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Philosophy of Sciences

2019 year, number 1

1.
SPINOZA ON THE PLACE, SPECIFICITY AND SUBJECT OF HUMAN INTELLECTUAL INTUITION

Vasiliy Pavlovich Goran
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Akademy of Sciences, 8, Nikolaev st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Спиноза, интеллектуальная интуиция, рассудок, воображение, общее, единичное, отдельное, Spinoza, intellectual intuition, reason, imagination, the general, the individual, the separate

Abstract >>
The article considers peculiar properties of the terminology used by Spinoza when justifying the hierarchy of levels of human cognitive activity which he approved. The author analyzes grounds for Spinoza’s recognition of the advantages of intellectual intuition over the other two considered levels - imagination and reason. It is revealed that Spinoza’s attention to the individually unique as determining the subject-substantive specificity of intellectual intuition did not mean that he completely refused to take into account that, in addition to the individually unique in real objects and situations perceived at the same time, there is the common which is also recognized to be significant. It is established that Spinoza actually catches and takes into account in a peculiar way an inherently dialectical relationship between the general, the individual and the separate, recognizing that in reality there exist independently only the separate as a unity of the general and the individually unique.
																								



2.
THE PROBLEM OF THE NORM IN NON-CLASSICAL RATIONALITY

Sergey Alevtinovich Smirnov
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8, Nikolaev st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: рациональность, нормативность, эпистемология, мнение, знание, истина, обоснование, В«эпистемология добродетелейВ», rationality, norm, non-classical rationality, method, measure, human-dimension, paradigm

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the problem of the norm and normativity in the so-called non-classical rationality. We describe the shift from the classical form of rationality to the non-classical one. We carry out the analysis of the concepts of the norm and normativity in various scientific methodological paradigms, as well as the analysis of the paradigm shift, i.e. the paradigm change described in the philosophy and methodology of science. The article shows how correlate the concepts of the norm and the measure, the norm and the method. We consider the problem of the norm through the concept of human-sizedness. The non-classical situation of the philosopher is described by the example of M.K. Mamardashvili’s philosophy and his works.
																								



3.
MINIMIZING THE EFFECTS OF INTENSIONALITY IN THE “BEST AND MOST GENERAL VERSION” OF GГ–DEL’S SECOND THEOREm

Vitaliy Valentinovich Tselishchev1,2, Aleksandr Valerievich Khlebalin1
1Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 8, Nikolaev st., 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk National Research State University, 2, Pirogov st., 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: интенсиональность, Вторая теорема Геделя, непротиворечивость, обоснованность, принцип рефлексии, формальная система, доказательство, intensionality, GГ¶del Second Theorem, consistency, soundness, principle of reflection, formal system, proof

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the method of eliminating the consequences of the intensionality of Gödel's Second Incompleteness Theorem. The method proposed by Gödel himself is called the “best and most common version” of the Second theorem. Consideration of (non-standard) systems with built-in consistency, in which consistency is provable within the system, reveals two points of view: the first is the semantic uncertainty of such systems, and the second is in attempts to strengthen the Second Theorem. Gödel introduced the concepts of internal and external consistency, and the transition to the principle of reflection as a more adequate formulation in its terms of the Second Theorem, has the goal of minimizing intensional aspects in metamathematical discourse.
																								



4.
FORMAL DEDUCTIVE DERIVATION OF EQUIVALENCE OF TRUTH AND BEAUTY IN AN AXIOMATIC SYSTEM OF EPISTEMOLOGY FROM THE ASSUMPTION OF APRIORITY OF KNOWLEDGE (FROM PYTHAGORAS AND PLATO TO J. KEATS, Н. POINCARE, H. WEYL,W. HEISENBERG, AND P. DIRAC)

Vladimir Olegovich Lobovikov
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 16, Sofya Kovalevskaya st., Yekaterinburg, 620990, Russia
Keywords: априорное, знание, истина, красота, эквивалентность, аксиоматическая система эпистемологии, формальный-дедуктивный-вывод, apriori, knowledge, truth, beauty, equivalence, axiomatic epistemology system, formal deductive inference

Abstract >>
For the first time in scientific literature on aesthetics and logic, the interconnection of beauty and truth is discussed at the level of artificial language of an axiomatic system of universal philosophical epistemology synthesizing aprioriism and empiricism. Also for the first time, the author constructs and proposes for discussion a formal deductive derivation of logic equivalence of truth and beauty (and that of beauty and provability as well) in an apriori knowledge system.
																								



5.
L.WITTGENSTEIN AND W. QUINE ABOUT KNOWING THE WORD

Alina Sergeevna Zaykova
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Akademy of Sciences, 8, Nikolaev st., Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: Витгенштейн, Куайн, эпистемология, семантика, языковые игры, контекст, значение слова, Wittgenstein, Quine, epistemology, semantics, language games, context, word meaning

Abstract >>
The article studies L. Wittgenstein’s and W. Quine’s attitudes towards the problem of the cognizing of the word as a part of the problem of the word meaning. The question of how we cognize the language in its propositional facts which was ignored in Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is analyzed in detail in Philosophical Investigations and gives rise to a wide range of concepts, ideas and doubts. Quine, following Wittgenstein, starts to study the cognition of the word but overrides uncertainty and focuses on the naturalistic approach, which allows him to build the model of scientific knowledge based exactly on the word and the way we cognize the word.
																								



6.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE SYNERGETIC APPROACH IN A CHEMICAL RESEARCH

Sergey Sergeevich Chunikhin, Vladimir Antonovich Mukin
Chuvash State University, 15, Moskovskiy av., Cheboksary, 428015, Russia
Keywords: синергетика, синергетический подход, химическое исследование, методология химического исследования, synergetics, synergetic approach, chemical research, methodology of chemical research

Abstract >>
The article examines the effectiveness of applying the synergistic approach in a chemical research. We chose this approach to the study of a chemical research because in current realities one cannot fail to regard such a study as a multi-component, non-linearly developing system consisting of open elements. Therefore, we reveal factors of openness of individual elements of the system, prove the effectiveness of applying the synergetic approach in a chemical research and show potential of this approach.
																								



7.
CONSCIOUSNESS FROM THE ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE: PART I

Valeriy Ivanovitch Silantev
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Akademy of Sciences, 8, Nikolaev st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: сознание, проблема В«разум-разумВ», В«трудная проблемаВ», В«китайская комнатаВ», теоретическое описание сознания, consciousness, mind-mind problem, hard problem of consciousness, Chinese room, theoretical description of consciousness

Abstract >>
The article considers the brain, consciousness and the unconscious as different aspects of the whole cognitive activity of the mind. We assert that it is impossible to reduce consciousness to the brain or to the unconscious. At the same time, phenomenal experience cannot exist without brain activity and unconscious cognitive operations. The paper considers the effect of consciousness on the brain and the unconscious. The thesis is stated and proved that one can describe consciousness through theoretical concepts (as opposed to empirical and/or naive ones) without recourse to external processes. It is assumed that phenomenal experience as one of the key properties of highly organized life forms greatly influenced their evolutionary development.
																								



8.
PARAPEGMA

Evgeniy Vasilyevich Afonasin1,2
1Novosibirsk National Research State University, 2, Pirogov st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Institute of Philosophy and Law, SB RAS, 8, Nikolaev st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: предсказание погоды, античная практическая астрономия, гелиакическое восхождение, weather prediction, practical astronomy in Antiquity, heliacal rising

Abstract >>
Peculiar practical astronomical calendars called in antiquity parapēgmata made possible to correlate heliacal rising of major stars with related seasonal weather changes. Most noted literary examples are found in Geminos’s «Introduction to the Phenomena» (the 2nd century BCE) and in Ptolemy’s «Phases of fixed stars and collection of weather change» (the 2nd century CE). We also possess a number of actual examples of these calendars, two parapēgmata from Miletus (one of them is dated to the 2nd century BCE and the other to the 1st century BCE, both are preserved now in Berlin Antikensammlung) are most famous. In the present paper, we analyze the content of these texts and discuss the question of their practical applicability. Apparently, they were quite useful for gathering information about seasonal weather events. For instance, accurate knowledge of prevailing winds and their seasonal changes would allow ancient navigators to choose proper time to start for a long travel.
																								



9.
THE FORCE CHANGING THE FACE OF THE EARTH: REVIEW OF THE BOOK В«THE CONTROVERSY ON THE TECHNOLOGY» BY FRIEDRICH DESSAUER

Marina Nikolaevna Wolf
Institute of Philosophy and Law, SB RAS, 8, Nikolaev st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: цифровая философия, клеточные автоматы, хаос, самоорганизованная критичность, сознание, психика, philosophy of technology, history of technology, the essence of technology, F. Dessauer, Platonism, engineering, invention, religion, creator

Abstract >>
The paper is a review of the first published Russian translation of the book «The Controversy on the Technology» by F. Dessauer (translated from German by A.Yu. Nesterov, published in 2017 in Samara, Samara Humanities Academy). We show the historical context in which the author wrote the book, quote the main discussions that influenced the content of the book, and present its structure and topics of the chapters with a summary. We analyze the author’s Platonist attitudes which are unique for the philosophy of technology, their criticism by opponents and their relevance in the contemporary context.