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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2018 year, number 10

1.
Construction of the parameterization of the molecular absorption in the lower and middle atmosphere of the Earth in the infrared range

I.V. Mingalev, E.A. Fedotova, K.G. Orlov
Polar Geophysical Institute, 26а, Academgorodok St., Apatity, 184209
Keywords: параметризация молекулярного поглощения, собственное излучение атмосферы, расчет поля излучения, parameterization of molecular absorption, atmosphere radiation, calculation of radiation field

Abstract >>
The paper presents a new algorithm for constructing parameterizations of molecular absorption in the Earth's atmosphere, which takes into account the change in the atmospheric gas composition with altitude and has a number of other advantages, as well as a parametrization constructed using this algorithm in the frequency range from 10 to 2000 cm-1 in the altitude range from the Earth's surface to 76 km. A comparison of the results of calculations of the eigenvalue field of the Earth's atmosphere, carried out using this parametrization, with the results of reference calculations (line-by-line) shows that the presented parametrization has good accuracy in the lower and middle atmosphere in the absence of cloud layers and in the presence of cloud layers with a large optical thickness.
																								



2.
LED-based Fourier-transform spectroscopy: absorption spectrum of HD16O in the region of 0.6 μm

L.N. Sinitsa, V.I. Serduykov, E.R. Polovtseva, A.D. Bykov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: Фурье-спектроскопия, спектры поглощения молекулы НDО, центры и интенсивности спектральных линий, Fourier-Transform spectroscopy, absorption spectrum of HDO molecule, spectral line centers and intensities

Abstract >>
A high resolution vibrational-rotational absorption spectrum of НD16О molecule has been studied in the visible region from 16600 to 17400 cm1 by LED-based Fourier-transform spectroscopy. The spectrum was recorded with the Fourier spectrometer IFS-125M with a resolution of 0.09 cm1. A high-brightness light-emitting diode ЗНР was used as a source of radiation. For the measurements we used a White-type multi-pass cell with an optical path length of 2880 cm. The spectral line parameters (line centers and intensities) were determined. The line list contains more than 300 transitions to vibrational states (005) and (104). The obtained results are compared with the calculated and experimental data of other authors.
																								



3.
The influence of water vapor on 266 nm radiation absorption by aluminum optical mirror

A.N. Kuryak, B.A. Tikhomirov
E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: зеркало, коэффициент отражения и поглощения, многоходовая кювета, оптико-акустический метод, адсорбция, водяной пар, mirror, absorption and reflection coefficients, multi-pass cell, photoacoustic technique, adsorption, water vapor

Abstract >>
A high sensitive technique of photoacoustic calorimetry is used in the study of the effect of H2O molecules adsorbed on the surface of an aluminum optical mirror on the absorption of radiation 266 nm. It was found that the addition of water vapor with partial pressures P H2O = 7,9 mbar and P H2O = 15 mbar to the dry air of atmospheric pressure increases the absorption of radiation 266 nm on the surface of the “dry” mirror by 12% and 21%, respectively. The results of numerical simulation of the transmittance of a multi-pass spectrophotometric cell indicate the extreme need to take into account the observed effect in the measurements of the absorption spectra of atmospheric air containing water vapor, using multi-pass cells.
																								



4.
The ratio of the intensities of 2P and 1P molecular nitrogen bands in apokamp discharge at different air pressures

E.A. Sosnin1,2, G.V. Naidis3, V.F. Tarasenko1,2, N.Yu. Babaeva3, V.A. Panarin2, V.S. Skakun2
1High Current Electronics Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 634055, Tomsk, 2/3, Academichesky ave. HCEI SB RAS
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
3Joint Institute for High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya st. 13 Bd. 2, Moscow, Russia 125412
Keywords: апокампический разряд, голубые струи, спрайты, переходные световые явления, apokampic discharge, blue jet, sprite, transient luminous events

Abstract >>
The laboratory simulation of the color change of the light jet formed in the apokampic discharge at different air density is carried out. The observed change is similar to color change the Earth's atmosphere transients occurring at different altitudes. It is shown experimentally that it is caused by a change in the ratio of the radiation intensity of the second and first positive systems of molecular nitrogen. The results of the theoretical evaluation of this ratio are in agreement with the experiment in the pressure range from 1 to 120 Torr.
																								



5.
Assessment of the influence of turbulence and regular refraction on laser beam characteristics in the atmospheric boundary layer. Part 2. Laser beam broadening at strong regular refraction

S.L. Odintsov, V.A. Gladkikh, A.P. Kamardin, V.P. Mamyshev, I.V. Nevzorova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: атмосфера, зондирование, лазерное излучение, показатель преломления, рефракция, содар, турбулентность, уширение лазерного пучка, atmosphere, sounding, laser radiation, refractive index, refraction, sodar, turbulence, laser beam broadening

Abstract >>
Possible deviations of a laser beam from the detector in the case of slant propagation paths are calculated with the use of measured profiles of air temperature in the atmospheric boundary layer. The possible seasonal and diurnal dynamics of the deviations under the effect of regular refraction is considered. The cases of simultaneously strong (regular) refraction of the laser beam and significant beam broadening due to the effect of turbulence are revealed and analyzed.
																								



6.
Aerosol observations in the upper stratosphere - lower mesosphere by the method of two wavelength lidar sensing

V.A. Korshunov, E.G. Merzlyakov, A.A. Yudakov
Russian Federal Service on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Research and Production Association В«Typhoon», 4, Pobeda str., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 Russia
Keywords: лидар, обратное рассеяние, средняя атмосфера, метеорный аэрозоль, метеорная дымка, lidar, backscattering, middle atmosphere, meteoric aerosol, meteoric smoke

Abstract >>
Results of two wavelength lidar sensing of middle atmosphere are presented at altitude range of 30 to 60 km over Obninck (55.1o N., 36.6o E) in 2012-2017. Monthly mean values of the ratio of coefficients of aerosol and Rayleigh backscattering (RCAR) at 532 nm wavelength averaged through 40-50 km and 50-60 km altitude layers are varied from 0 to 0.02, meanwhile mean peak levels of RCAR at the same layers are changed from 0.1 to 0.2. Short-time (about month) and long-time (half-year and longer) variations in backscattering are observed. Short-time variations are coordinated with meteor shower bursts. Long-period enhancements of backscattering were observed in 2013 after Chelyabinsk meteorite fall and also in the first half of 2016. In 2014-2015, the monthly mean RCAR was zero within measurement error at altitudes of 40-60 km. A possibility of long-time manifestation of meteoric aerosol in backscattering is analyzed taking into account incoming meteoric mass, gravitational sedimentation of meteoric particles, and vertical wind. It is shown that incoming masses of visible meteor with mass greater than 10-6 kg and bolides are not sufficient for long-time enhancements of backscattering at 50-60 km layer. It is proposed that the most probable cause of backscattering enhancements is the formation of size enlarged fraction of meteoric smoke particles produced at meteor ablation and transported to upper stratosphere within polar stratospheric vortex. In the beginning of 2016, the formation of extremely intensive polar vortex and it’s displacement to Eurasia contributes to this phenomena.
																								



7.
Measurements of wind turbulence parameters by a Windcube 200s lidar in the atmospheric boundary layer

A. Stephan1, N. Wildmann1, I.N. Smalikho2
1Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the German Aerospace Center, 82234, Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling, MГјnchener StraГџe 20, Germany
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: когерентный доплеровский лидар, ветровая турбулентность, coherent Doppler lidar, wind turbulence

Abstract >>
A method is proposed for determining the parameters of wind turbulence from data measured by a conically scanning pulsed coherent Doppler lidar in conditions of a weak echo signal. The results of spatiotemporal visualization of the kinetic energy of turbulence, its dissipation rate, and integral scale of turbulence from measurements by the Windcube 200s lidar in the atmospheric boundary layer are presented. It is shown that the applied lidar data filtering procedure allows acceptable results with a nonzero probability of a bad estimate of the radial velocity.
																								



8.
Optimal control of artificial sulfate aerosols usage to mitigate global warming

S.A. Soldatenko, R.M. Yusupov
St. Petersburg Institute for Informatics and Automation of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 14-th Linia, VI, No. 39, St. Petersburg, 199178, Russia
Keywords: оптимальное управление, геофизическая кибернетика, климатический инжиниринг, модификация погоды, глобальное потепление, optimal control, geophysical cybernetics, climate engineering, weather modification, global warming

Abstract >>
The optimal control problem for deliberate intervention on the Earth's climate system is considered with the aim of stabilizing the global surface temperature. The deliberate intervention is implemented via the controlled radiative perturbation created by artificial aerosols injected into the stratosphere. The controlled object is described by a two-component energy balance model, subject to radiative exposure, caused by an increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Anthropogenic impact on the climate system is specified in accordance with the RCP scenarios, as well as with 1% per year increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide scenario. The albedo of the artificial aerosol global layer represents the control variable. The optimal control and the corresponding phase trajectory of the climate system are obtained analytically using the Pontryagin’s maximum principle. The approach discussed in this paper can be considered as a basis for developing scenarios for deliberate intervention on the climate system using various geoengineering methods.
																								



9.
The weekly cycle of pollutant concentrations in the surface air above Moscow

N.F. Elansky1, A.V. Shilkin2, E.G. Semutnikova3, P.V. Zaharova4, V.S. Rakitin1, N.A. Ponomarev1, Y.M. Verevkin1
1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky per., 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
2Russian Federal Service on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Research and Production Association В«Typhoon», 4, Pobeda str., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 Russia
3Department of Nature Management and Environmental Protection of Moscow, 11/1, Novyj Arbat, 1119019, Moscow, Russia
4Mosjekomonitoring, 11/1, Novyj Arbat, 1119019, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: недельный цикл, загрязняющие примеси, окись углерода, метан, окись азота, двуокись азота, двуокись серы, аэрозоль, приземные концентрации, мегаполис, weekly cycle, pollutants, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrogen oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, aerosol, surface concentrations, megacity

Abstract >>
The temporal variability of the concentrations of air pollutants CO, NO, NO2, SO2 and PM10 in the surface air layer above Moscow shows a weekly cycle, which is manifested in a decrease in the pollution level on weekends. To determine the main feature of the weekly variations and the amplitude of the weekly cycle, a 10-year archive of data on atmospheric composition from 46 “Mosecomonitoring” stations was used for change first time. The city and season average amplitudes of weekly variations in the daytime concentrations of CO vary from 21.8% in spring to 29.2% in winter, and of NO, from 16.9% in summer to 38.1% in winter. The weekly cycle of NO2 daily concentration is stable during the year, and its amplitude is 33% on average. Amplitudes of weekly variations in SO2 and PM10 are maximal in daytime data and equal to 22.7% and 35.2%, respectively, in autumn; the CH4 weekly cycle is insignificant. A weekly cycle in night concentrations of these pollutants is significant only for NO2. The analysis of the data obtained for different Moscow districts shows approximately the same Sunday effect. Only CO concentrations have increased amplitudes in the city centre (39.2%) and southwestern sector (35.1%).
																								



10.
Passages of anomalies in black carbon surface air concentration at Tiksi station, Yakutiya

A.A. Vinogradova1, T.B. Titkova2, Yu.A. Ivanova1
1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky per., 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
2Institute of Geography RAS, 119017, Staromonetniy pereulok 29, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: атмосфера, черный углерод, Арктика, Тикси, дальний перенос в атмосфере, источники черного углерода, радиационный баланс, температура воздуха, atmosphere, black carbon (BC), Arctic, Tiksi, long-range atmospheric transport, BC sources, radiative balance, near surface air temperature

Abstract >>
Measurement data (2012-2014) on black carbon (BC) concentration in surface air at International Station Tiksi, placed near the River Lena’s Delta, have been analyzed. We revealed BC concentration variations of different magnitudes and durations. Abnormal high values of BC concentration (more than 1000 ng/m3) are registered rarely, more often in the warm part of a year (May-September), for no longer than two days. The longest episodes are associated with long-range atmospheric transport of combustion products from wildfires. During such episodes with abnormal BC concentrations, the surface air temperature and radiative balance vary noticeably in the surface air. Heat air mass advection from fire zones plays a significant role in forming air temperature field. The air temperature in such episodes may increase up to 10 °C (whereas climatic value for July is 10-11 °C).
																								



11.
Monitoring of atmospheric parameters: 25 years of observations at the TOR station of IAO SB RAS

D.K. Davydov, B.D. Belan, P.N. Antokhin, O.Yu. Antokhina, V.V. Antonovich, V.G. Arshinova, M.Yu. Arshinov, A.Yu. Akhlestin, S.B. Belan, N.V. Dudorova, G.A. Ivlev, A.V. Kozlov, D.A. Pestunov, T.M. Rasskazchikova, D.E. Savkin, D.V. Simonenkov, T.K. Sklyadneva, G.N. Tolmachev, A.Z. Fazliev, A.V. Fofonov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055
Keywords: мониторинг, состав атмосферы, качество воздуха, monitoring, atmosphere composition, air quality

Abstract >>
In this paper, a history of the development, current state, and specifications of the first automated site established for atmospheric composition observations on the base of the Siberian Lidar Station of the IAO SB RAS in December 1992 are presented. The results of the analysis of long-term changes in air quality observed in the vicinity of the Tomsk Scientific Centre have revealed its noticeable deterioration occurred during the past 10 years.
																								



12.
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