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Region: Economics and Sociology

2019 year, number 2

Migration Exchange Between Regions of Different Types (Case Study of T yumen Oblast and the Republic of Bashkorto stan)

Institute for Strategic Studies of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia
Keywords: регионы, межрегиональная миграция, факторы миграции, миграционный прирост, миграционная убыль, занятость, социально-демографический потенциал, regions, interregional migration, migration factors, migration gain, migration loss, employment, socio-demographic potential


The article examines the scope and nature of migration ties between different-type regions in Russia and their consequences for the socio-demographic potential of donor territories. The objects of the research are the Republic of Bashkortostan, constituent entity of the Russian Federation with a high share of working-age out-migrants, and Tyumen Oblast, oil and gas region with a steady inflow of the working-age population. The article relies on statistical and sociological data to analyze the scope and structure of long-term and short-term migration from the Republic of Bashkortostan to Tyumen Oblast and other Russian regions. Outstanding features of the autonomous regions in Tyumen Oblast, which differ them from other Russian regions in close migration relationships with the republic, include a great share of gross migration with Bashkortostan, a major population inflow from the republic due to employment, and prevalence of people with primary vocational and secondary special education among Bashkortostan migrants. Migration ties between the Siberian regions and Bashkortostan exhibit relatively low performance, which is largely due to the circular nature of such migration. However, quantitatively equal in- and outflows of the population between the Republic of Bashkortostan and Tyumen Oblast differ in terms of quality: the republic donates a young, maritally and reproductively active generation and adopts older people, already accomplished their demographic plans. The existing migration exchange weakens the socio-demographic potential of Bashkortostan as a donor region. Moreover, the republic's socio-demographic potential is also affected by the short-term (on/off) migration of its population which, as a consequence, may alter intra-family relations, have a negative impact on migrants’ health, etc. The current migration exchange between regions under study showcases how inconsistent and ambiguous migration is as a social phenomenon, since solving employment and wealth-related issues comes with risk and threats to the socio-demographic development of donor regions.