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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2018 year, number 5

1.
NEW LOOK AT UNDERSTANDING HYDROLOGICAL ROLE OF FOREST

A. A. Onuchin1,2, T. A. Burenina1, H. Balzter3, A. G. Tsykalov4
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Academician M. F. Reshetnev Siberian State University of Science and Technology, Prospekt Krasnoyarskiy Rabochiy, 31, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 Russian Federation
3University of Leicester, Bennett Building, G04 (CLCR), University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH United Kingdom
4Ministry of Industry, Energy, Housing and Communal Services of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Lenin str., 125, Krasnoyarsk, 660009 Russian Federation
Keywords: бореальные леса, лесная гидрология, гидрологические циклы, баланс снеговой влаги, географический детерминизм, boreal forests, forest hydrology, hydrological cycles, snow moisture balance, geographical determinism

Abstract >>
The article is concerned with the discussion of the reasons for the contradictions existing in the assessment of the hydrological role of forests. The authors believe that the accumulation of new information related to seemingly well-studied processes and phenomena necessitates revisions of traditional views and leads to new knowledge of the hydrological role of forests. Various conceptual approaches to assessing the hydrological role of forests in different geographic conditions are considered. System analysis of the materials obtained by the authors and literature data made it possible to identify the features of the hydrological cycle depending on the structure of forests and climatic conditions. The data of 460 snow surveys in the period of maximum snow reserves in 212 forest stands growing in different climatic and ecological conditions were used. The comparison of the features of snow moisture balance of the forest and treeless ecosystems in different climatic conditions contributed to understanding the reasons for the contradictory assessments of the hydrological role of forests. The authors showed that in the conditions of mild and warm winters, forests are more powerful evaporators of snow moisture than treeless sites and in conditions of severe winters with frequent snowstorms, they are the accumulators of snow moisture and sources of river flow. The paper presents a conceptual model describing the mechanisms of water cycle in the forests of the boreal zone, which determine the features of the influence of forest ecosystems on the river runoff depending on the geophysical background.
																								



2.
OPTICAL PROCESSES IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS

E. R. Bukhanov1, M. A. Korshunov2, A. V. Shabanov2
1Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/38, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: оптика, фотонные кристаллы, фотосинтез, optics, photonic crystals, photosynthesis

Abstract >>
A review of the state and analysis of works related to optical processes of photosynthesis are given. Particular attention is paid to the work on the investigation of these processes in iridoplasts and chloroplasts with photonic crystal structure. From a general point of view, a photonic crystal (PhC) is a superlattice with a characteristic scale of periodicity of permittivity (refractive indices) of the order of the wavelength of the light wave. In such structures, the forbidden bands occur in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves. This means that in a given spectral range the light of any polarization cannot enter the PhC or exit in any direction. An important property of PhC is high degree of localization of electromagnetic waves on the lattice defects. In this case, defective energy levels manifest themselves in the forbidden zones of the PhC. An atom or molecule emit a quantum with a frequency corresponding to a defective mode. Most of the works dealing with the study of optical processes of photosynthesis have not taken into account the features of light propagation in structures. Periodic structures have been found in the plant and animal world. This paper presents the effect of a long-period structure on the optical properties and local characteristics of light waves, including the transmission and reflection spectrum, as well as the distribution of the electromagnetic field in the layered structure. Based on modern mathematical apparatus, the main spectral and optical characteristics were calculated using the example of a begonia plant. In recent works describing the propagation of light, the long-period structure was not taken into account. However, for the interpretation of the results, concepts (antenna, reaction center, the presence of two photosystems) without a detailed description of the physical nature were introduced. In addition, we had to employ a resonance mechanism for the transfer of excitation energy from the donor molecule to the acceptor molecule and quantum coherence. The analysis of the data obtained within the framework of a unified approach made it possible to explain the mechanism of the effect on photosynthesis, namely, the appearance of two photosystems (division of the stop zone into two parts), the feature of the long-wavelength quantum yield, its amplification (Emerson effect), including the red boundary shift, the efficiency of photosynthesis with additional irradiation and the expansion of the absorption region.
																								



3.
GENESIS AND HISTORY OF THE POST-GLACIAL EVOLUTION OF FOREST BOG IN THE VALLEY OF THE DUBCHES RIVER

L.V. Karpenko, A. S. Prokushkin
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: лесные болота, стратиграфия, радиоуглеродное датирование, индекс влажности, стадии смен фитоценозов, контактные слои, аккумуляция торфа, forest bogs, stratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, humidity index, stages of phytocoenoses change, contact layers, peat accumulation

Abstract >>
The results of palaebotanical and radiocarbon study of the forest-bog ecosystem in the lower Dubches river are given in this paper. It was established that the paludification process of this area started in the late-glacial period and the Holocene, in the period from 14.4 to 9.5 thousand calendar years ago. The stratigraphic analysis of peat deposit of five profiles with different peat thickness has shown that the bog massif has formed due to the emergence of different bog parts and each of them has developed differently at the initial period. The peat deposit of profiles was formed by low-mire, mesotrophic and Sphagnum peats of forest-swamp and swamp subtype. The contemporary bog ground vegetation is presented by pine-dwarf shrub-sphagnum phytocoenosis (riam) with a well-developed tree layer of bog pine. The detailed stratigraphic analysis of deposit of a sample profile in the central part of the profile has shown that the succession series of bog phytocoenoses beginning from the late glacial period until now embraces 18 stages of changes. It was also stated that these changes are related to changing hydrological regime (humidity index variation (HI) from 2.1 to 7.8 is noted). Five development stages of bog vegetation have been revealed, which are closely connected with the humidity regime. The first stage lasted a short time, 14 400-13 356 calendar years ago. It was characterized by humidity index 7.8 and by dominating hyperhydrophilic hypnophytocoenoses. The second and third stages - 13356-2866 calendar years ago are characterized by humidity index 5.7-2.1 and by the development of eutrophic birch-rich-in-herbs and also birch phytocoenoses. The humidity index 7.3, as well as development of swampy Scheuchzeria phytocoenoses are characteristic of the fourth stage, 2866-1868 calendar years ago. The fifth stage, 1868 calendar years ago, - present time is characterized by humidity index 4.5-3.3, and by dominating fuscum phytocoenoses. The botanic peat analysis has shown three contact layers formed by birch peat which can be the evidence of xerothermal periods of the Holocene in the Near-Yenisei Siberia and afforestation of bog by birch tree stands. It was found that the average rate of vertical peat growth varied from 0.16 to 0.39 mm/year, i. e. much lower than peat accumulation rate in riams of middle taiga in the West Siberia.
																								



4.
INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON SEED INFUSION AND FOREST REGENERATION AT COAL MINE DUMPS OF KUZBASS

O. A. Klimova, A. N. Kupriyanov
Federal Research Center of Coal and Coal Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Prospekt Sovetskiy, 18, Kemerovo, 650065 Russian Federation
Keywords: лесовозобновление, подрост, семена, семеномер, отвалы угольных разрезов, forest regeneration, undergrowth, seeds, seed measuring device, coal mine dumps

Abstract >>
The paper studies the number of seeds of woody plants falling on coal dumps of Kuzbass located in the northern and southern parts of Kuznetsk basin and in the mountain taiga belt of the lowlands of the Kuznetsk Alatau, as well as the number of regenerations, including shoots and young undergrowth. Large quantities of birch seeds (from 200 thousand to 2 million seeds per ha, and in the favorable conditions of growth in the forest in the mountain taiga belt of the Kuznetsk Alatau up to 4 million seeds per ha) fall on the dumps. To a smaller extent, the seeds of aspen, poplar and willows, and to an even smaller degree of Scots pine, fall on the dumps. In the mountain taiga belt, Siberian fir seeds have been registered. The number of seeds and forest regenerations on dumps depend on the shape of the meso- micro- and nanorelief, which causes the uneven distribution of shoots and undergrowth. The best conditions for natural regeneration are in favorable ecological niches characterized by pronounced microrelief, the presence of scattered, moist, loess-like carbonate rocks with a developed humus accumulating embryozem. Natural reforestation under unfavorable environmental conditions (with the exception of sea buckthorn) is slow.
																								



5.
OPTIMIZATION OF PINE STAND DENSITY IN THE EASTERN CIS-BAIKALIA

V. V. Ivanov, A. N. Borisov, A. E. Petrenko
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: высотно-поясной комплекс, выборочная рубка, область доминирования, древостой, текущий радиальный прирост, оптимальная густота, altitudinal-belt complex, selective thinning, dominating area, tree stand, current radial increment, optimal denseness

Abstract >>
The issues of optimizing density of pine stands growing in the Eastern Cis-Baikal region are considered in the article. In the conditions of light coniferous mountain taiga and pine-subtaiga high-altitude complexes, a survey was carried out of the compartments selectively felled with different intensity and control areas unaffected by logging. The dependence of growth of a stem diameter on the quantity of resources accessible to a tree is revealed. As an indicator of the provision of a tree by the resources, the dominance area (DA) was calculated taking into account the stem diameter and growth conditions. It is shown that at the age of 100-120 years, pine trees are able to develop additional resources available after logging, which is manifested, among other things, in the increase of annual radial growth. The estimations of the resource distribution between trees in the stand have been obtained and DAs calculated. These characteristics ensure stable growth rate of trees in stem diameter and the formation of a well-developed crown. The proposed approach can be used to develop the tables of optimum density of pine stands in the f conditions of growing forests of the Eastern Cis-Baikal region at different age stages of the formation of protective forests. After carrying out logging operations in pine stands of a certain age, the number of trees corresponding to the calculated values of optimum density should be left.
																								



6.
POPULATION AND PHENETIC STRUCTURE OF LAUREL POPLAR Populus laurifolia Ledeb. IN THE TOM RIVER BASIN

A. V. Klimov1, B. V. Proshkin1,2
1InEkA-Consulting Ltd., Lazo str., 4, Novokuznetsk, 654027 Russian Federation
2Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, Dobrolubov str., 160, Novosibirsk, 630039 Russian Federation
Keywords: Populus, популяции, морфологические признаки, фенотипы, оледенение, рефугиум, Кемеровская область, Россия, populations, morphological attributes, phenotypes, glaciation, refugium, Kemerovo Oblast, Russia

Abstract >>
In the basin of Tom River (Russia) the distribution of laurel poplar Populus laurifolia Ledeb. populations is fragmentary due to its ecological requirements and to the anthropogenic transformation of the territory. Adaptability of P. laurifolia to well-aerated gravel-boulder alluvium results in its narrow ecological niche, confining it to grow mostly in the multi-stream areas of mountain rivers. Current distribution of poplar stands in the Tom River basin, their primary location near islands and tributary mouths are largely determined by human economic activity in the 20th century. At present the relative sustainability of these poplar stands under anthropogenic transformations in the region is ensured by their low accessibility. The natural dynamics of poplar stands is influenced by massive invasion of alien plant species into the indigenous floodplain plant communities. Spatial differentiation of P. laurifolia populations according to their composition takes place in the area. The grey-bark form with rounded wedge-shaped leaf blade base is common in the up-stream areas, while in the tributary basin and mid-stream areas the white-bark form with a heart-shaped leaf blade base is common as well. Combined analyses of quantitative and qualitative traits and phenotype frequencies also confirmed population differentiation according to their composition. The mid-stream laurel poplar stands display greater phenotype diversity and a higher proportion of inter-population differences in phenotype composition. The latter trait did not differ significantly among the up-stream populations with low differentiation. It was suggested that the current population structure in the Tom River basin area developed as a result of the original populations’ fragmentation due to the combined effect of neotectonics, valley glaciation in the Kuznetsk Alatau Mountains and anthropogenic influence.
																								



7.
THE RESULTS OF INTRODUCTORY TESTING OF PROSPECTIVE SPECIES OF Spiraea L. GENUS FOR PLANTING GREENERY IN STEPPE ZONE OF KHAKASSIA

G. N. Gordeeva
Scientific Research Institute for Agrarian Problems of Khakassia, Sadovaya str., 5, Zelenoe Village, Ust’-Abakan District, 655132 Republic of Khakassia
Keywords: спирея Spiraea L, сезонное развитие, зимостойкость, интродукционная устойчивость, засушливая степь, Spiraea L, seasonal development, winter resistance, introduction stability, arid steppe

Abstract >>
The aim of the research was to study the species of the spiraea Spiraea L. collection in the arboretum of the Institute for Agrarian Problems of Khakassia to introduce new promising plants into landscape gardening. The results of long-term introductory tests of 17 species of the spiraea collection are presented. To study the plants, well-known methods of observing the growth and development of shrubs, determining winter resistance and prospects were used. The studies were conducted on local species of spiraea and those from other regions. The data on the origin of species, their height in the arboretum, age, and ecological characteristics are given. The rhythm of growth and development of the studied plants for the period 2010-2017 are considered in detail. The average dates of occurrence of the main phenological phases, quadratic deviations and the degree of variation were statistically calculated. It is found that the terms of the onset of the main phases of development varied little in the years of research. The greatest variability (11.0-16.0 %) is typical for spring plant development dates. The grade scales were used to determine one the winter resistance and the perspectives of the spiraea species. In addition, a reference score to assess the state of the plants was presented. As a result, it has been established that the species of the spiraea collection can be divided into three groups by the flowering period. The first group of early flowering plants (from May 11 to May 30) was the most numerous (59 %), in the second group (26 %), flowering occurs from May 31 to June 15, and in the third group plants bloom after June 16 (12 %). A high score of winter resistance was noted in 48 % of the species under consideration. 64.7 % of the studied plants are suitable for introduction into planting greenery in the steppe zone of Khakassia. They are characterized by I and II grades of prospectivity. These are species with wide natural areas of growth, such as: spiraea trichocarpous Spiraea lasiocarpa Kar. & Kir., spiraea of Sargent Spiraea sargentiana Rehd., spiraea lavender S. x syringaeflora Lem.; for the first time these species can be recommended for the landscape gardening of settlements in the pre-Abakan part of the steppe zone of Khakassia.
																								



8.
ESTIMATION OF SOME STAND PARAMETERS USING DIGITAL AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS FOR CONSERVATION AND SERVICE ORIENTED FORESTS

T. Demirel, U. Y. Г–zkan
Istanbul University, Bahçeköy, Sariyer, Istanbul, 34473 Turkey
Keywords: лесная таксация, лесоустройство, вегетационные индексы, параметры насаждений, forest inventory, forest management planning, vegetation indices, stand parameters

Abstract >>
Forest inventory, which is the first step of forest management planning, is the most difficult stage that requires much time and a lot of efforts. To reduce fieldworks that are considered time consuming and expensive methods of ground measurements, remote sensing data are widely used. Aerial photographs have been an integral part of forest inventory data in Turkey since 1963. Panchromatic and RGBI (Red, Green, Blue, Infrared) aerial photographs acquired by digital aerial cameras proved to be very important in forest inventory. They have maintained their importance for forest management planning process. The aim of this study is to construct a fast and practical inventory model that requires least fieldwork for forest management planning process. Pixel values and vegetation indices (NDVI, DVI, IPVI, RVI and PCA), obtained from remote sensing data, and stand parameters (stand volume, volume increment and number of trees) have been compared statistically. Black pine Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold plantations located in the south-east region of Turkey, Çelikhan Forest Planning Unit, was chosen as a research area. 0.5 meter spacing and 8 bit radiometric resolution Ultracam-X Digital Aerial Photos were used as remote sensing data. According to statistical analysis, IPVI and Green Band values provided the highest evaluation coefficient compared to the models developed for the estimation of stand parameters. Adjusted R square of stand volume, volume increment and the number of tree in the models were found to yield 0.74, 0.73 and 0.50 respectively. It was concluded that stand characteristics estimated by statistical models can be used for forest areas managed for conservation and service purposes.
																								



9.
NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE WITH INTERNATIONAL PARTICIPATION BIOLOGICAL REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED LANDS

S. L. Menshchikov, K. E. Zav’yalov, P. E. Mokhnachev, N. A. Kuzmina
Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 8 Marta str., 202a, Yekaterinburg, 620085 Russian Federation
Keywords: contaminated and disturbed lands, biological rehabilitation, methods

Abstract >>
The 10th national scientific conference with international participation Biological Rehabilitation of Disturbed Lands was held in the city of Yekaterinburg on September 4-7, 2017. More than 180 participants attended the conference from various institutions of 39 Russian cities of Russia and 7 countries (Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Morocco, Turkey, and Ukraine). Participation in the conference of a wide range of researchers and specialists is an indicator that the problem of rehabilitation is not becoming obsolete, but, on the contrary, it is growing more urgent. This problem is among the priority tasks of many regions of Russia and foreign countries in which oil and gas production, various mining industries are developed and the transformation of natural landscapes into post-industrial ones takes place. These problems are discussed at the conference, which takes place every 5 years in Yekaterinburg. Thanks to an active exchange of experience between specialists from different countries and due to analysis and discussion of the results, the prospects of cooperation aimed at improving the ecological situation and rational use of natural resources in the industrialized regions are developing. The publications of proceedings of the conference are of great scientific and practical value for scientists and specialists dealing with the problem of rehabilitation and monitoring of disturbed lands. Evaluating the global character of the problems of the conference, an appeal was addressed to the Governments of the regions of the Russian Federation for targeted financing of basic research in industrial regions with a high concentration of disturbed lands. To protect public health and preserve the gene pool of animals and plants, the need of assessing the quality of products obtained in the regions that undergo biological rehabilitation is emphasized. The published collection of conference proceedings presents the results of the research of the last decade.