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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2018 year, number 12

1.
The effect of phase aberrations on the position and length of the filamentation domain

D.V. Apeksimov1, Yu.E. Geints1, A.A. Zemlyanov1, A.N. Iglakova1, A.M. Kabanov1, O.I. Kuchinskaya1,2, G.G. Matvienko1, V.K. Oshlakov1, A.V. Petrov1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: фемтосекундный лазерный импульс, филаментация, деформируемое зеркало, femtosecond laser pulse, filamentation, deformable mirror

Abstract >>
The results of experimental and theoretical studies of femtosecond laser pulse filamentation with use of a bimorph deformable mirror are presented. The mirror allows controlling the position of the filamentation domain throughout a model path due to phase distortions of different parts of a laser beam, determining localization of filaments and high-intensity channels in the beam cross section, and forming long (> 100 m) high-intensity (1011- 1012 W/cm2) weakly diverging plasma-free channels.
																								



2.
Extinction matrix of quasihorizontally oriented atmospheric ice crystals for visible and IR light

N.V. Kustova1, A.V. Konoshonkin1,2, D.N. Timofeev1, V.A. Shishko1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: коэффициент ослабления, матрица экстинкции, перистые облака, физическая оптика, рассеяние света, ледяные кристаллы, extinction coefficient, extinction matrix, cirrus clouds, physical optics, light scattering, ice crystals

Abstract >>
The paper presents an extinction matrix for an ensemble of ice hexagonal plates and columns. The extinction matrix for droxtals and bullets was estimated. The calculations were carried out for particles with characteristic sizes from 10 to 100 μm, for wavelengths from 0.3 to 10 μm, assuming a gamma distribution over particle size with the width parameter μ < 4. It is found out that for the visible light, the extinction matrix of an ensemble of atmospheric ice crystals is a unit matrix with a scale coefficient being equal to the doubled area of the particle projection. The error of such a representation does not exceed a tenths of a percent and does not depend on the type of crystals and their spatial orientation. It is also established that this representation of the extinction matrix is applicable in the IR region only to hexagonal columns, bullets, and similar crystals with the characteristic size larger than 20 μm when the wavelengths is less than 8 μm.
																								



3.
Spectral contributions of sections of power-law structure function of random processes with stationary increments. Part 1. The exponent is less than one

V.A. Fedorov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: случайный процесс со стационарными приращениями, степенная структурная функция, спектральная плотность, спектральные вклады, random process with stationary increments, power-law structure function, spectral density, spectral contribution

Abstract >>
The frequency behavior of the spectral contributions of the initial, middle, and “finite” parts of the power-law structure function (with an exponent less than one) to the spectral density (SD) of a random process with stationary increments is considered. It is shown that it is considerably more complicated than the strictly positive monotonic power-law frequency dependence of the initial SD. The latter corresponds only to the behavior of the spectral contribution of the initial section of the given structure function. The analytical approximation dependences of the frequency behavior of all these spectral contributions are presented and analized. They are recommended for wide practical use.
																								



4.
A method for joint methane vertical profile retrieval from atmospheric spectra in the thermal and near-infrared regions

I.V. Zadvornykh1, K.G. Gribanov1, V.I. Zakharov1, R. Imasu2
1Institute of Natural Sciences, 620083, 51 Lenina, Ekaterinburg, Russia
2Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, General Research Building Room No. 315b, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8568, Japan
Keywords: дистанционное зондирование, спектры атмосферы, обратная задача, метан

Abstract >>
A method of solution of the inverse problem of satellite sounding of the atmosphere for the retrieval of vertical profiles of optically active gas concentrations from high resolution atmospheric spectra in thermal and near infrared ranges jointly is presented. To demonstrate the capabilities of the method, a computational experiment was performed to retrieve the vertical profile of the main methane isotopologue with simultaneous use of synthetic spectra in the thermal and near-infrared regions. The spectra simulated reproduce the spectra measured by TANSO-FTS/GOSAT IR Fourier spectrometers. The signal-to-noise ratio in the spectra was set at 350. The model experiments show higher accuracy of retrieval of the methane vertical profile and its total column in case of joint use of both spectral bands (thermal and near-IR) in comparison with the use of each band separately.
																								



5.
Features of the transport and transformation of aerosol and gas impurities in the atmosphere in the coastal zone of the Lake Baikal

A.S. Zayakhanov1, G.S. Zhamsueva1, V.V. Tsydypov1, T.S. Balzhanov1, Yu.S. Balin2, I.E. Penner2, G.P. Kokhanenko2, S.V. Nasonov2
1Institute of Physical Material Science of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 670047, Ulan-Ude, 8, Sakhyanovoy str
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: озеро Байкал, тропосферный озон, окислы азота, аэрозоль, лидар, метеорологические параметры, Lake Baikal, tropospheric ozone, nitrogen oxides, aerosol, lidar, meteorological parameters

Abstract >>
The results of experimental studies of the daily dynamics of atmospheric gases and the meteorological characteristics of the atmosphere at different altitudes on the southeastern coast of Lake Baikal are presented. Measurements were carried out in July-August 2015-2016 at the “Boyarsky” station (51.84°N, 106.06°E). At the same time, lidar measurements were made aimed at studying the formation of vertical structure of aerosol fields both in background conditions and in the presence of sources of smoke caused by forest fires.
																								



6.
Analysis of neural network capabilities in IPDA spaceborne lidar sensing of CO2 using heterogeneous a priori data

G.G. Matvienko, A.Ya. Sukhanov, S.V. Babchenko
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: атмосфера, космический лидар, углекислый газ, парниковый газ, нейронная сеть, atmosphere, spaceborne lidar, carbon dioxide, greenhouse gas, neural network

Abstract >>
A possibility of retrieving the columnar concentration of carbon dioxide using a neural network is analyzed, as well as the concentration profile when sounding from a space orbit of 450 km and from an aerostat at altitudes of 23 and 10 km. Possibilities of using a priori data on temperature, pressure, and reflected and scattered signals are considered. The errors of retrieval of the columnar CO2 are 0.15% and 0.5% at altitudes lower than 2 km for lidar with a telescope diameter of 1 m and laser pulse energy of 50 μJ at a resolution of 60 km.
																								



7.
Comparison of several numerical methods for fog forecast

G.A. Zarochentsev1, K.G. Rubinstein2, V.I. Bychkova2, R.Y. Ignatov2, Y.I. Yusupov3
1Nuclear Safety Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, 1/2, Moscow, 119991, Russia
2Nuclear Safety Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, 1-13, Bol'shoj Predtechenskij per., 123242, Moscow, Russia
3Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, 1-13, Bol'shoj Predtechenskij per., 123242, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: туманы, метеорологическая видимость, мезомасштабное моделирование, перенос влаги в приземном слое, fog, meteorological visibility, mesoscale modeling, transfer of moisture in the surface layer

Abstract >>
Several methods for estimation of the visibility for fog forecasting, including the proposed by authors are discussed. To get necessary meteorological information, WRF-ARW model was used. The forecasts were estimated using the European network of synoptic observation data, with high spatial increments. The analysis of the methods in general showed satisfactory quality of prediction of this phenomenon.
																								



8.
On the effectiveness of joint laser and gas chromatographic remote detection of explosive traces

M.N. Baldin1,2, S.M. Bobrovnikov3,4, A.B. Vorozhtsov4,5, E.V. Gorlov3,4, V.M. Gruznov1,6,7, V.I. Zharkov3, Yu.N. Panchenko8, M.V. Pryamov1,2,7, G.V. Sakovich5
1Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum-Gas Geology and Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Ac. Koptyuga ave., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630090
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science
3V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
4National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
5Institute for Problems of Chemical and Energetic Technologies of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 659332, Biysk, 1, Sotsialisticheskaja str., IPCET SB RAS
6V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 2, Pirogov Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
7National Research Novosibirsk State University
8High Current Electronics Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 634055, Tomsk, 2/3, Academichesky ave. HCEI SB RAS
Keywords: взрывчатые вещества, обнаружение, лидар, газовый хроматограф, explosives, detection, lidar, gas chromatograph

Abstract >>
The results of remote detection of objects containing explosives by means of a combined use of a lidar detector of explosive traces and a portable express gas chromatograph are presented. It is shown that the lidar detector of explosive traces confidently detects the simulators of TNT, hexogen, and PTEN from a distance of 5 m when sounding the surface of a sample. It is shown that laser action on the surface of the sample causes vapor desorption and provides a reliable detection of samples by means of the gas chromatograph. It is shown that the joint use of the method of laser sounding and gas chromatography makes it possible to increase the reliability of detecting explosives. The prospects have been determined of using the gas chromatography method in the research on the development of laser sounding techniques.
																								



9.
Photoacoustic measurements of the water vapor continuum absorption in the 1.6 mm window

V.A. Kapitanov, K.Y. Osipov, I.V. Ptashnik
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: континуальное поглощение, водяной пар, окна прозрачности атмосферы, оптико-акустический спектрометр, continuum absorption, water vapor, atmospheric windows, photoacoustic spectrometer

Abstract >>
The pure water vapor absorption spectra have been measured by the photoacoustic method in transparency microwindows near 6177 cm-1 at several pressures at a room temperature. Cross section of the water vapor continuum absorption has been determined to be (5.4 ± 0.8) × 10-24 × cm2 × mol.-1 × atm-1. This value is 4 times lower than the data known from FTS measurements and 20 times higher than the results obtained from CRDS measurements in this transparency window.
																								



10.
The use of thermography to assess the turbulence scales in flame

E.L. Loboda1, O.V. Matviyenko1, M.V. Agafontsev1, V.V. Reyno2
1National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: ИК-диагностика, горение, спектр, температура, турбулентность, IR thermography, combustion, spectrum, temperature, turbulence

Abstract >>
The results of theoretical and experimental studies on determination of the scales of turbulent vortices in flame produced during the combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels and vegetable combustible materials with the usе of thermography methods are presented. A good agreement is shown between the sizes of temperature inhomogeneities experimentally measured in thermograms with the scales of turbulent vortices calculated from the spectra of the temperature variations in the test flame.
																								



11.
Radial model of gas temperature in metal vapor active media

A.E. Kulagin1, S.N. Torgaev1,2,3, G.S. Evtushenko1,2,4
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
3National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
4Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991, Moscow, Vavilov Str., 38
Keywords: температура газа, активная среда, частота следования импульсов, кинетика, моделирование, радиальный профиль, газоразрядная трубка, gas temperature, active medium, pulse repetition rate, kinetic, modelling, radial profile, gas-discharge tube

Abstract >>
We present the results of modeling the radial profile of the gas temperature in metal vapors active media, in particular, copper vapor. The modelling was carried out using a detailed kinetic model of the active medium for gas-discharge tubes (GDT) of various diameters, operating at repetition rates of 10 and 20 kHz. The effect of the operating frequency and the GDT diameter on the gas temperature profile was shown.
																								



12.
Subject Index


																								



13.
Author Index