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Chemistry for Sustainable Development

2019 year, number 2

1.
Selective Treatment Methods of the Refinery and Petrochemical Products by Solvent Extraction with Ionic Liquids

A. B. KHALILOV, M. J. IBRAHIMOVA, H. J. HUSEYNOV, V. M. ABBASOV
Y. H. Mammadaliyev Institute of Petrochemical Processes, Baku, Azerbaijan
E-mail: minaver-ibrahimova@rambler.ru
Keywords: selective cleaning, ionic liquid, extractant, raffinate, desulphurization, dearomatisation
Pages: 109-119

Abstract >>
In the past few years, the number of studies regarding the application of ionic liquids (IL) as alternative solvents to extract value-added compounds from crude oil fractions has been growing. Ionic liquids can be considered as green solvents due to their very low vapor pressure and wide range of applications with unique physical and chemical properties. In petroleum and hydrocarbon industries, various solvents have been used for treating purposes. However, these solvents have their own limitations as environmental and economical issue. These limitations can be overcome by use of ionic liquids. This paper gives a survey on the latest most popular IL, from their applications to their feasible results in refinery and petrochemical streams. Especially the selective treatment of the Azerbaijans crude oil fractions by IL was highlighted and achieved practicable and suitable results were indicated.

DOI: 10.15372/CSD2019117



2.
Effect of an Oxidized Polymeric Petroleum Resin on the Properties of Cryogels

L. K. ALTUNINA1, M. S. FUFAEVA1, V. N. MANZHAI1, V. G. BONDALETOV2, D. V. FISENKO2
1 Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
E-mail: alk@ipc.tsc.ru
2 National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: polyvinyl alcohol, polymer solution, polymeric petroleum resin, viscosity, cryogel, hydrophobicity, modulus of elasticity
Pages: 120-125

Abstract >>
The rheological properties of a two-component aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), as well as emulsions consisting of water, PVA and hydrophobic filler, have been studied. The dispersed phase of the emulsions was transformer oil (TO) or polymeric petroleum resin (PPR), and the dispersion medium was an aqueous solution of PVA. To increase the adhesion of the PPR to the soil particles, the resin was pre-oxidized with hydrogen peroxide H2O2 to produce an oxidized polymeric petroleum resin (OPPR). After the freezing/thawing cycle, cryogels were formed from liquid systems and their mechanical, thermal, and physicochemical properties were studied. It has been established that cryogels containing TO have more elastic properties as compared with two-component cryostructured systems (PVA - water), but have less elasticity than cryogels containing PPR. The latter are also characterized by better thermal insulation properties compared to two-component cryogels. A particular feature of cryogels filled with OPPR is their hydrophobicity. It was revealed that after the soil was impregnated by a polymer emulsion with OPPR and a cryogel was formed subsequently after a freezing/thawing cycle, a water-proof shield was formed. Materials based on cryogels with hydrophobic properties, filled with OPPR, are promising and can be recommended for practical use in the oil and construction industry.

DOI: 10.15372/CSD2019118



3.
Synthesis and Biological Study of Dialkyl(4-hydroxybut-2-ynyl)(3-phenyl-2,3-dichloroallyl)ammonium Chlorides,Their Intramolecular Cyclization and Recyclization of Obtained Products

A. R. GEVORGYAN
Institute of Organic Chemistry, Scientific and Technological Center of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia
National Polytechnic University of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia
E-mail: hasmikgevorgyan973@gmail.com
Keywords: intramolecular cyclization-dehydrochlorination, dialkyl(4-hydroxybut-2-ynyl)(3-phenyl-2,3-dichloroallyl)ammonium chlorides, intramolecular recyclization, dihydronaphto[1,2-]furan derivatives, biological activity, antioxidant, anticoagulant
Pages: 126-130

Abstract >>
Potentially bioactive dialkyl(4-hydroxybut-2-ynyl)(3-phenyl-2,3-dichloroallyl)ammonium chlorides were synthesized. By base-catalyzed intramolecular cyclization of these salts and subsequent intramolecular recyclization of cyclic products 4-dialkylaminomethyl-5-chloro-1,3-dihydronaphto[1,2-c]furans were obtained. According to biological studies, dimethyl(4-hydroxybut-2-ynyl)(3-phenyl-2,3-dichloroallyl)ammonium chloride has anticoagulant and strongly pronounced antioxidant properties.

DOI: 10.15372/CSD2019119



4.
Development of an Environmentally Friendly Method for Dec-1-ene Oligomerization in the Presence of Zeolite Catalysts

N. G. GRIGOREVA, S. V. BUBENNOV, V. R. BIKBAEVA, D. V. SEREBRENNIKOV, B. I. KUTEPOV
Institute of Petrochemistry and Catalysis, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia
E-mail: bubennov@list.ru
Keywords: oligomerization, isomerization, cracking, dec-1-ene, oligomers, zeolites
Pages: 131-137

Abstract >>
The dec-1-ene transformations were studied in the presence of Y, Beta, ZSM-12 and ZSM-5 zeolites in the H-form. It is established that the main products of the reaction in the presence of zeolites H-Y, H-Beta, H-ZSM-12 are dec-1-ene isomers and its oligomers, while in the presence of zeolite H-ZSM-5 dec-1-ene isomerization predominantly occurs. The mentioned catalytic systems can be arranged in the following series by the activity: H-Beta > H-Y > H-ZSM-12 >> H-ZSM-5, and by the selectivity of oligomers: H-ZSM-12 > H-Beta ~ H-Y >> H-ZSM-5 in the temperature range of 150-220 . Among oligomers the dimers of decene are predominant, have an alkyl-naphthenic structure, contain unsaturated hydrocarbons with tri- and tetra-substituted double bonds of 2.2-3.2 % was established. Physicochemical properties of the synthesized decene oligomers are similar to the hydrogenated poly-α-olefins obtained on the catalytic AlCl3 complexes.

DOI: 10.15372/CSD2019120



5.
Study of the Biological Activity of Humine Substances for the Creation of Preparations against Desertification

S. I. ZHEREBTSOV1, N. V. MALYSHENKO1, K. S. VOTOLIN1, V. A. ANDROKHANOV2, D. A. SOKOLOV2, J. DUGARJAV3, Z. R. ISMAGILOV1,4
1Institute of Coal Chemistry and Material Science, Federal Research Centre of Coal and Coal Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo, Russia
E-mail: sizh@yandex.ru
2Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
3Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
4Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: desertification, humic acids, structural parameters, biological activity
Pages: 138-146

Abstract >>
Native and modified humic acids (HA) isolated from brown coals of Russia and Mongolia were studied. Their composition was characterized using technical and elemental analyses, and 13C NMR (CPMAS) spectroscopy. A destructive alkylation of humic acids with butanol followed by debitumination, which changes the structural group composition of HA has been held. The biological activity of humic preparations in the form of sodium and potassium humates is investigated depending on the structural group parameters: the degree of aromaticity f, hydrophilic-hydrophobic parameter fh/h and parameter reflecting the ratio of aromatic and aliphatic fragments of organic mass of humic acids far/al. It is shown that an increase in the degree of aromaticity HA leads to an increase in their biological activity.

DOI: 10.15372/CSD2019121



6.
Mechanically Stimulated Thermal Synthesis of Highly Dispersed alpha-LiAlO2 from Gibbsite and Lithium Carbonate

V. P. ISUPOV, I. A. BORODULINA, V. R.  KHUSNUTDINOV, K. B. GERASIMOV
Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
E-mail: isupov@solid.nsc.ru
Keywords: mechanical activation, gibbsite, aluminum hydroxide, lithium carbonate, mechanochemical synthesis, alpha lithium monoaluminate
Pages: 147-153

Abstract >>
It was shown that mechanochemical activation of a mixture of gibbsite and lithium carbonate in a ball mill for 24 hours, followed by heat treatment of activation products in air at 650 , allowed obtaining highly dispersed monophasic α-LiAlO2 with a specific surface area more than 10 m2/g.

DOI: 10.15372/CSD2019122



7.
Dynamics of Phenolic Composition and Content of Representatives of the Genus Spiraea L. under the Conditions of Transport and Industrial Pollution in Novosibirsk

E. A. ARPOVA, E. P. KHRAMOVA
Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
E-mail: karyevg@mail.ru
Keywords: Spiraea media, S. chamaedryfolia, S. hypericifolia, flavonoids, phenolic acids, annual dynamics, industrial pollution
Pages: 154-165

Abstract >>
The annual dynamics of composition and content of groups of phenolic compounds (hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols) and individual phenolics (gallic, protocatehuic, chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric and cinnamic acids, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, rutin and avicularin) in the leaves of Spiraea media Fr. Schmidt, S. chamaedryfolia L. S. hypericifolia L., growing in Novosibirsk in the areas with high and background levels of transport and industrial pollution were studied. The peculiarities of effects of environmental contamination and meteorological conditions on the content of phenolic compounds and their groups are revealed. The concentrations of the major constituents in leaves of the species decreased significantly in the urban area in comparison with the background one. The most stable annual decrease in the concentrations was found in the leaves of S. hypericifolia. The level of the annual variability of the number of phenolic components under the conditions of pollution increased (S. media, S. chamaedryfolia) or slightly changed (S. hypericifolia) compared with the control, and the level of variation in the concentrations of most constituents, on the contrary, decreased.

DOI: 10.15372/CSD2019123



8.
Composition of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Gas Condensates of Western Siberia

G. S. PEVNEVA1, N. G. VORONETSKAYA1, M. V. MOZHAYSKAYA1, A. K. GOLOVKO1,2, E. A. FURSENKO2, V. A. KASHIRTSEV2
1Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
E-mail: pevneva@ipc.tsc.ru
2Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: condensates, composition, alkyl benzenes, alkyl naphthalenes, alkyl phenanthrenes, geochemical parameters, Western Siberia
Pages: 166-172

Abstract >>
This paper presents the results of the studies of cyclic aromatic compounds composition in gas condensates of Maloyamalskoye and Myldzhinskoye gas fields of Western Siberia. The composition of aromatic compounds in gasoline cuts of gas condensates was analyzed by GC method. Data on group composition of 710 aromatic compounds in gasoline cuts demonstrate that the gas condensates of Maloyamalskoye gas field are enriched with toluene (7) and xylenes (8) while in the samples of Myldzhinskoye gas field the contents of trimethyl- (9) and tetramethyl benzenes (10) are high. The composition of aromatic compounds of benzene, naphthalene and phenanthrene series in the non-fractionated condensates was studied using GCMS method. It has been shown that alkyl benzenes of condensates are represented predominately by low-molecular compounds (710), content of long-chain n-alkylbenzenes and n-alkyltoluenes is very low. In addition to alkyl-substituted benzenes the naphthene-substituted benzenes (methyl- and dimethyltetralines) are identified in gas condensates. The relative concentrations of cadalene, retene, ethyl benzene, 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzenes are used as genetic factors on the composition of aromatic compounds. It has been established that humic organic matter contributed to the formation of the studied fluids. The evidences of that are: higher than usual values of Prystane/Phytane ratio; high content of xylene; increased content of 1,2,5- and 1,2,7-trimethylnaphthalenes and the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons biomarkers (cadalene, retene). Parameters calculated from the composition of alkyl benzenes and alkyl naphthalenes determine the thermal maturity of condensates. According to the values of ratio (m- + p-xylene)/o-xylene, naphthalenic indexes (MNR, DNR2 and TNR6) and low content of long-chain 11+ alkyl benzenes the catagenic maturity level of the studied fluids corresponds to the main gas generation phase.

DOI: 10.15372/CSD2019124



9.
Study of the Solubility and Membrane Permeability of Mechanochemically Obtained Solid Dispersions of Plant Flavonoids

L. P. SUNTSOVA1, A. A. SHLOTGAUER2, V. I. EVSEENKO1, E. S. METELEVA1, N. E. POLYAKOV1,2, A. V. DUSHKIN1
1Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
E-mail: suntcovalp@mail.ru
2Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: flavonoids, mechanochemical treatment, solubility, membrane permeability, supramolecular complexes, micelles
Pages: 173-179

Abstract >>
Solid dispersions of plant flavonoids (dihydroquercetin, puerarin, rutin and genistein) with the arabinogalactan polysaccharide and the glycyrrhizic acid disodium salt are obtained by mechanochemical treatment. Ways of increasing their solubility and transmembrane permeability on artificial membranes have been studied. The formation of supramolecular systems intermolecular complexes and micelles was established by NMR relaxation upon dissolution of solid dispersions in water, their stability constants and thermodynamic parameters were estimated. The possibility of increasing the solubility of the studied flavonoids by a factor of 1.930 was shown. It was revealed that the measured rate of transmembrane transfer of flavonoid molecules through an artificial hydrophobic membrane did not correlate with an increase in their solubility. It is assumed that this is due to the structural features of the complexes, as well as the specificity of the flavonoid molecules themselves. The results obtained are qualitatively close to the available data on bioavailability and transmembrane transfer in vivo.

DOI: 10.15372/CSD2019125



10.
Macroelement and Mineral-Phase Composition of Particulate Matter in the Impacted Area of Cement Production Plant Based on Snow Cover Study (Kemerovo Region)

A. V. TALOVSKAYA, D. A. VOLODINA, E. G. YAZIKOV
National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia
E-mail: talovskaj@yandex.ru
Keywords: cement plant, snow cover, macroelements, fine particles, minerals, particular matter pollution
Pages: 180-189

Abstract >>
The paper presents the assessment of the spatial distribution of the dust load, macroelement (Ca, Na, Fe, Al, Si, Mg) and mineral-phase composition of particulate matter deposited in snow cover in the impacted area of cement production plant (Topki, Kemerovo region). It was determined that the dust load exceeded the background from tens to hundreds times. The dust load was estimated from allowable to highly hazardous pollution levels. The main crystalline phases included calcite and quartz in the particulate phase of snow and emitted dust from the plant. Additionally, the particulate phase of snow contained the minerals of Portland cement clinker such as brownmillerite and hatrurite. The content of these four minerals mainly controlled the dust load. The content of Ca (10-12 times higher than background values) in the particulate phase of snow showed the anthropogenic geochemical specificity of the samples and it is comparable to the content in the emitted dust from the plant and portland cement. We identified fine particles of Ca ferrites, Fe oxides as most abundant particles in the samples, as well as trace amounts of Ca aluminate and Fe sulphide particles. The main types of particulate matter were suggested to be pit operation, transport and load handling works in the plant. The long-range transport of particulate matter was revealed in the north direction at 2 km distance from the plant. The dust load decreased with the distance from the plant. The identified crystalline phases and fine particle types can be used as tracers for cement production plant emissions.

DOI: 10.15372/CSD2019126



11.
Development of a Rational Way to Prepare a Highly Active Manganese-Containing Catalyst for Environmentally Friendly Fuel Combustion

S. A. YASHNIK1, N. V. SHIKINA1, A. A. GAVRILOVA1, T. A. SUROVTSOVA1, Z. R. ISMAGILOV1,2
1Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
E-mail: yashnik@catalysis.ru
2Institute of Coal Chemistry and Material Science, Federal Research Centre of Coal and Coal Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo, Russia
Keywords: manganese-containing catalyst, manganese oxide, TPR-H2, deep oxidation of hydrocarbon, solution combustion synthesis
Pages: 190-196

Abstract >>
The temperature-programmed reduction with hydrogen was used to identify the phase composition of the active component and to study redox properties of MnOx-containing honeycomb monolithic catalysts prepared by two different methods: 1) solution combustion synthesis (SCS) on monolith surface; and 2) Co-extrusion of MnOx powder with oxide components of the monolith. It is assumed that both monolithic catalysts contain predominantly MnO and some amount of MnO2/Mn2O3. Among the studied catalysts, the monolithic catalyst obtained by the SCS method has the maximum activation energy of the second stage of the reduction of MnO2/Mn2O3, which consists in the reduction of Mn3O4 to MnO. This explains its high activity in the oxidation of methane.

DOI: 10.15372/CSD2019127



12.
Physicochemical Nano-Robot in Nanotechnology

R. A. BUYANOV1, I. V. MISHAKOV1,2
1 Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
E-mail: buyanov@catalysis.ru
2 Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: nanotechnologies, synthesis, physics, chemistry, metals, solid solutions, nano-robots, mechanisms, carbides, thermodynamics
Pages: 197-205

Abstract >>
Within the methodology of perception of the fundamentals and regularities of nano-dimensional world functioning, the phenomenon physical and chemical nano-robot (PCNR) has been proposed. Its purpose consists in the investigation and organization of nanotechnologies to produce novel substances and materials. The system capable to perform the PCNR functions is offered, evidence-based and realized in the form of the working model. This model is the nanodispersed polycrystalline particle of Ni, one of the metals of iron subgroup (Fe, Co, Ni). We have studied the specific conditions under which such Ni particles possess a set of various functions crucial in the operation of nanotechnologies focused on the synthesis of new substances and materials. The multistage mechanism of PCNR action in the nanotechnological synthesis of materials with different functions is discovered. Scientific bases for the organization of new PCNR as well as the short review of already characterized PCNR-based nanotechnologies have been presented. The basic model of PCNR nanoscale system allowing one to operate technology and control the range of nano-products is developed.

DOI: 10.15372/CSD2019128