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Journal of Mining Sciences

2018 year, number 3

Ill-Posed Problems of Geomechanics

V. E. Mirenkov
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: Трещина, решение, бесконечные напряжения, некорректность, ограниченность, нелинейность, метод, Fracture, solution, infinite stresses, ill-posedness, boundedness, nonlinearity, method

Abstract >>
The classical solution of elasticity problem on deformation of a plane weakened by a mathematical cut under wedging by constant forces is analyzed. The ill-posedness of the classical failure mechanics statements for problems with angular points is demonstrated. The approximate solution is constructed for deformation of continuum in the vicinity of a cut under small strains.

Elasto-Plastic Model of Rock with Internal Self-Balancing Stresses

A. F. Revuzhenko, O. A. Mikenina
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: Горная порода, упругость, пластичность, самоуравновешенные напряжения, Rock, elasticity, plasticity, self-balancing stresses

Abstract >>
Rock is considered as a medium containing a load-bearing skeleton and a pore space. The two-dimensional closed deformation model under construction takes into account plastic strains and local bends of grains. The model describes the medium capacity to accumulate energy of internal self-balancing stresses.

Effect of Gas Flow on Dilatancy and Stress State in Granular Material

A. P. Bobryakov, A. F. Revuzhenko
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: Сыпучая среда, сдвиговая прочность, воздушная фильтрация, объемный расход воздуха, напряжение, дилатансия, Granular medium, shear strength, air flow, air flow rate, stress, dilatancy

Abstract >>
A device is developed for loading granular materials by shearing with air flow driven through the material without its pseudo-liquefaction. Internal stresses and dilatancy of a sample are measured depending on shearing angle. It is shown that shear modulus, characterizing material capability to resist shearing as air flow rate is increased, lowers while dilatancy grows.

Calculation of Movement of Pipe with Soil Plug under Longitudinal Impact

N. A. Aleksandrova, A. S. Kondratenko
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: Погружение трубы, грунтовая пробка, сухое трение, сдвиговое напряжение, математическое моделирование, нелинейность, численный метод, аналитическое решение, Pipe penetration, soil plug, dry friction, shear stress, mathematical modeling, nonlinearity, numerical method, analytical solution

Abstract >>
Interaction between an open-end pipe and a soil plug is studied using Coulomb’s law of friction. The scope of the study embraces different models of soil and pipe. The finite difference solutions obtained for all models and the analytical solutions derived for some models describe the elastic process of the pipe and soil interaction. Agreement of the numerical and analytical solutions is shown. Results of different model calculations are compared, and the validity limits are determined for the models. The influence of Coulomb friction on pipe and soil movement is investigated.

Determination of Turn Radius of Pneumatic Puncher under Change of Its Motion Path in Soil

B. B. Danilov1, B. N. Smolyanitsky1,2, A. I. Chanyshev1,3, D. O. Cheshchin1
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Siberian State University of Transport, Novosibirsk, 630049 Russia
3Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: Скважина, пневмопробойник, отклоняющее устройство, траектория, радиус поворота, грунт, отклоняющее усилие, Hole, pneumatic puncher, deflector, trajectory, turn radius, soil, deflecting force

Abstract >>
In order to ensure accurate hole-making in soil, it is required to adjust motion path of pneumatic puncher by deflecting its rear body relative to longitudinal axis. The structural layout of the path control mechanism, which allows upgrading series-production pneumatic punchers, is presented. The solution of problem on forces required to change the pneumatic punch path in soil is given. Soil body is considered as a rigid-plastic medium, and the deflector is assumed as a nondeformable body. The problem is solved in two stages: penetration of the deflector in soil and motion of the pneumatic puncher with the rear deflected at a certain angle in soil. The loads applied to the rear for changing pneumatic puncher path in soil and the turn radius under deflecting force are determined.

Model Approaches to Estimation of Lifetime of Supporting Machines in Terms of an Open Pit Mine in Serbia

D. J. Krunic1, S. Vujic2, M. Tanasijevic3, B. Dimitrijevic3, T. Shubaranovic3, S. Ilic3, S. Maksimovic2
1Ministry of Mining and Energy of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
2Mining Institute Ltd. Belgrade, Belgrade, 11080 Serbia
3University of Belgrade, Belgrade, 11000 Serbia
Keywords: Жизненный цикл машины, надежность, расходы, принятие решений, бульдозер, угольный бассейн “Колубара”, Machine lifetime, reliability, expenses, decisions made, bulldozer, Kolubara Coal Basin

Abstract >>
Two model approaches to estimation of lifetime of supporting mining machines are described, one of which is based on the theory of reliability and the other-on the principle of cost. While on service, reliability of machines reduces and operating cost grows. These indexes of opposite trends define machine serviceability, and make a framework for decision-making on the expediency of further operation, maintenance or replacement of machines. In terms of bulldozer as one of the most high-usage machines in supporting operations in open pit mines of the Electric Power Industry of Serbia, the application of both model approaches is compared, as well as the estimations and conclusions are made.

Enhancing Inflow Rates of Wells during Oil-Field Development

M. V. Kurlenya1, V. I. Pen'kovsky2, A. V. Savchenko1, D. S. Evstigneev1, N. K. Korsakova2
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: Нефтяная залежь, импульсы давления, двухфазная фильтрация, призабойная зона, колебания жидкости, Oil reservoir, pressure pulses, two-phase flow, wellbore zone, water level fluctuation

Abstract >>
The problem of oil flow in model reservoir is solved at the preset harmonic time variations in differential pressure at the model sides. Hysteresis effects of capillary pressure upon the change in direction of fluid expulsion are considered. The influence of water level fluctuations on removal of possible capillary blockage by water from wellbore zone is estimated. The action of alternating pressure pulses on oil-filled formation is analyzed. It is shown that harmonic change of water pressure promotes removal of immobile water blocked in capillaries from wellbore zone. The results of full-scale experiments on wave action on wellbore zone and oil recovery enhancement are presented.

Further Development in Engineering Geologic Mapping of Coal Reserves Based on Quality Levels

E. V. Freidina1,2, A. A. Botvinnik2, A. N. Dvornikova2
1Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management, Novosibirsk, 630099 Russia
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: Уровень качества, тип показателя качества, кластер запасов месторождения, карта качества, метод “жесткой” и “гибкой” кластеризации, Quality level, three quality indicators, mineral reserves cluster, quality map, strict and soft clustering

Abstract >>
The approach to further development in engineering geologic mapping of mineral reserves with respect to quality levels based on geoinformation models of deposits is substantiated. The algorithm and methods for delineation of clusters in the area of a seam using a vector index composed of simple indicators characterizing useful and harmful properties of coal are explicated. The results of new software trial are presented in the form of distribution of coal reserves for coking and power generation by quality levels and visualization of delineated clusters by means of plotting quality maps.

Transformation of Natural Systems Disturbed by Gold Placer Mining in the Khabarovsk Territory

Z. G. Mirzenkhanova, A. V. Ostroukhov
Institute of Water and Ecological Problems, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Khabarovsk, 680000 Russia
Keywords: Устойчивость, природные комплексы, ландшафтный анализ, бассейновый подход, россыпная золотодобыча, дистанционное зондирование Земли, бассейны рек, р. Буор-Сала, Stability, natural systems, landscape analysis, wateshed appriach, gold placer minig, remote sensitng, watershed, Buor-Sala River

Abstract >>
Theoretical aspects of studying stability of natural systems depending on investigation purposes are briefly analyzed. Applicability of the watershed/landscape concept of nature management to study transformation of geosystems disturbed by gold placer mining is substantiated. In terms of a model site within the limits of the Ket-Kap cluster of placers, the data on the degree of such transformations are given, and mid- and large-scale landscape mapping is performed using the modern remote sensing techniques. The qualitative indicators of transformation degree under placer mining are given for valley nature systems depending on watershed order. The relevance of the remote sensing in estimating the degree of transformation of natural systems at objects of gold placer mining at regional and local levels is demonstrated.

Research on Characteristics of Air Flow Disorder in Inlet Shafts

B. Nie1,2, B. Peng1, J. Guo3, X. Liu1, Xu. Liu1, J. Shen1
1Coal Resources and Safe Mining, Beijing, 100083 China
2Xinjiang Institute of Engineering, Urumqi, 830023 China
3China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation, Beijing, 100083 China
Keywords: Шахтный ствол, воздухопадающий, нарушение воздушного потока, локальная естественная тяга, моделирование, исследование in-situ, Inlet shafts, airflow disorder, local natural ventilation pressure, similar simulation experiment, in-situ study

Abstract >>
Airflow disorder in inlet shafts and related crossheadings, caused by local natural ventilation pressure, is a complicated thermodynamic phenomenon. The conception of local natural ventilation pressure is proposed based on a simplified ventilation system. Airflow disorder principle is analyzed theoretically and verified by similar simulation experiment and in-situ study. Research results show that local natural ventilation pressure will form when average temperature difference or density difference of air-column exists among inlet shafts in an underground mine with exhaust ventilation. When changing in a large range, local natural ventilation pressure will cause airflow disorder in inlet shafts or related crossheadings. The research results have guiding significance for promoting the stability of ventilation system and improving the working environment of underground mines.

Experimental Justification of Luminophore Composition for Indication of Diamonds during X-Ray Luminescence Separation of Diamonds

V. A. Chanturia1, G. P. Dvoichenkova1,2, V. V. Morozov1, O. E. Koval'chuk3, Yu. A. Podkamenny1,3, V. N. Yakovlev4
1Research Institute for Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 111020 Russia
2Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University, Mirny, 678174 Russia
3Research and Exploration Company, ALROSA Group, Mirny, 678174 Russia
4Yakutniproalmaz Institute, ALROSA Group, Mirny, 678174 Russia
Keywords: Алмазы, индикаторы, органический люминофор, неорганический люминофор, светимость, рентгенолюминесценция, спектрально-кинетические характеристики, сепарация, Diamonds, indicators, organic luminophore, inorganic luminophore, luminosity, X-ray luminescence, spectral and kinetic characteristics, separation

Abstract >>
Organic and inorganic luminophores having similar parameters of luminescence as diamonds are selected. Based on the excerpted luminophores, indicators are synthesized. Spectral and kinetic characteristics of luminophores are experimentally determined for deciding on optimal compositions to ensure maximum extraction of diamonds in X-ray luminescence separation owing to extra recovery of non-luminescent diamond crystals. As the components of luminophore-bearing indicators, anthracene and K-35 luminophores are selected as their parameters conform with the luminescence parameters of diamonds detected using X-ray luminescence separator with normal settings.

Physical Adsorption Mechanism in Terms of Activation of Sulphide Minerals by Heavy Metal Ions

S. A. Kondrat'ev, T. G. Gavrilova
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: Флотация, активация, ионы тяжелых металлов, физическая форма сорбции, гидрофобизация, осадки ксантогената металла, бесколлекторная флотация, полисульфидные формы, Flotation, activation, heavy metal ions, physical adsorption, hydrophobization, metal xanthate precipitates, collectorless flotation, polysulphides

Abstract >>
Activation of sulphides by heavy metal ions is discussed. A brief analysis of modern ideas on mechanism of activation of sphalerite, pyrite and galena by copper sulfate and lead nitrate is given. It is shown that the current technology insufficiently conforms with the experimental and practical data on activation of minerals. A new mechanism of mineral flotation activation is proposed based on the action of physical adsorption species of collecting agents, which allows explaining suppression of flotation under increased concentrations of activator and flotation of sulphides without collectors. The new mechanism integrates the action of mixed potential, activation of minerals by heavy metal ions and the collectorless flotation into a common theoretical framework.

Enhancement of Efficiency of Low-Hydroxyethylated Alkyl Phenols as Regulators in Selective Flotation of Non-Sulphide Minerals

V. A. Ivanova, G. V. Mitrofanova, T. N. Perunkova
Mining Institute, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity, 184209 Russia
Keywords: Флотационные реагенты, фосфорсодержащие руды, регуляторы селективной флотации, этоксилаты изононилфенола, растворимость, солюбилизация, эмульгирование, устойчивость растворов, Flotation agents, phosphorus-bearing ore, selective flotation regulators, ethoxylated iso-nonylphenols, solubility, solubilization, emulsification, solution stability

Abstract >>
The research findings on efficiency of hardly soluble low-hydroxyethylated iso-nonylphenols as regulators of selective flotation are presented. The methods for increasing their solubility are developed, which are based on using unsaturated carboxylic acids as wedding agents for alkaline salts. It is shown that addition of such wedding agents to ethoxylated iso-nonylphenols makes it possible to obtain stable aqueous micellar solutions or emulsions under much lower temperatures, as well as ensures permanence of the process and efficiency of regulating agents in selective flotation of phosphorus-bearing ores with fatty acid collector. Efficiency of the developed methods is proved by in practical application of one of them, which improved ore dressing performance, reduced labor content, energy input and preparation time of solutions, and provided considerable economic effect.

Influence of Galena Grain Size and Collector Concentration on Recovery and Flotation Rate

L. Cveticanin, P. Lazic, D. Vucinic
University of Belgrade, Belgrade, 11000 Serbia
Keywords: Кинетика флотации, флотационное извлечение, крупность галенита, концентрация собирателя, множественная корреляция, Flotation kinetics, recovery by flotation, galena grain size, collector concentration, multivariable correlation

Abstract >>
The recovery and rate of galena flotation depending on galena grain size and butyl potassium xanthate concentration are studied at the laboratory scale. It is found that the recovery and flotation rate decrease with galena grains smaller than 38 μm and with the lower concentration of the collector. Galena grain size has larger influence on the recovery by flotation than the collector concentration. These findings are the result of analysis of multivariable correlations between the galena recovery in flotation, collector consumption and galena grain size since partial correlation coefficient and general correlation coefficient point at close relationship between these parameters.

Features of Processing of Tin-Bearing Tailings at the Solnechny Mining and Processing Plant

G. I. Gazaleeva, L. N. Nazarenko, V. N. Shigaeva, I. A. Vlasov
Uralmekhanobr Institute, Yekaterinburg, 620144 Russia
Keywords: Минералы олова, полиминеральный состав сырья, фазовый состав, степень раскрытия, близкие физические свойства минералов, оловянный концентрат, медный концентрат, Tin minerals, polymineral composition, phase composition, disintegration degree, similar physical properties of minerals, tin concentrate, copper concentrate

Abstract >>
Tin-bearing tailings of the Solnechny Mining and Processing Plant (MPP) in the Khabarovsk Territory are studied with a view to producing tin and copper concentrates. The features of the material constitution of tailings and their influence on the process flow diagram development are described. Processability of the Solnechny MPP tailings is tested, and PFD is developed using the modern methods of disintegration, including cavitation and ultrasound. The semi-commercial-scale implementation of the proposed PFD has allowed production of copper concentrate at copper content of 18.28% and recovery of 60.48%, tin concentrate at tin content of 11.35% and recovery of 50.88%, and rejects with the tin and copper contents of 0.139 and 0.154%, respectively. The recovery of tin and copper has made 46.66 and 38.45%.

Process Mineralogy and Pre-Treatment of the Poperechny Deposit Magnetite Ore

M. A. Gurman, L. I. Shcherbak
Institute of Mining, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Khabarovsk, 680000 Russia
Keywords: Магнетитовая руда, джеспилиты, магнетит, магнитное и гравитационное обогащение, черновые концентраты, золото, платина, Magnetite ore, jaspilite, magnetite, magnetic and gravity separation, rougher concentrates, gold, platinum

Abstract >>
The study data on mineralogy and process properties of magnetite ore of the Poperechny deposit (Maly Khingan) are presented. The mineral composition, structure and texture of the ore are analyzed, and signs of its contact-metasomatic nature are determined. Two generations of magnetite are revealed. Extractability of iron at recovery of 93.39% is proved experimentally, including 78.72% to concentrate and 15.67% to middlings. Iron recovery of rougher concentrates is 40.74-42.74%. It is found that the ore contains noble metals: gold is represented by free grains 0.05-0.2 mm in size; platinum and platinoids (Os, Ir, Ru) are revealed as micronodules in magnetite jaspilite and dolomite in concentrates.

Assessment of Ecological Impact in Mining Areas by Biota Response

G. V. Kalabin
Research Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 11102 Russia
Keywords: Предприятия горнопромышленного комплекса, состояние растительного покрова, дистанционные методы, нормализованный дифференцированный вегетационный индекс, производственная инфраструктура, Mineral mines and processing plants, vegetable cover state, remote sensing methods, normalized difference vegetation index, production infrastructure

Abstract >>
The timely character of using digital satellite observation data at regional and local levels for operational quantitative assessment of nature condition in the areas of mineral mining and processing activities is validated. The qualitative ecological estimates of impacts in time intervals by biota response in the area of location of several mines with different production infrastructure are presented and analyzed.

Method for Stimulating Underground Coal Gasification

A. Sadovenko, A. V. Inkin
National Mining University of Ukraine, Dnipro, 49600 Ukraine
Keywords: Подземная газификация угля, тепловой поток, водоносный горизонт, нагретые воды, Underground coal gasification, heat flow, aquifer, heated water

Abstract >>
The mathematical model of heat flow and transfer in roof rocks of underground gas gasifier during coal gasification is developed and tested. In terms of geological conditions in the Olkhovo-Nizhnee site (industrial region in Donbass), in Mathcad environment, convective and conductive components of heat flow from reaction channel to upper-lying aquifer are determined. The change in the heat flow from the reaction channel and in the ground water temperature is estimated depending on impermeable layer thickness and water well yield. It is found that after underground coal gasification, water-bearing sandstones accumulate more than 60% of heat migrating from gasifier to enclosing rock mass. It is shown that withdrawal and use of water heated during underground coal gasification will enhance efficiency of the process by 18-25% subject to thickness of partition layer.

A Simple Method for Measuring Basic Parameters of the Coal-Methane System under Mining Conditions

N. Skoczylas, M. Wierzbicki, M. Kudasik
The Strata Mechanics Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow, 30-059 Poland
Keywords: Sorption device, coalbed methane content, desorbable methane content, hard coal mining

Abstract >>
The study is devoted to the methane hazard in hard coal mining. This hazard occurs in almost every coalfield in the world. Ensuring maximum work safety under methane hazard conditions is based, among other things, on reliable, fast and frequent determinations of methane content in a coal seam. The existing methods are time-consuming, and determinations must be performed in laboratories. Indirect methods such as desorbometric methods are burdened with high measurement uncertainties. The study presents a model of methane release from granular coal samples and a device (AMER) developed for measuring methane content in a coal seam under in situ conditions. Measurements are performed in a fully automatic way and preliminary results, based on the approximation of the Crank model, are available within several dozen minutes from the beginning of the measurement. Also, the use of the unipore diffusion equation and a proper software of the device allowed to determine the values of the effective diffusion coefficient. Results of measurements performed with the AMER desorbometer are highly consistent with the results of the measurements performed in the laboratory using a traditional method.