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Journal of Mining Sciences

2018 year, number 2

1.
Phenomenological Model of Deformation of Enclosing Rocks Near Mine Workings

M. V. KURLENYA, V. E. MIRENKOV
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: горная выработка, феноменологическая модель, напряжения, деформация, обратные задачи, mine working, phenomenological model, stresses, deformation, inverse problems

Abstract >>
A new mechanism of deformation of enclosing rocks near mine workings is presented. The developed method to calculate geomechanical behavior of rocks takes into account the weight of overlying strata in the concordant direction with the orientation of tensile stresses at the mine working boundary while these directions differ in the mine working floor. The proposed calculation method for rock deformation includes two additional parameters characterizing the ratio of displacements in the mine working roof and floor and the ratio of the ground surface movement to to the mine working roof displacements which are determined experimentally.
																								



2.
Electromagnetic Emission in Rocks under Large-Scale Basting

A. A. BESPAL’KOA1, L. V. YAVOROVICHA1, A. A. EREMENKOB2, V. A. SHTIRTSC3
1National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 Russia
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
3EVRAZRUDA, Tashtagol, Russia
Keywords: электромагнитная эмиссия, горная порода, взрыв, месторождение, амплитуда, трение, electromagnetic emission, rock, blast, deposit, amplitude, friction

Abstract >>
Physical modeling of electromagnetic response of rock mass to low-energy impacts in terms of the Tashtagol iron ore deposit shows that multiple low-energy series of impacts initially increase the amplitudes of electromagnetic signals which later on decrease to the same level. This circumstance is indicative of the fact that the slowly varying levels of electromagnetic signals recorded after large-scale blasts are conditioned by the rock mass movement along various slip planes. The change in the stress-strain state of rocks is a slow process which takes from units to tens of hours.
																								



3.
Features of Failure of Brittle Rock Specimens under Uniaxial Compression, Considering Characteristics of Grains

V. P. EFIMOV
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: прочность, трещиностойкость, разрушение горных пород, структурный параметр, минеральное зерно, strength, fracture resistance, rock failure, structural parameter, mineral grain

Abstract >>
The uniaxial compression testing of brittle rock specimens show that the specimens fail in the form of a columnar fracture along the axis of loading. The test data are compared with the characteristic quantities of tensile strength. Failure of the specimens is modeled with regard to features of grains, which allows assessment of tensile/compressive strength ratio.
																								



4.
Effect of Cryogenic Pre-Treatment on Breakage Characteristics of Rocks

R. BISAI, S. GOEL, A. HATWAL, S. K. KOTLYAR, A. MAJUMDER, T. K. NANDI
IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur, WB - 721302, India
Keywords: предварительная криогенная обработка, измельчение, гранит и песчаник, сryogenic pre-treatment, comminution, granite, sandstone

Abstract >>
Improvement of energy efficiency in comminution of rocks using various pretreatment methods is being explored worldwide. This paper presents experimental data on breakage characteristics of granite and sandstone using cryogenic pre-treatment. The samples were treated with varying duration of immersion in liquid nitrogen. Combined pretreatment using oven heating followed by quenching in liquid nitrogen were also explored. The results indicate that using cryogenic pretreatment uniaxial tensile strength of granite can be decreased by more than 40% while in uniaxial compressive strength about 28% reduction is possible. For sandstone as much as 33% reduction in uniaxial compressive strength was observed.
																								



5.
Improving DTH Air Hammer Efficiency through Optimization of Shapes of Colliding Parts

I. A. ZHUKOV1, B. N. SMOLYANITSKY2,3, V. V. TIMONIN2
1Siberian State Industrial University, Novokuznetsk, 654007 Russia
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
3Siberian State Transport University, Novosibirsk, 630049 Russia
Keywords: пневмоударник, боек, удар, импульс, горная порода, разрушение, аir hammer drill, hammering tool, impact, rock, breakage

Abstract >>
Design development of DTH air hammers is discussed with a view to increasing efficiency of rock drilling. The problem is handled by making hammering tool with curvilinear frees surfaces which are in no contact with the hammer body. This ensures generation of rock-breaking impact at the minimum energy input. New designs of hammering tools are developed for DTH air hammer models PP110EN and PP110NK designed at the Institute of Mining, SB RAS. Experiments prove that selection of rational shape of hammering tools allows improving performance of DTH air hammers by 15% at the average.
																								



6.
Calculation of Life of Functional Parts in the Structure of Mining Machines

O. P. PANFILOVA, V. S. VELIKANOV, I. G. USOV, E. YU. MATSKO, I. M. KUTLUBAEV
Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University, Magnitogorsk, 455000 Russia
Keywords: Деталь, ресурс, прогнозирование, методика, система, звенья, схема, линеаризация, Part, life, prediction, procedure, system, links, scheme, linearization

Abstract >>
The issues connected with the prediction of mining machinery life are discussed. The basic index of reliability is an average life. The formulas are substantiated for calculating the average life of gear wheels, friction couple parts, shafts, and axles. The procedure proposed to calculate the life standard deviation is based on the method of linearization of functions of random variables. In this way, the life of standard parts of mining equipment can be calculated as random values with regard to operation conditions. Application of the procedure is exemplified by calculations of the life of a roller bearing. The calculation results are confirmed in the numerical experiment by the Monte Carlo method.
																								



7.
Substantiation of Protective Cushion Thickness in Mining under Open Pit Bottom with the Caving Methods at Udachnaya Pipe

I. V. SOKOLOV1, A. A. SMIRNOV1, YU. G. ANTIPIN1, I. V. NIKITIN1, M. V. TISHKOV2
1Institute of Mining, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg, 620075 Russia
2Yakutniproalmaz Institute, Mirny, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia
Keywords: кимберлитовое месторождение, предохранительный массив, системы разработки с обрушением, проветривание рудника, выпуск руды, kimberlite deposit, protective rock mass, caving methods, mine ventilation, ore drawing

Abstract >>
The results of the research aimed to substantiate parameters of loose ore and rock mass (protective cushion) formed to protect and isolate underground excavations from the open pit mine at Udachnaya kimberlite pipe under mining with the caving methods are presented. The thickness of the cushion is determined based on the effect of an impact of caved rocks and the resultant air blast, and is meant to isolate aerodynamically and thermally the open pit and underground mines. The thickness of the protective cushion is calculated with regard to an increase in the depth of mining down to a level of -680 m.
																								



8.
Development of Technology for Filling Voids between Metal Frames and Enclosing Rock Mass by Foam Materials

YU. N. SHAPOSHNIK1, A. A. NEVEROV1, S. A. NEVEROV1, A. I. KONURIN1, D. A. SHOKAREV2
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Expert PRO, Ust-Kamenogorsk, 070004 Kazakhstan
Keywords: Крепь, пустоты, закрепное пространство, забутовка, процессы окисления, технология, фенольная смола, лабораторные эксперименты, опытно-промышленные испытания, безопасность, Support, voids, enclosing rocks-metal frame void, filling, oxidation processes, technologies, phenol resin, laboratory experiments, pilot-scale tests, safety

Abstract >>
The problem connected with the mine support with metal frames in unstable rock mass subjected to stoping is analyzed. In terms of the complicated geological conditions of the Orlov Mine (East Kazakhstan), the application of phenol resin Blok-Fil in filling voids and domes after rock falls in the gap between the metal frames and roof is tested at the laboratory and pilot scale. It is found that owing to complete filling of voids with resin, no dynamic loads on the support due to rock falls and self-heating of ore and mine air are observed.
																								



9.
Experimental Research of Physical Processes in Selective Extraction of Ore and Gangue from Flat-Dipping Veins

K. N. TRUBETSKOY1, YU. P. GALCHENKO1, A. S. SHUKLIN2
1IPKON, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 111020 Russia
2Resursy Albazino, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia
Keywords: пологие жилы, разработка, разнонаправленный отброс взрывом, породная масса, эффективность взрыводоставки, рудная масса, дополнительное дробление, Flat-dipping veins, mining, differently directed controlled trajectory blasting, rock mass, throw efficiency, ore mass, additional fragmentation

Abstract >>
The experimental research findings on processes that take place during differently directed controlled trajectory blasting of ore and gangue in underground mining of flat-dipping veins are presented. It is found that methods for designing blast patterns should take into account both linear concentration of energy and dynamics of the increase in resistance to throw of rocks and ore in a narrow stoping area. Based on the modeling data, the throw coefficient and blasting front advance are plotted as functions of geometrical and energy characteristics of the model. It is shown that blasting and throw of ore in the stoping zone is accompanied with the effect of additional fragmentation of ore due to collision with the stope roof.
																								



10.
Analysis of a Green Transport Plan for Deep Sea Mining Systems

WENBIN MA1, GABRIEL LODEWIJKS2, DINGENA SCHOTT1
1Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands
2University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052, Australia
Keywords: глубоководная добыча полезных ископаемых, план развития экологически чистого транспорта, оптимальная эффективность, общий объем потребления энергии, коэффициент транспортных потерь, центробежный насос, deep sea mining, green transport plan, optimal efficiency, total energy consumption, transport loss factor, centrifugal pump

Abstract >>
Deep sea mining was identified in the middle of last century. However, its industrialization and commercialization today are limited in the costal mining industry due to the high mining cost and technical issues. The purpose of this paper is to analyse a green transport plan of deep sea mining systems in terms of the optimal efficiency of the rigid pipe lifting system and the total energy consumption. The deep sea mining facilities considered in this paper consist of a mineral collecting machine, a flexible hose, a rigid pipe, a grinding machine, a concentrating machine and a horizontal pipe conveyor. Centrifugal pump modelling and its working principle are researched, because it is the major transport facility. The relationship between the optimal efficiency, total energy consumption, transport loss factor, and the relating mining parameters is determined by numerical simulations and fittings under Fortran and Matlab environment, and the optimization under 1stOpt environment. The research conducted in this paper is valuable for the pre-evaluation of deep sea mining transport systems and the further realization of its industrialization and commercialization process.
																								



11.
Penetration Rate and Specific Energy Prediction of Rotary-Percussive Drills Using Drill Cuttings and Engineering Properties of Selected Rock Units

M. Z. ABU BAKARA1, I. A. BUTTB2, Y. MAJEEDC1
1University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
2University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
Keywords: скорость проходки, удельная энергия буровых работ, индекс крупности, константа абсолютного размера Розина-Раммлера, прочность на сжатие, бразильская прочность на растяжение, прочность при точечном нагружении, твердость по Шмидту, плотность, пористость, скорость распространения продольной волны, penetration rate (PR), specific energy (SE), coarseness index (CI), Rosin-Rammler’s constant (D’), uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), Brazilian tensile strength (BTS), point load strength (PLS), Schmidt rebound hardness (SRH), density, porosity (n), P-wave velocity (Vp)

Abstract >>
This study discusses the prediction of penetration rate and specific energy of button bit equipped rotary-percussion drilling machines from drill cuttings and geo-mechanical properties of rocks. The operational parameters of drilling machines measured from selected locations were utilized for the calculation of specific energy of drilling operations. For this purpose three on-going hydropower projects and four active mining quarries of Pakistan were selected. The drill cuttings were further used to determine various descriptors of the chip size distribution including the coarseness index and Rosin-Rammler’s absolute size constant. A complete set of geo-mechanical rock tests were conducted in the laboratory and includes uniaxial compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength, point load strength, Schmidt rebound hardness, p-wave velocity, dry density, porosity and brittleness indices. Regression analyses were performed to predict the penetration rate and specific energy of drilling from geo-mechanical properties of rocks. The models so developed were also validated by adopting the t-test and the F-test statistical techniques. Moreover, statistical models were also developed to evaluate penetration rate from various descriptors of the chip size distribution. Dependence of bit size on coarseness index and mean particle size was also discussed.
																								



12.
Influence of Ultrasound Exposure on Leaching Efficiency, and on Structural, Chemical and Morphological Properties of Mineral Components in Eudialyte Concentrate

V. A. CHANTURIA, V. G. MINENKO, A. L. SAMUSEV, M. V. RYAZANTSEVA, E. L. CHANTURIA, E. V. KOPORULINA
IPKON, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: эвдиалитовый концентрат, выщелачивание, азотная кислота, ультразвук, цирконий, редкоземельные элементы, Eudialyte concentrate, leaching, nitric acid, ultrasound, zirconium, rare earth elements

Abstract >>
The investigation of influence exerted by ultrasound exposure on recovery of zirconium and rare earth elements in pregnant solution of acid leaching of eudialyte concentrate is described. The methods of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and analytical scanning electron microscopy are used to study structural, chemical and morphological characteristics as well as elemental composition of minerals in eudialyte concentrate before and after the acid leaching.
																								



13.
Mathematical Modeling of Mineralized Industrial Wastewater Treatment by Pressure Flotation

N. L. MEDYANIK, I. YU. SHEVELIN, S. N. KAKUSHKIN
Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University, Magnitogorsk, 455000 Russia
Keywords: численное моделирование, техногенные минерализованные воды, многостадийная напорная флотация, субстраты металлов, реагент-комплексообразователь, флотационные системы “субстрат металла - агент - пузырек”, numerical modeling, mineralized industrial wastewater, multi-stage pressure flotation, metal substrate, complexing agent, metal substrate-agent-bubble flotation systems

Abstract >>
The mathematical model of treatment of mineralized mine wastewater by pressure flotation is described. The model provides information on concentration of metal substrates in each state of the process at any arbitrary time. The numerical experiments based on the model prove its reliability and accuracy.
																								



14.
Improvement of Oxidizing Roasting of Molybdenite Concentrate by Addition of Magnesite

D. P. KHOMOKSONOVA1, E. S. KASHKAK2, I. G. ANTROPOVA1
1Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Ude, 670047 Russia
2Tuva State University, Kyzyl, 667000 Russia
Keywords: молибденитовый концентрат, магнезит, термодинамическое моделирование, обжиг, молибдат магния, сульфат магния, molybdenite concentrate, magnesite, thermodynamic modeling, roasting, magnesium molybdate, magnesium sulfate

Abstract >>
The results of the thermodynamic modeling are presented for oxidizing roasting of refractory molybdenite (MoS2) with magnesite (MgCO3). The phase and chemical compositions of the MoS2-MgCO3-O2 system and its changes are determined depending on the temperature and quantity of the additive agent. The modeling reveals feasibility of thermochemical decomposition of molybdenite with the formation of water- and soda-soluble compounds MgMoO4 and MgSO4, which is an evidence of efficiency of magnesium carbonate in the capacity of an additive agent. The optimal conditions of the thermochemical decomposition of molybdenite determined theoretically from thermodynamic calculations are proved experimentally.
																								



15.
Efficient Physicochemical Treatment Technology for Nepheline Concentrates

V. S. RIMKEVICH1, A. P. SOROKIN1,2, A. A. PUSHKIN1, I. V. GIRENKO1
1Institute of Geology and Nature Management, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Blagoveshchensk, 675000 Russia
2Amur Science Center, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Blagoveshchensk, 675000 Russia
Keywords: Нефелиновые концентраты, физико-химическая переработка, комплексное извлечение, эффективная технология, аморфный кремнезем, глинозем, полезные компоненты, nepheline concentrates, physicochemical treatment, integrated recovery, enabling technology, amorphous silica, alumina, useful components

Abstract >>
The processes of physicochemical treatment of nepheline concentrates are studied theoretically and experimentally, and the optimal conditions are determined for the integrated fluoride-ammonium recovery of different useful components. The enabling innovative technology is proposed for the production of amorphous silica, alumina, red iron oxide, calcium fluoride and other marketable products.
																								



16.
Recovery of Tundra Ecosystem after Closure of the Valkumei Mine in Chukotka

G. V. KALABIN1, V. I. GORNYI2, T. A. DAVIDAN2, S. G. KRITSUK2, A. A. TRONIN2
1IPKON, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 111020 Russia
2Scientific Research Center for Ecological Safety, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint-Petersburg, 197110 Russia
Keywords: спутниковый мониторинг, растительность тундры, экосистема, вегетационный индекс, криолитозона, горнодобывающее предприятие, satellite monitoring, tundra vegetation, ecosystem, vegetation index, permafrost zone, mines

Abstract >>
Applicability of local and regional scale satellite images in evaluation of vegetation in tundra in the zones of mining in permafrost area is proved. The research findings on the environmental impact of the Valkumei Mine, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, after its closure are described and analyzed.
																								



17.
Geoecological Assessment of the Malyi khingan Ridge Area Using Earth Remote Sensing Data

V. I. USIKOV, L. N. LIPINA
Institute of Mining, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Khabarovsk, 680000 Russia
Keywords: дистанционное зондирование Земли, спутниковые снимки, золотороссыпной узел, нормализованный дифференцированный вегетационный индекс, самозарастание, earth remote sensing, satellite images, gold placer mining cluster, normalized difference vegetation index, self-healing

Abstract >>
The spotlight is on the use of Earth remote sensing data in geoecological assessment of the Malyi Khingan Ridge area in the Russian Far East. Based on the analysis of satellite observations over the Sutara gold placer mining range, the time variation of the disturbed land is determined. It is found that natural recovery of bio-geo-cenosis takes an active part in the process. Using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the behavior and rates of self-healing of the disturbed lands are assessed. Complete recovery of vegetation in gold placer mining areas up to a level comparable with the adjacent territories takes 7 to 10 years.
																								



18.
Selection of Binding Agents for Dust Suppression at Tailings Ponds at Apatite-Nepheline Ore Processing Plants

V. A. MASLOBOEVA1, A. V. SVETLOV2, O. T. KONINA3, G. V. MITROFANOVA4, A. V. TURTANOV5, D. V. MAKAROV2
1Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity, 184209 Russia
2Institute of the Industrial Ecology Problems of the North, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity, 184209 Russia
3Orika CIS, Kirovsk, 184250, Russia
4Mining Institute, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity, 184209 Russia
5Apatit, Kirovsk, 184250 Russia
Keywords: хвосты обогащения апатит-нефелиновых руд, пылеподавление, закрепление поверхности хвостохранилищ, связующие реагенты, apatite-nepheline ore flotation tailings, dust suppression, tailings pond surface bonding, binding agents

Abstract >>
The methods of deactivation and reclamation of tailings ponds are studied. The engineering-geological investigations of apatite-nepheline ore flotation tailings in the sites applied with chemicals at ANOF2 processing plant of Apatit Company are carried out. The monitoring of the bonding surface generated by dust suppression agents Alcotact DSI, Dustbind and Dloset S44 is performed. The physical properties and the aggressive action resistance, as well as the effect of suppression agent feed in recycling water on the apatite-nepheline ore flotation performance are tested on a laboratory scale. The Dustbind is recommended as the optimal suppression.
																								



19.
Combustion of Fine Dispersed Dust-Gas-Air Mixtures in Underground Excavations

S. V. CHERDANTSEV, HI UN LI, YU. M. FILATOV, D. V. BOTVENKO, P. A. SHLAPAKOV, V. V. KOLYKHALOV
VostNII Science Center for Safety in the Mining Industry, Kemerovo, 650002 Russia
Keywords: горные выработки, мелкодисперсные пылегазовоздушные смеси, уравнение теплопроводности, зона горения, конвекция, закон Аррениуса, кинетическая область, собственные значения и собственные функции, underground excavations, dine dispersed dust-gas-air mixture, heat conduction equation, combustion zone, convection, Arrhenius equation, kinetic domain, eigen values and eigen functions

Abstract >>
Stationary-state combustion of fine dispersed dust-gas-air mixtures in underground excavations is analyzed. Under the assumption that the single source of heat emission is the carbon oxidation reaction, the second-order nonlinear differential equation is obtained for the determination of temperature and the initial conditions are formulated. The analysis of the solution shows that there exist critical values of the dust-gas-air mixture flow velocity, and the excess over these critical values may result in the mixture combustion. The cross section of an underground excavation is related with the temperature reached in this cross section.
																								



20.
Analysis of the Behavior and Geometrics of Hybrid Unit Cutting Tool in Initiating Slotting

P. V. SAZHIN
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: поинтервальный гидроразрыв, комбинированное устройство, режущий орган, инициирующая щель, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, hybrid unit, cutting tool, initiating slot

Abstract >>
The structure diagram and operation of a hybrid unit for drilling and initiating slotting are presented. The loads on the cutting tool during initiating slotting are calculated, and the rational operating mode of the hybrid unit is determined.
																								



21.
Parameter Optimization of the Gamma Albedo Method to Control Quality of Coal of Variable Composition

YU. N. PAK, D. YU. PAK
Karaganda State Technical University, Ministry of Education and Science, Republic of Kazakhstan, Karaganda, 100027 Republic of Kazakhstan
Keywords: контроль зольности, гамма-альбедный метод, интегральная интенсивность вторичного излучения, оптимизация толщины фильтра, ash content control, gamma albedo method, integral intensity of secondary radiation, filter thickness optimization

Abstract >>
The variant of the gamma albedo method is proposed for the radioisotope express control of coal ash content, which ensures the satisfactory accuracy in the conditions of variable elementary composition of coal. It is shown that the integral intensity of secondary (scattered and fluorescent) radiation weakened using a certain thickness filter is a univocal index of coal ash content. The analytical model for the optimization of the secondary radiation filtration parameters is developed. The utility value of the weakening filter is determined as function of ash content and composition of coal.