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ECO journal (ECOnomics and industrial Engineering)

2018 year, number 5

The Ethnic Culture and Economy: Synergy Opportunities

Yu. V. Popkov1,2, E. A. Tiugashev3
1Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS
2Novosibirsk State Technical University
3Novosibirsk National Research State University
Keywords: этнос, этническое разнообразие, этнокультура, этноэкономика, этническая экология, антропоэкология, межэтническое сообщество, Ethnic group, ethnic diversity, ethnic culture, ethnic economics, ethnic ecology, anthropo-ecology, interethnic community

Abstract >>
The article presents an overview of the conceptual prerequisites for the study of the relationship of ethno-cultural diversity with the social mechanisms of economic life. It highlights the ideas of classical political economy on the subject with the emphasis on “nation-centeredness” that establishes the defining influence of climatic conditions, type of economy, cultural specifics and features of national character of the population on the economic specialization of nations. Ethno-cultural diversity is viewed as an additional economic resource. It also singles out the ecological and economic concepts of stability and productivity of ecological communities, which are used to interpret the role of ethno-cultural diversity in the socio-economic development of interethnic communities and ensure their social stability and economic productivity. The analysis of the geographically localized economy as an interethnic community allows to conclude that ethno-cultural diversity has a beneficial effect on the economic development and interethnic relations, provided successful integration of other non-ethno-cultural groups into the host community is achieved.

National and Religious Diversity of Siberian Regions

A. N. Bufetova1,2, E. A. Kolomak1,2, A. A. Khrzhanovskaya1
1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering SB RAS
2Novosibirsk State University
Keywords: национальная структура, религия, население, разнообразие, Россия, Сибирь, National structure, religion, population, diversity, Russia, Siberia

Abstract >>
The paper testes hypothesis about higher ethnic and religious heterogeneity of Siberian population. Estimations of the national and religious diversity for the Siberian regions are obtained based on the census of 2002 and 2010 years and data on religious preferences for 2012 and 2015 years in Russian and in Siberia. The analysis is based on the indexes of diversity and polarization. The resultsdo not confirmed the assumption that Siberia has high national diversity; moreover the region demonstrates more rapid decrease of the ethnic heterogeneity comparing with Russia. Heterogeneity of the religious structure of the Siberian population is higher than in the whole country, but tendency toward homogeneity is more pronounced.

Ethnoeconomics in Action: the Experience of Tuva and Altai

S. A. Madyukova, O. A. Persidskaya
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS
Keywords: этнос, этнокультура, этноэкономический уклад, эрзац, неотрадиционализм, Ethnos, ethnoculture, ethnoeconomic structure, ersatz, neotraditionalism

Abstract >>
The potential of the ethnoeconomic structure for the development of models of regional economies, as well as the specific forms and practices of ethnoeconomical non-traditionalism in the life activities of the ethnic groups of the Republics of Tyva and Altai are considered. Specific ethno-cultural traditions and traditional management of Tuvinians and Altaians are considered, on the one hand, as resources of increase of the economic stability of the regions. On the other hand, analysis of the forms of non-traditionalism allowed to record such non-traditional trends as the rationalization and commercialization of the traditional, the tendency to replace the authentic culture with ersatz forms. Specific spheres and mechanisms of monetization of traditional are revealed: ethnotourism and traditional nature management, ethno-cuisine and ethno-fashion, throat singing as a brand and low competitiveness of national languages.

Tuva Turns to the Monothern Region: Risks and Prospects

I. S. Tarbastaeva
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS
Keywords: моноэтнизация, сокращение этнокультурного многообразия, миграция русских, межэтнические отношения, русский язык, традиционная культура, Мonoetenization, reduction of ethnocultural diversity, migration of Russians, interethnic relations, Russian language, traditional culture

Abstract >>
The article raises the problem of reducing ethno-cultural diversity in the Republic of Tyva. Data are given that attest to the migration outflow of the Russian population outside the region. It is shown that the factors contributing to the monoetinization of the republic include the economic backwardness of the subject, the unsatisfactory social state of the Russians who are in the status of an ethnic minority. It is concluded that monoetanization has an unfavorable effect on the titular ethnos. In particular, the reduction of interethnic cooperation on a professional basis hinders the enrichment of Tuva residents with the skills necessary for the effective conduct of economic activity in modern conditions. Regional authorities recognize the current situation as unfavorable, and take non-standard solutions for its correction. Positive factors include the feeling of pride of Tuvinians for preserving traditional culture, the possibility of developing ethnoeconomics.

Indigenous Peoples and Mining Companies in the Ob North: Cooperation or Conflict?

E. A. Erokhina1,2
1Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS
2Novosibirsk State University of economics and Management
Keywords: промышленное освоение Севера, коренные малочисленные народы России, этнологическая экспертиза, конфликт, сотрудничество, Югра, Industrial development of the North, indigenous small peoples of Russia, ethnological expertise, conflict, cooperation, Ugra

Abstract >>
The article considers the main sources of contradictions in relations between indigenous communities and business entities in Ugra.Based on the individual case-studies, it is concluded that new actors such as public associations and non-government organizations are involved in the conflict genesis processes.It is concluded that it is necessary to expand a practice of social partnership to resolve contradictions, and that ethnological examination has the significant role in disputes settlement.

Dynamics of Ethnic Composition of the Asian Part of Russia According to the Census (1926-1989)

M. A. Semenov
Institute of History SB RAS
Keywords: национальный состав, Западная Сибирь, Восточная Сибирь, Дальний Восток, миграции, ассимиляция, урбанизация, National composition, Western Siberia, Eastern Siberia, Far East, migrations, assimilation, urbanization

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the changes in the national composition of Western and Eastern Siberia and the Far East in the period 1926-1989 on the basis of the data of all-Union population censuses. The influence of the main historical events on the ethnic picture of Asian Russia is revealed. Differences in the national composition of large economic and geographical regions are traced. Features of settling of the main ethnic groups of Siberia, their inclusion in modernization processes are described. The conclusion about the key role of migration and assimilation processes in the formation of the national structure of the population of the region in this period is made. Special attention is paid to the development of autochthonous peoples.

The Future of the Russian Economy in the Eyes of “Fathers” and “Sons”. The Fourth Sight

D. S. Mikhailovskaya1, V. V. Shmat2,1
1Novosibirsk State University
2Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering SB RAS
Keywords: сценарное прогнозирование, моделирование экономики, экспертно-статистический байесовский метод, факторный анализ, фазовое пространство, фазовый портрет, мониторинг-прогноз, неопределенность, экономика России, ресурсозависимость, регион, межрегиональная дифференциация, региональная политика, Scenario forecast, economy modeling, expert-statistical Bayesian method, factor analysis, phase space, phase portrait, monitoring-forecast, uncertainty, Russian economy, resource dependency, region, interregional differentiation, regional policy

Abstract >>
This article presents the results of the fourth step of the scenario forecast of Russian economy development with the use of expert-statistical Bayesian method, which was designed for conditions of fundamental uncertainty. Several steps of research give us an opportunity to monitor modifications in expert’s opinions about a future of the economy according to current changes. Bayesian method also enable us to estimate scenarios’ chances from the different points of view, to make an accent on different problems. At this stage, the model was based on a regional problematic in Russia. Numerical modeling shows us a tendency to a more pragmatic and administrative way of the economy development.

Neoindustrial Import Substitution: Utopia or Non-Alternative Way for Russia?

S. A. Zhironkin, M. A. Gasanov, K. A. Kolotov
National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University
Keywords: неоиндустриализация, деиндустриализация, импортозависимость, импортозамещение, машиностроение, Кузбасс, Neo-industrialization, deindustrialization, import dependence, import substitution, engineering, Kuzbass

Abstract >>
The article substantiates the need for Russian economy to enter the neo-industrial development path, the driver of which should be the import substitution. Its typology is examined and the role of the Government in ensuring the exit from institutional traps of neo-industrial import substitution is shown. On the example of the analysis of the basic industries import dependence problem in industrial region (Kemerovo region), recommendations are given for development of machine building as an industry whose import substitution can speed up Russian economy competitive manufacturing sector’s reconstruction on a new technological basis, relying on the potential of the mining complex.

Strategy of Spatial Development: New Stage or Repetition of Old Mistakes?

N. N. Mikheeva
Institute of Economic Forecasting RAS
Keywords: стратегия пространственного развития, региональные факторы роста, специализация, экономический рост, Strategy of spatial development, regional factors of growth, specialization, economic growth

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Problems of development of the documents of strategic planning concerning spatial development at the federal level are discussed. It is shown that the strategies of long-term development of federal districts accepted by the federal government in 2010-2011 did not become the real tool of the solution of problems of spatial development.Analysis of official documents accepted by the Government on the basis of which Strategy of spatial development is developed now is carried out. Theoretical prerequisites of the Concept of strategy, and problems which follow from their use are discussed. The central idea of the Concept is definition of perspective economic specialization of regions without interregional interaction. It is shown that the typology of regions offered in the Concept does not consider modern trends of development of regions. The offered directions of change of structure of regional economies have no convincing scientific justification.It is shown that if in the long term low development rates of the Russian economy remains, then possibilities of purposeful impact on proportions of spatial development are small. There are considerable risks of preservation of the developed trends. It is offered to enhance attention to activization of factors of endogenous growth of regions.

Spatial Aspects of Strategic Planning of Municipal District Development

V. I. Kondratieva1, N. A. Stepanova1, V. N. Markova1,2
1Strategic Research Center of the Sakha Republic
2North-Eastern Federal University named after M. K. Ammosova
Keywords: специализация населенных пунктов, комплексность развития территории, эволюционное развитие территории, В«вахта - базовое поселениеВ», Ленский район Республики Саха (Якутия), сырьевой регион, муниципальный район, пространственное развитие муниципального образования, муниципальная стратегия, Specialization of settlements, integrated development of the territory, evolutionary development of the territory, В«watch-base settlementВ», Lensky district of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), raw material region, municipal district, spatial development of the municipality, municipal strategy

Abstract >>
The report reflects the practical issues of planning spatial development of the territory when developing a long- term municipal strategy. The example of the municipal district «Lensky District of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)» is given as one of the resource centers of Russia of “new development”. It is discussed the necessity of rethinking the historically developed social and economic space of the Lensky region in the process of changing its economic specialization. Perspective specializations of the populated areas are proposed from the point of view of accommodation, priority directions of the social and economic development of the «raw» area with the application of the principles of «inclusiveness» of local communities in the management of economic development aredeveloped. The report was prepared with the financial support of the «Program for Comprehensive Scientific Research in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) for the period 2016-2020».