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"Philosophy of Education"

2018 year, number 4

POST-GRADUATE STUDIES IN THE POST-SOVIET RUSSIA: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS (part 1)

A. M. Ablazhey
Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Nikolaeva, 8
Keywords: , , , , , , « », , , post-graduate student, supervisor, universities, academic institutions, reform, tasks of postgraduate schools, «flowing postgraduate studies», dissertation, dissertation defense

Abstract

Introduction. The paper attempts to highlight the situation in the field of training personnel for science and higher education, as it developed by the beginning of the 2000s, on the eve of the development and implementation of large-scale reforms in the sphere of intellectual production. The methodology and methods of the research was based on the idea of graduate school as an important element of the science system, designed, on one hand, to teach the future scientist the basics of the scientific profession, on the other hand, to convey to him/her the basic values and rules of behavior of scientists. In addition, special attention was paid to the description of the external social context, which in many ways determined the transformation of the postgraduate institute as the most important element in the system of training scientific and scientific-pedagogical personnel of the highest qualification in the first post-Soviet decade. The findings were based on the results of two studies: a series of focused interviews with research supervisors of postgraduate students (2004) and a mass survey of graduate students themselves (2005). The results of the analysis are as follows: 1) the objectives of the teaching have changed dramatically, when along with the desire to devote one's life to science, there is a desire to avoid conscription, to defend thesis "just in case (may be useful in later life), to use graduate school as a channel for «moving abroad, to provide for a certain period of time some minimum material and living conditions, «look around, find a suitable job, including outside science, etc .; 2) the scientific community of the NSC continued to maintain a high level of scientific requirements for the young replenishment of science, primarily to the dissertations being defended; 3) a significant part of the experts recognized the «flow-through post-graduate system as a very reasonable and productive measure in the specific conditions that existed in Russian science, in particular at the Novosibirsk Scientific Center, in the early 2000s; 4) the main reasons for the low percentage of young researchers staying in science were low wages and housing problems, a serious and independent problem was the emigration of young scientists abroad; 5) identified and described the main types of graduate students - «traditional scientist, «scientist of a new formation, «businessman from science. It is concluded that the state of graduate school as the most important institution for the training of scientific personnel did not cause critical concern. At the same time, attention was drawn to the insufficient «resolving power of postgraduate study («it only partially fulfills its task); the weakness in the orientation toward science of part of graduate students; backwardness of the material and technical base of research; low living standards of graduate students, delays in defense of dissertations. Of particular concern was the problem of securing young scientists in science.