6400 cal. (calendar) years BP) the study area was occupied by birch-pine forests. The role of spruce and broad-leaved species in forest stands was increased in the period with low frequency of forest fires (~6400 - 1400 cal. years BP). The influence of fires on vegetation increased after 1400 cal years BP due to human impact. The obtained results show that periods of increased fire frequencies occurred before the human occupation of the area and were determined by climatic reasons.

Invasive plant species as a cause of delay of restorative succession

A. P. Gusev
F. Skorina Gomel State University, Gomel, Russia
Keywords: инвазивные виды, вид-трансформер, сукцессия, задержка, ландшафт, Беларусь, invasive species, transformer, succession, delay, landscape, Belarus

Abstract >>
The features of communities of alien species-transformers, capable of blocking regenerative successions, are studied. The process of delay of succession is considered in the example of Solidago canadensis L. and Acer negundo L. Typical habitats of communities of alien transformer species are deposits and wastelands with non-extremal moisture, pH and nitrogen richness edaphotopes. The overwhelming majority of the identified phytocenoses with the dominance of alien transformers are confined to the old anthropogenic landscapes.

Ecology of thrush birds (Passeriformes, Turdidae) of North-Western Siberia in the conditions of changing climate and landscape

V. N. Ryzhanovskiy
Institute of Plant and Animals Ecology of UrB RAS, Ekaterinburg, Russia
Keywords: Субарктика, Нижнее Приобье, дроздовые птицы, годовые циклы жизни, климат, ареал, Turdidae, Eurasia, North-Western Siberia, annual cycles, moult

Abstract >>
The features of communities of alien species-transformers, capable of blocking regenerative successions, are studied. The process of delay of succession is considered in the example of Solidago canadensis L. and Acer negundo L. Typical habitats of communities of alien transformer species are deposits and wastelands with non-extremal moisture, pH and nitrogen richness edaphotopes. The overwhelming majority of the identified phytocenoses with the dominance of alien transformers are confined to the old anthropogenic landscapes.

Ecological Status of Populations of the Most Common Bird Species in the Dark-Coniferous Taiga of the Baikal Region

S. E. Cherenkov
A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of RAS, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: горы Южной Сибири, Прибайкалье, Республика Бурятия, темнохвойная тайга, гнездящиеся лесные птицы (Passeriformes, Piciformes), гнездовая плотность, площадь местообитаний, насыщенность местообитаний, максимальная плотность, емкость среды, South Siberian mountains, Baikal Region, Republic of Buryatia, dark-coniferous taiga, forest-nesting birds (Passeriformes, Piciformes), nesting density, area of habitats, saturation of habitats, maximum density, carrying capacity of habitat

Abstract >>
In 2013 and 2014 from May to July the bird individual nesting home ranges were regularly mapped along the permanent census route (3.15 km) in the dark-coniferous taiga on the southern slope of the Baikal lake bed. Based on the mapping results, for each bird species the nesting densities and average sizes of the bird individual nesting home range are estimated. Raster maps of spatial allocation (MSA) at the scale of the raster grid of 50 ´ 50 m are obtained for each species. The degree of spatial conservatism (DSC) for each local population is inferred from the pairwise comparisons of the specific MSAs obtained at the same area (31.5 hectares) in different years with the use of the Gamma rank correlation method. Dependence of the population habitat area on DSC was demonstrated earlier [Cherenkov, 2017]. The more habitat area is found, the less dependent the individual spatial allocation within a population is observed in the different years. Based on the specific habitat areas, average sizes of the individual nesting home range and nesting densities estimated, the maximum possible nesting density and habitat saturation are calculated for each species. The population status is inferred from the degree of habitat saturation. The significant DSC estimates ( p < 0.05) are obtained for nine species, their habitat areas and saturation are found. It is shown that habitat saturation in non-migratory birds is twice higher that in migratory ones 54-58 % versus 26 %, ( F = 9.1; p < 0.01). In the two species, the Orange-flanked Bush-robin Tarsiger cyanurus Pallas, 1773 and Taiga Flycatcher Ficedula ( parva ) albicilla Pallas, 1811, the habitat saturation is less than 20 % that indicates the presumably troubled status of their populations.

Experimental investigation of inter-relations between small rodents and red wood ants

Ya. V. Levenets1, V. S. Gromov2, Zh. I. Reznikova1,3, S. N. Panteleeva1,3
1Institute of Animal Systematics and Ecology of SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of RAS, Moscow, Russia
3Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: мышевидные грызуны, муравьи, межвидовые взаимодействия, поведение, small rodents, red wood ants, interspecies relations, behavior

Abstract >>
Investigations of the mechanisms of spatial - behavioral interaction of members of such diverse and significant guilds as red wood ants and small mammals have been started only recently, and many questions remain obscure. In laboratory experiments we investigated inter-relations between red wood ants Formica aquilonia Yarr and the common vole Microtus arvalis Pallas, the bank vole Myodes glareolus Schreber, and the pygmy wood mouse Sylvaemus uralensis Pallas. We first described the defensive behavior of rodents and revealed a stereotype of the hunting behavior of the common vole towards dangerous insects. In all three rodent species, defensive behavior increased with an increase in the number of ants used in the tests, which corresponded to simulated natural situations with gradations of the dynamic density of insects. We speculate about the relationship between the defensive and hunting behavior of rodents towards red wood ants.

Invasive plant species as a cause of delay of restorative succession

E. G. Sakharova1, I. Yu. Feniova2, Z. I. Gorelysheva3, M. Rzepecki4, I. Kostshevska-Shlakovska5, A. V. Krylov1, N. S. Zilitinkevicz6
1I. D. Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters of RAS, Borok, Russia
2A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of RAS, Moscow, Russia
3NPC NAS of Belarus on Bioresources, Minsk, Byelorussia
4Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, MikoЕ‚ajki, Poland
5University of Warsaw, Warsawa, Poland
6A. M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics of RAS, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: фитопланктон, зоопланктон, рыбы, мезотрофные и эвтрофные воды, уровень N : P, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, mesotrophic and eutrophic waters, N : P ratio

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In the experiment to study impact of trophic conditions, the activity of zooplankton and fish on phytoplankton structure was shown, at the beginning of the experiment the species and size structure of algae was determined by the N: P ratio. Independently of “top-down” control, this determined the dominance of diatoms, dinoflagellates and chrysophytes algae in mesotrophic conditions, while in eutrophic - cyanobacteria. Further in all variants of the experiment the differences in the ratio N: P were leveled, the phytoplankton was dominated by large filamentous green algae. Fish weakened the press of zooplankton for phytoplankton and contributed to the increase in biomass available for zooplankton diatoms, this is most clearly manifested in eutrophic conditions.

Diversity of planktonic fauna of the Pechora River Delta

E. B. Fefilova, O. N. Kononova
Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Center of UrB RAS, Syktyvkar, Russia
Keywords: зоопланктон, индексы видового разнообразия, редкие виды, богатство фауны, термофильные гидробионты, zooplankton, indexes of biodiversity, species structure, rare species, richness of fauna, thermophilic hydrobionts

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The structure and diversity of zooplankton of the mouth part of the largest river in the European North - Pechora is studied. The river delta, an adjacent piece of the Pechora course, estuary firth (the Korovinsky bay) and lakes on its northern coast - in Timan Tundra belong to the region under study. In the delta of the Pechora River the planktonic fauna was rich and unique on structure, in which rotifers (105 species) and cladocerans (55 species) prevailed. Thermophilic invertebrates are presented in zooplankton, but cold-loving are revealed. Among copepods brackish taxa and also a possible recent invader to the region ( Eurytemora sp.) are found. The analysis alpha- and beta-diversities of planktonic communities of the studied region has showed that in the delta water bodies and lakes in general indexes are the highest. That are caused, in our opinion, variety of environmental conditions and also features of gradients of the dominating environmental factors: temperature, etc.

Assessment of the quality of bottom sediments of the middle reaches of the Yenisei River with Allium test

T. A. Zotina, E. A. Trofimova, YU. V. Alexandrova, O. V. Anishchenko
Institute of Biophysics, Federal Research Center “Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center” of SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Keywords: ана-телофаза, генотоксичность, длина корня, искусственные донные отложения, митотический индекс, токсичность, ana-telophase, artificial sediments, genotoxicity, length of root, mitotic index, toxicity

Abstract >>
Harmful potential of bulk bottom sediments (BS) of the Yenisei River was estimated with Allium test. Sediment samples were collected in ten sites at about 100-km stretch of the middle reaches of the Yenisei affected by urban activity of the city of Krasnoyarsk and industrial plants. The samples of sediments differed considerably in concentration of potentially toxic substances (heavy metals, artificial radionuclides and organic pollutants), nutrients and physical properties. Average length of root of onion was considered as indicator of general toxicity, mitotic index - as indicator of cytotoxicity, and percent of ana-telophase cells in the root apices carrying abnormal chromosomes - as indicator of genotoxicity. Both stimulation and inhibition of indicator endpoints was revealed on sediment samples of the Yenisei relatively to control (artificial sediments). Increased genotoxicity was recorded on the sediments sample, contaminated with mixture of organic and chemical toxins. Significant positive correlation of percent of abnormal cells and concentration of copper and petrochemicals in sediment samples was revealed. Extremely strong reactions of onion endpoints to the quality of BS were not revealed, probably due to relatively low level of contamination of the sediment samples. This is in agreement with the results of chemical analyses. Based on the results of the testing we can conclude that the endpoints of the Allium test a re sensitive enough to the quality of BS of the Yenisei River and can be used for their biotesting.

Phytoplankton as an indicator ecological state of the neva river estuary, 2011-2015

V. N. Nikulina
Zoological Institute of RAS, St. Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: фитопланктон, видовой состав, биомасса, эвтрофирование, phytoplankton, species composition, biomass, eutrophication

Abstract >>
During the period of study it was discovered that the general distribution pattern of species, their structure and the amount of phytoplankton were different from those recorded earlier. The most changes have undergone in the central part of the northern coast of the Neva Bay. During the eutrophication of phytoplankton in summer (late July-early August) in the Neva Bay and in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland different groups of algae may play a prevalent role. In the Neva Bay Chlorophyta predominated in the samples. In the resort zone of the Gulf of Finland, the main share of biomass in 2011-2015 was represented by cyanobacteria.

Distribution of chemical elements between components of the ecosystem of the Arctic Lake Bolshoy Vud’yavr (Khibiny, Murmansk region) 1

A. S. Pavlova, N. A. Kashulin, D. B. Denisov, P. M. Terentev, T. G. Kashulina, V. A. Dauval’ter
1Institute of North Industrial Ecology Problems, Apatity, Russia
2Apatity Branch of MGTU, Apatit, Apatity, Russia
Keywords: сестон, зоопланктон, рыба, донные отложения, металлы, коэффициент накопления, коэффициент обогащения, коэффициент загрязнения, seston, zooplankton, fish, sediment (DO), metals, accumulation factor (Kn), enrichment factor (E), contamination factor (C)

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The accumulation processes of chemical elements as well as distribution between abiotic (water, bottom sediments) and biotic (seston, zooplankton, fish) components of the Lake Bolshoy Vud’yavr ecosystem polluted by apatite-nepheline mining sewage for a long period, are analyzed. The values of the biological accumulation of the elements and their enrichment of water and bottom sediments are determined. The biogenic and terrigenous contribution of the chemical elements to the composition of bottom sediments has been estimated.