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Journal of Mining Sciences

2018 year, number 4

Integrated Multi-Level GeoMonitoring of Natural and Man-Made Objects in the Mining Industry

N. N. Mel’nikov†, A. I. Kalashnik, N. A. Kalashnik, D. V. Zaporozhets
Mining Institute, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity, 184209 Russia
Keywords: многоуровневый мониторинг, междисциплинарные комплексные исследования, природно-технические объекты, горнодобывающие комплексы, Multi-level monitoring, integrated inter-branch studies, natural and man-mad objects, mining industry

Abstract >>
The system of integrated multi-level geomonitoring is developed for man-man objects and oil/gas reservoirs in the west of Russian Arctic. The system is based on the principle of synchronization of inter-branch researches, including geodetic, geomechanical, geophysical and geotechnical measurements on the ground surface and by GPS, as well as subsurface, surface, aerial and GPR survey. The system uses the information technologies Big Data and Cloud Service with intelligence elements, and provides monitoring investigations at differ levels: remote, air, surface, subsurface, computer. In-situ inter-branch multi-level studies are the framework of the geomonitoring which continuously replenish and updates data bases. The multi-level approach is also involved in computer modeling: the geodynamic models of a man-made object, Kola Peninsula, Baltic Shield and Eurasian Plate are created as hierarchically nested structures. The models are analyzed under various boundary conditions, which enabled solution of an inverse problem on stress state of subsurface rock mass differentially by the investigates scales. The multi-level geomonitoring system is implemented at man-made objects of the key mining companies of the Kola Peninsula: Kovdorsky GOK, Kola MMC, Apatit, Oleniy Ruchey and OLKON GOKs.

Geomechanical and Hydrodynamic Fields in Producing Formation in the Vicinity of Well, Considering Rock Mass Permeability-Actual Stress Relationship

L. A. Nazarova, L. A. Nazarov
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: породный массив, пороупругое и пороупругопластическое деформирование, эффективное напряжение, проницаемость, скважина, эксперимент, образец с центральным отверстием, Rock mass, porous-elastic and porous-elastoplastic deformation, actual stress, permeability, well, experiment, specimen with center hole

Abstract >>
The nonlinear model is developed to describe geomechanical and hydrodynamic fields in the vicinity of a vertical well in a fluid-saturated formation for the case when the permeability k depends on the actual stress sf by the exponential law. The analytical solutions are obtained for the porous-elastic and porous-elastoplastic modes of deformation of the well vicinity, based on which the change in the pressure and rate of flow under the variation of parameters characterizing the dependence k(sf) is analyzed. It is found that the rate of flow exponentially decreases with an increasing horizontal stress of the external field; the permeability of the irreversible strain zone around the well decreases with the distance from the well boundary. The test scheme is proposed for permeability of specimens with the center hole under side loading, and the experimental data interpretation procedure is put forward, which enables finding the empirical dependence k(sf).

January 25, 2018 Seismic Event in Komsomolskaya Mine

N. N. Noskova1, V. E. Asming2, A. V. Fedorov2
1Academician Yushkin Institute of Geology, Komi Science Center, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar, 167982 Russia
2Kola Division, Unified Geophysical Service of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity, 184209 Russia
Keywords: горный удар, наведенная сейсмичность, геодинамическая опасность, угольная шахта, Воркутское месторождение, Rock burst, induced seismicity, geodynamic safety, coal mine, Vorkuta deposit

Abstract >>
On January 25, 2018 within the limits of the Vorkuta urban district, the regional seismic stations recorded an event classified as a rock burst. The records of 17 stations at the epicentral distances from 260 to 1645 km were collected and analyzed. The epicenter was localized in the Komsomolskaya Mine field of the Vorkuta coal deposit. Parameters of this event hypocenter were calculated by the data of the mine seismic monitoring network GITS, Vorkutaugo, which greatly improved reliability of determination of the hypocenter as compare with processing results of he regional stations and offered a reference estimate of the localization. January 25 rock burst has one more time proved that the geodynamic control and safety enhancement in the important mining region in the Republic of Komi requires installation of seismic stations nearby mine fields in the Vorkuta district.

Monitoring of Surface Subsidence under Mining at the Sokolov-Sarbai Deposit by Radar Interferometry

A. V. Usanova, S. V. Usanov
Institute of Mining, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg, 620219 Russia
Keywords: дистанционное зондирование Земли, архивные радиолокационные снимки, сдвижение горных пород, Соколовское месторождение, мульда сдвижения, оседания, Earth remote sensing, archive radar images, rock movement, Sokolov deposit, subsidence trough, displacements

Abstract >>
The ground surface subsidence under mining at the Sokolov-Sarbai iron ore deposit is measured using radar survey data obtained over the period from 2006 to 2016. The purpose of the research is to determine features of the process inside the subsidence trough at Sokolovskaya Mine under conditions of water-encroached loose formations. Using a series of Alos Palsar and Alos2 satellite radar images, the vertical subsidence in the test area of the deposit is evaluated. The history and boundaries of displacements within the subsidence trough, in pitwalls and in dump slopes are determined.

Initiation of Tectonic Earthquakes during Underground Mining

G. G. Kocharyan, A. M. Budkov, S. B. Kishkina
Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119334 Russia
Keywords: индуцированная сейсмичность, техногенные землетрясения, горные выработки, мониторинг, эффективная жесткость массива, разломные зоны, кулоновское напряжение, моделирование, Induced seismicity, induced earthquakes, underground openings, monitoring, actual rock mass stiffness, faulting zones, Coulomb stress, modeling

Abstract >>
The influence of underground excavations arranged nearby faults on the initiation of large seismic event is considered. Numerical modeling proves that amount of underground openings affects actual stiffness of rocks and initiates dynamic movements accompanied by intensive seismic radiation. As the rock mass quality worsens, the effective shear modulus drops. The calculations show that the effective shear modulus lowers by 20% for the stope on the same horizon, decreases 1.5 times in case of the stopes arranged on two horizons and nearly halves for three horizons. Such reduction in the actual shear stiffness of rock mass may be critical in terms of initiation of dynamic shift along a fault.

Methods of Determination of Stress State in Rock Mass by Blasting

V. N. Tyupin, T. I. Rubashkina
Belgorod State University, Belgorod, 108015 Russia
Keywords: горный массив, напряженное состояние, энергия взрыва, зона раздавливания, зона радиальных трещин, физико-технические свойства, формулы для определения напряжений, достоверность, Rock mass, stress state, explosion energy, squeezing zone, radial fracturing zone, physicotechnical properties, stress formulas, validity

Abstract >>
The methods for the determination of stress state in rock mass using the energy of explosion are validated. The commercial-scale tests are performed with a view to sizing zones of squeezing and radial fracturing in mines of Priargunsky Mining and Chemical Works. It is found that the fracturing zone radius decreases and the squeezing zone diameter increases with the grater depth of mining operations. The theoretical formulas for calculating stresses depending on sizes of squeezing and fracturing zones, physical and mechanical properties of rocks and detonation characteristics of explosives are obtained. The validity of the formulas is proved in comparison with the method of stress measurement in parallel drill holes at the Antei deposit of Priargunsky MCW. The method of stress determination by blasting is suitable for operational application during heading in mines.

Determination of Movement of Pulsed Electromagnetic Seismic Source Emitter

V. V. Ivashin, V. P. Pevchev
Tolyatti State University, Tolyatti, 445020 Russia
Keywords: сейсмоисточник, мощный короткоходовой электромагнит, рабочий зазор, контроль перемещения излучателя, Seismic source, powerful short-stroke electromagnet, gap, emitter movement control

Design Methodology for Cutting Drum, Power Rating and Operational Control of Surface Miner under Varied Rock Conditions-An Approach

Chandan Kumar1, V.M.S.R. Murthy1, L. A. Kumaraswamidhas1, Prakash Amar2
1Department of Mining Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Dhanbad 826004, India
2Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Dhanbad 826015, India
Keywords: карьерный комбайн, ширина барабана, глубина вруба, скорость зарубки, сила резания, предел прочности на растяжение, мощность резания, Surface miner, drum width, depth of cut, cutting speed, cutting force, tensile strength, cutting power

Abstract >>
Surface miners are being increasingly used in opencast mines owing to their ability to excavate thin bands selectively. Even minor variations in intact rock and rock mass parameters can adversely affect the performance of surface miner in terms of production and pick consumption. Power utilization both by rotary motion of cutting drum and linear motion of surface miner has been taken into account for arriving at suitable cutting speed and depth of cut. Cutting speed of surface miner, cutting force developed by individual pick and number of active picks coming in contact with the rock in respect to depth of cut under varied tensile strength can be determined through these studies. This will help the end user to decide suitable parameters for operational control. It is essential to optimize the operating parameters of machine (cutting speed and depth of cut) for a given rock mass condition with available machine power. The present study covers the 2.2 m wide drums of surface miner. Distribution of power available to the components of the machine has been arrived based on technical specifications of each component, taking power loss due to sleep occurs in belt power transmission mechanism.

Substantiation of Mining-and-Transport System Type and Parameters for Ore Mining Conditions on the Kola Peninsula

E. V. Gromov1,2, A. L. Bilin1, O. V. Belogorodtsev1, G. O. Nagovitsyn1
1Mining Institute, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity, 184209 Russia
2Murmansk Arctic State University, Apatity, 184209 Russia
Keywords: труднодоступные месторождения, Арктическая зона, промышленный транспорт, комбинированная разработка, карьер, подземный рудник, компьютерное моделирование, экологические ограничения, технико-экономическая оценка, Hard-to-access deposit, Arctic zone, industrial conveyance and hoistng facilities, hybrid mining, ope pit mine, underground mine, computer-aided modeling, enviornmental constraint, technical-and-economic assessment

Abstract >>
The technical approach to selection and substantiation of transport systems for hard-to-access mineral mining in the Arctic is based on complexing of methods of computer-aided modeling and technical-and-economic assessment. The features of the transport system design for mountainous and upland-and-flat terrains are described. The obtained relations of transportation cost and volume make it possible to validate the choice of transport. In terms of the Partomchorr deposit, it is shown that under conditions of upland-and-flat terrain and minor level difference, it is efficient to use motor vehicles in case of small transportation volume (to 2.4 Mt/yr) and cable-and-belt conveying in case of large volume of transportation. For the Chinglusuai deposit situated in the upland country with large level difference, efficiency of cable-railway haulage with feasibility of energy recovery is substantiated.

Optimization of Longwall Face Parameters for Thick Methane-Bearing Coal Seams at the Sokolov Deposit in Kuzbass

A. A. Ordin1, A. M. Timoshenko2, D. V. Botvenko2, A. A. Meshov3, M. A. Volkova3
1Institute of Computational Technologies, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
2VostNII Science Center, Kemerovo, 650002 Russia
3SUEK-Kuzbass, Leninsk-Kuznetsky, 652507 Russia
Keywords: шахта, угольный пласт, фракционный состав, сорбция, метановыделение, скорость подачи, производительность, очистной комбайн, Mine, coal seam, fractional composition, sorption, methane release, feed speed, productivity, sheare loader

Abstract >>
The technical and economic feasibility of increasing the length of longwall 5003 in Yalevsky Mine to 400 m and raising output per face to 70 thou t per day in mining thick coal seam is substantiated. It is found that from the condition of maximum annual profit of the mine, the optimal longwall length is 450 m, and the variants of the longwall lengths of 400 and 512 m are equivalent. The methane release calculations show that at the indicated length and production output of the longwall, it is predicted that methane concentration in return ventilation air is 0.53%, which means no gas criterion constraints.

A Comparative Assessment on Cement Raw Material Quarry Quality Distribution via 3-D Identification

Ali Can Ozdemir, Ahmet Dag, Turgay Ibrikci
Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey
Keywords: цемент, карьер, коэффициент насыщения, геостатистика, нейронная сеть, Cement, lime saturation factor, geostatistics, neural network

Abstract >>
In addition to capacity increase, quality also has critical importance in the cement industry. In a cement product process, the chemical properties based on the oxide composition are necessary in describing clinker characteristics. One of the most important parameters in cement product, Lime Saturation Factor (LSF) controls the ratio of alite to belite in the clinker and this factor is frequently used to evaluate the quality of cement. This study focuses on identifying LSF distribution in the site conditions. For this purpose, probabilistic (geostatistical) and non-probabilistic (neural network-based) algorithms have been used. 3-D based analyses revealed some relationships in the site conditions. The accuracy studies performed by performance indicators specified that the non-probabilistic methods produced better statistical prediction capacity. Thus, the adaptive neural algorithms can ensure the results identify the quality distribution in connection with geological parameters.

New Support Suggestions to High Swelling Clayey Rock Mass

Gulsev Uyar Guzin1, Okay Aksoy Cemalettin2
1University of Hacettepe, 06800, Beitepe, Ankara, Turkey
2University of the Ninth of September, 35390, Tinaceppe, Izmir, Turkey
Keywords: химическое закрепление грунта, штанговая крепь, набухающие сжатые породы, деформация, Stability, natural systems, landscape analysis, wateshed appriach, gold placer minig, remote sensitng, watershed, Buor-Sala River

Abstract >>
Theoretical aspects of studying stability of natural systems depending on investigation purposes are briefly analyzed. Applicability of the watershed/landscape concept of nature management to study transformation of geosystems disturbed by gold placer mining is substantiated. In terms of a model site within the limits of the Ket-Kap cluster of placers, the data on the degree of such transformations are given, and mid- and large-scale landscape mapping is performed using the modern remote sensing techniques. The qualitative indicators of transformation degree under placer mining are given for valley nature systems depending on watershed order. The relevance of the remote sensing in estimating the degree of transformation of natural systems at objects of gold placer mining at regional and local levels is demonstrated.

Operation of Draglines at Diamond Deposits in Yakutia

V. I. Cheskidov1, A. N. Akishev2, G. G. Sakantsev3
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Yakutniproalmaz Institute, ALROSA, Mirny, 678174 Russia
3Institute of Mining, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg, 620075 Russia
Keywords: крутопадающие месторождения, открытые горные работы, бестранспортная технология, драглайн, вскрышные породы, внутренние отвалы, взрывы на сброс, Steeply dipping ore bodies, open piyt mining, direct dumping, dragline, overburden, internal dumps, throw blast

Abstract >>
Potential ranges of use of draglines at steeply-dipping diamond deposits in Yakutia are discussed. Technology of stripping with direct dumping and rehandling by draglines is substantiated for upper overburden layers. A variant of increasing height of stripping benches on haulage horizons through the use of draglines and crane lines. The resource saving technology is proposed for mining roundish and extended ore bodies with alternating advance of mining front and with internal dumping. The method of estimating efficient thickness of overburden in case of direct dumping is developed using the layer coefficient of overburden rehandling. Expediency of using blasting for displacement of broken overburden to internal dump is specified.

Improving Efficiency of Fan Control in Shallow Subway Tunnels

D. V. Zedgenizov, N. A. Popov
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: тоннельный вентилятор, частота вращения ротора, расход воздуха, поршневое действие поездов, Tunnel fan, rotor speed, air flow rate, piston effect

Abstract >>
The data of the full-scale experiment on adjustment of VOMD-24 fan rotor speed with a view to controlling the fan efficiency under impact of the piston effect are presented. The reduction in actual air flow rate at the passenger platform of subway due to decreased fan efficiency is estimated at different intensity of traffic along the subway line. The algorithm of the tunnel fan rpm adjustment per day in conformity with the train traffic density and the architecture of automated control of the tunnel fan efficiency by frequency transducer are proposed.

Intensification of Eudialyte Concentrate Leaching by Nanosecond High-Voltage Pulses

V. A. Chanturia, I. Zh. Bunin, M. V. Ryazantseva, E. L. Chanturia, A. L. Samusev, E. V. Koporulina, N. E. Anashkina
Research Institute for Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: эвдиалит, РФЭ- и ИК-спектроскопия, растровая электронная микроскопия, структурно-химические свойства, микротвердость, мощные электромагнитные импульсы, выщелачивание, Eudialyte, XPS, FTIR, SEM, structural and chemical properties, microhardness, high-power electromagnetic pulses, leaching

Abstract >>
The mechanism of weakening and directional change in structural and chemical properties of eudialyte under nonthermal exposure to nanosecond high-voltage electromagnetic pulses and nitric-acid leaching is studied. The methods of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and microhardness measurement are used. The rational mode of high-energy pulsed treatment is determined. After such mode treatment, the acid leaching of eudialyte concentrate results in recovery of zirconium and total rare earth elements higher by 1.7 and 1.4 times as against reference standards.

Mineralogical and Technological Assessment of Dressability of Tin-Sulfide Mining Waste

T. S. Yusupov1, S. A. Kondrat’ev2, S. R. Khalimova3, S. A. Novikova1
1Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
2Chnakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
3Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: техногенные руды, касситерит, олово, концентрат, обогащение, флотация, магнитная сепарация, Mining waste minerals, casserite, tin, concentrate, dressing, flotation, magnetic separation

Abstract >>
Mineralogical composition, structural changes and floatability of minerals in the content of the Novosibirsk Tin Works waste are examined. It is shown that casserite is totally unfloatable after long stay in tailings pond, while iron sulfides preserve flotation ability despite the fact that their structure is partly X-ray amorphous. Combining key beneficiation techniques allows production of concentrates with the tin content of 10% and higher, though the tin recovery is no more than 17.2% in this case, which prevents from recommending the combination dressing for application. In the article, the flotation circuit producing tin concentrate at the yield of 5% and recovery of 80%, which meets the requirements of fuming process and electric melting, is proposed and substantiated.

Dressability of Old Gold-Bearing Tailings by Flotation

V. I. Bragin1,2, E. A. Burdakova1,2, A. A. Kondrat’eva1, A. A. Plotnikova1,2, I. I. Baksheeva1
1Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
2Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia
Keywords: флотационный метод обогащения, лежалые хвосты, техногенное минеральное сырье, реагентный режим флотации, извлечение, хвостохранилища, исследование на обогатимость, Flotation, old tailings, mining waste, reagent mode, recovery, tailings pond, dressability study

Abstract >>
The research findings on floatability of old gold-bearing tailings are presented. The complex material constitution and process features of processing waste are governed by difference in treatment of various ore types (sulfide, oxidized and mixed) at processing plant, as well as with supergene processes in the tailings pond. Feasibility of re-flotation of tailings is discussed. it is found that short-term mechanical activation of tailings in a mill with the subsequent flotation (at the adjusted reagent mode as against the current technology) results in gold recovery of 29.0 to 45.4% in flotation concentrate at the residue content of metal in rejects at the level of 0.2-0.3 g/t.

Treatment Technology for Niobium-Bearing Ore Processing Wastewater with Different Compositions of Dispersed Ions

V. F. Skorokhodov, S. P. Mesyats, V. V. Biryukov, S. P. Ostapenko
Mining Institute, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity, 184209 Russia
Keywords: ниобийсодержащие руды, комбинированная очистка сточных вод, флотация, активированные водные дисперсии воздуха, сорбция, коагуляция, моделирование процессов, Niobium-bearing ore, integrated wastewater treatment, flotation, activated aqueous air dispersion, sorption, coagulation, modeling

Abstract >>
Based on the studies of compositions of dispersed ions in sewage water after mining and processing of niobium ore at the Lovozero deposit, it is substantiated to be expedient to convert some pollution agents from solution to suspension state. A combined process is proposed for treatment of mine wastewater, which is 94% of total sewage water of mining and processing, by integrating coagulation, sorption and flotation techniques. The mathematical model of aggregation of suspension particles with regard to the hydrodynamic mode of coagulation is suggested. The model makes it possible to predict material and dispersion compositions of a new multi-phase system under different temperatures towards automation of the wastewater treatment process. The solution on forming surface properties of activated aqueous dispersions of air using a modified finely dispersed sorbent with intent to intensify the wastewater purification process.

Influence of Surface Properties of Minerals on Disintegration of Rebellious Ore

V. S. Portnov1, V. M. Yurov2, A. D. Mausymbaeva1
1Karaganda State Technical University, Karaganda, 100000 Kazakhstan
2Buketov Karaganda State University, Karaganda, 100028 Kazakhstan
Keywords: дезинтеграция руд, минерал, поверхностное натяжение, толщина поверхностного слоя, температура плавления, наночастица, Ore disintegration, mineral, surface tension, surface layer thickness, fusion temperature, nanoparticles

Abstract >>
The processes of rebellious ore disintegration with regard to the surface properties of minerals and rocks are discussed. The methods are proposed for the experimental determination of surface tension of solids during evaluation of dispergating efficiency, and the calculation procedure of the surface layer thickness during ore disintegration is offered. The calculations of the fusion temperatures of nanoparticles obtained in nonconventional disintegration of rebellious ore are presented. The calculations are performed for the nanoparticles with possible content of the most metals from the periodic chart.

Prediction of the Environmental Impact of Mining Industry Based on Satellite Observations

S. P. Mesyats, S. P. Ostapenko
Mining Institute, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity, 184209 Russia
Keywords: горнопромышленное предприятие, аэрозольное техногенное воздействие, растительный покров, спутниковое наблюдение, вегетационный индекс, геоинформационная система, прогнозирование, Mine, man-made aerosol effect, vegetation cover, satellite observation, vegetation index, geoinformation system, prediction

Abstract >>
Environmental impact of mining is studied by two criteria: aerosol pollution and vegetation cover condition-using the data of long-term satellite observations. In terms of the mining and processing industry on the Kola Peninsula, environmental impact is predicted as overlapping of aerosol pollution areas and decrease in the vegetation index. It is shown that predicted boundaries of impact-zones match in case of one or two sources of effect, and unmatch in case of many sources. The proposed approach to integration of the remote sensing data allows differentiating between the environmental impact of mining and natural change of the vegetation cover.

Assessment of Particulate and Trace Element Pollution in Airborne Dust around a Highly Mechanized Opencast Coal Mine in Talcher, Odisha

D. P. Tripathy, T. R. Dash
National Institute of Technology Rourkela, Rourkela, 769008 India
Keywords: ТЧ, ТЧ, тяжелые металлы, корреляционный анализ, анализ главных компонентов, PM, PM, heavy metals, correlation analysis, PCA

Abstract >>
Particulate pollution is very abigissue in coal mining area. The particulate matter affects human as well as nearby animals, vegetation and degrade the ecological environment in many ways. So every time it is fetching the attention of researchers to find work on the issue. Talcher coal field, one of the oldest coalfields of India with a very high coal deposit. A monitoring of respirable dust (PM10& PM2.5) has been performed at eight monitoring stations around a high mechanised opencast coalmine for two seasons i.e., summer and winter. Samples were collected as per the standard criteria of central pollution control board (CPCB), India. Winter season was found to have more particulate concentration as compare to summer. A total of 10 trace elements were analysed and selected for source apportionment of particulate matter and associated heavy metal. Statistical analysis such as univariate (correlation study) and multi variate statistical analysis were used including principal component analysis (PCA) for source identification and respective contribution to particulate matter. The major sources of trace metals were mainly coal mining and associated activities, vehicular emission etc.