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Russian Geology and Geophysics

2018 year, number 5

1.
GEOCHEMICAL EVIDENCE FOR THE FRACTIONATION OF IRIDIUM GROUP ELEMENTS AT THE EARLY STAGES OF CRYSTALLIZATION OF THE DOVYREN MAGMAS (northern Baikal area, Russia)

A.A. Ariskin1,2, G.S. Nikolaev2, L.V. Danyushevsky3, M. Fiorentini4, E.V. Kislov5, I.V. Pshenitsyn1
1Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1, Moscow, 119234, Russia
2Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, ul. Kosygina 19, Moscow, 119991, Russia
3Centre for Ore Deposit and Earth Sciences (CODES), University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia
4Centre for Exploration Targeting, School of Earth and Environment, ARC Centre of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid Systems, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, 6009, Perth, Australia
5Geological Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Sakh’yanovoi 6, Ulan-Ude, 670047, Russia
Keywords: Плагиоперидотит, исходная магма, алюмохромит, платиноиды иридиевой группы, фракционирование, лаурит, иридистый осмий, Довырен, Plagioperidotite, parental magma, aluminochromite, IPGE, fractionation, laurite, Ir-containing osmium, Dovyren

Abstract >>
We have first generalized geochemical and mineralogical data indicating the important role of crystallization of Os-Ir-Ru phases and fractionation of refractory iridium subgroup of PGE (IPGE) at the early stages of the evolution of parental magmas and primitive cumulates from the Yoko-Dovyren layered massif (northern Baikal area, Russia). The object of study was two types of plagioclase peridotites from the lower part of the intrusion, differing in the porosity of primary olivine cumulates: less melanocratic (but more primitive) type I and more melanocratic type II. Inclusions of refractory IPGE (Os, Ir, and Ru) discovered during LA-ICP-MS studies of aluminochromite from type I rocks are the first evidence for the presence of Os-Ir-Ru phases. Subsequent electron microscopy examinations revealed more than 25 grains of laurite and Ir-containing osmium in aluminochromite from plagioperidotites of both types. Attention is focused on the importance of the Ru/Cr2O3 and Ir/Cr2O3 ratios in rocks for the separation of IPGE at early and late fractionation stages. The conclusion is drawn that the higher Ru/Cr2O3 and Ir/Cr2O3 ratios in type I plagioperidotites indicate higher enrichment of aluminochromite in inclusions of refractory IPGE minerals. This is consistent with the fact that these rocks are assigned to the most primitive high-temperature ultramafites genetically related to the parental magma, which was in equilibrium with olivine Fo88 at ~1290 °C. We have established that the parental Dovyren magma was already depleted in IPGE and rhodium before its entrance into a chamber. No signs of early sulfide-silicate immiscibility have been detected.
																								



2.
GABBRO-PERIDOTITE SILLS OF THE LATE RIPHEAN DOVYREN PLUTONIC COMPLEX (northern Baikal area, Russia)

D.A. Orsoev1, A.S. Mekhonoshin2, S.V. Kanakin1, R.A. Badmatsyrenova1, E.A. Khromova1
1Geological Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Sakhyanovoi 6a, Ulan-Ude, 670047, Russia
2A.P. Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Favorskogo 1a, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia
Keywords: Габбро-перидотитовые силлы, дифференциация, внутриплитные рифты, мантийный плюм, Gabbro-peridotite sills, magma differentiation, within-plate rifting, mantle plume

Abstract >>
We report data on the geology, mineralogy, petrography, and chemistry of 733 Ma gabbro-peridotite sills from the Late Riphean Dovyren plutonic complex. Thick sills were differentiated into plagiolherzolite to olivine gabbronorite compositions by fractional crystallization of the K-Na series high-Mg low-alkali low-Ti picritic parental magma. The magma already contained up to 5% of intratelluric olivine crystals when entering the reservoir. The sills emplaced before the whole complex, judging by the presence of their fragments as plagiolherzolite xenoliths in the gabbro zone of the Yoko-Dovyren layered pluton. The gabbro-peridotite sills are products of high-temperature within-plate magmatism. High heat flow during the generation of the magma, evident from its high-Mg composition, was, likely maintained by the activity of a mantle plume associated with the Neoproterozoic Franklin large igneous province.
																								



3.
FORMATION OF MOSAIC DIAMONDS FROM THE ZARNITSA KIMBERLITE

A.L. Ragozin1,2, D.A. Zedgenizov1,2, V.S. Shatsky1,2, K.E. Kuper3
1V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3G.I. Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Алмаз, включения, перидотитовый парагенезис, кимберлитовая тр. Зарница, Diamond, inclusions, peridotitic minerals, Zarnitsa kimberlite

Abstract >>
Mosaic diamonds from the Zarnitsa kimberlite (Daldyn field, Yakutian diamondiferous province) are morphologicaly and structurally similar to dark gray mosaic diamonds of varieties V and VII found frequently in placers of the northeastern Siberian craton. However, although being similar in microstructure, the two groups of diamonds differ in formation mechanism: splitting of crystals in the case of placer diamonds (V and VII) and growth by geometric selection in the Zarnitsa kimberlite diamonds. Selective growth on originally polycrystalline substrates in the latter has produced radial microstructures with grains coarsening rimward from distinctly polycrystalline cores. Besides the formation mechanisms, diamonds of the two groups differ in origin of mineral inclusions, distribution of defects and nitrogen impurity, and carbon isotope composition. Unlike the placer diamonds of varieties V and VII, the analyzed crystals from the Zarnitsa kimberlite enclose peridotitic minerals (olivines and subcalcic Cr-bearing pyropes) and have total nitrogen contents common to natural kimberlitic diamonds (0 to 1761 ppm) and typical mantle carbon isotope compositions (-1.9 to -6.2‰ δ13C; -4.2‰ on average). The distribution of defect centers in the Zarnitsa diamond samples fits the annealing model implying that nitrogen aggregation decreases from core to rim.
																								



4.
GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ANALYSIS OF CRUDE-OIL SOURCE IN THE DEEP-WATER AREA OF THE BAIYUN SAG, SOUTH CHINA SEA

Dashuang He1,2,3, Dujie Hou1, Tao Chen1
1School of Energy Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, China 100083
2PRG, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4
3PRG, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive, NW Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4, Canad
Keywords: Глубинная вода, геохимические характеристики, источник нефти, Байюньская впадина, Baiyun Sag, deep water, geochemical characteristics, oil source

Abstract >>
In the Baiyun Sag, the oil relationship with possible source rocks is complicated, and little research on oil sources in the area has been performed. In this paper, geochemical studies of carbon isotopes, biomarkers, paleoenvironmental deposition, and crude oil maturity, carried out with the use of oil samples from the Baiyun Sag, demonstrate that the organic matter in crude oil has an oxidizing depositional environment and primarily lacustrine facies conditions, with a significantly higher plant input. The oil samples used are mature to highly mature. Crude oil in the northern area of the Baiyun Sag is more mature than samples in the eastern part of the sag. Despite limited source rock data, we were able to conclude that the crude oil samples were derived mainly from the Enping Formation; other potential source rocks of the Wenchang and Zhuhai Formations may also have contributed to the reservoirs in different parts of the sag. Furthermore, the source of crude oil in each structure in the Baiyun Sag was analyzed; for example, crude oil in the LH19-5 structure was generated from the organic matter of the Enping Formation, and crude oil in the LW3-1 structure was derived from the mixed organic matter of the Enping, Wenchang, and Zhuhai Formations.
																								



5.
CRUSTAL STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF ARCHEAN CRATONS OF GONDWANALAND: SIMILARITY AND DIFFERENCE

A.A. Baranov1,2, A.M. Bobrov1
1Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Bol. Gruzinskaya 10, Moscow, 123995, Russia
2Institute of Earthquake Prediction Theory and Mathematical Geophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Profsoyuznaya 84/32, Moscow, 117485, Russia
Keywords: Архей, кратон, кора, Мохо, Archean, craton, crust, Moho

Abstract >>
This is a synopsis of available data on the crustal structure and properties of thirteen Archean cratons of Gondwanaland (the cratons of Africa, Australia, Antarctica, South America, and the Indian subcontinent). The data include estimates of surface area, rock age and lithology, Moho depth, thickness of lithosphere and sediments, as well as elevations, all summarized in a table. The cratons differ in size from 0.05 × 106 km2 (Napier craton) to 4 × 106 km2 (Congo craton) and span almost the entire Archean period from 3.8 to 2.5 Ga. Sediments are mostly thin, though reach 7 km in the Congo and West African cratons. Elevations above sea level are from 0 to 2 km; some relatively highland cratons (Kaapvaal, Zimbabwe, and Tanzanian) rise to more than 1 km. On the basis of regional seismic data, the Moho map for cratons has been improved. The Moho diagrams for each craton are constructed. The analysis of the available new data shows that the average Moho depth varies from 33 to 44 km: Pilbara (33 km), Grunehogna (35 km), Sгo Francisco (36 km), Yilgarn (37 km), Dharwar (38 km), Tanzanian (39 km), Zimbabwe (39 km), Kaapvaal (40 km), Gawler (40 km), Napier (40 km), West Africa (40 km), Congo (42 km), and Amazon (44 km) cratons. The Moho depth within the cratons is less uniform than it was assumed before: from 28 to 52 km. The new results differ significantly from the earlier inference of a relatively flat Moho geometry beneath Archean cratons. According to the new data, early and middle Archean undeformed crust is characterized by a shallow Moho depth (28-38 km), while late Archean or deformed crust may be as thick as 52 km.
																								



6.
COLLISIONAL MAFIC MAGMATISM OF THE FOLD-THRUST BELTS FRAMING SOUTHERN SIBERIA (Western Sangilen, southeastern Tuva)

R.A. Shelepaev1,2, V.V. Egorova1,2, A.E. Izokh1,2, R. Zeltmann3
1V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3Natural History Museum, CERCAMS, London, Cromwell Road, SW7 5BD, UK
Keywords: Коллизионный ороген, базитовый магматизм, кембро-ордовикская коллизия, перидотит-габбровые, габбро-монцодиоритовые, дунит-верлит-клинопироксенит-габбровые, щелочно-базальтовые ассоциации, юг Сибири, Collisional orogen, mafic magmatism, Cambrian-Ordovician collision, peridotite-gabbro, gabbro-monzodiorite, dunite-wehrlite-clinopyroxenite-gabbro, and alkali basalts, southern Siberia

Abstract >>
We consider geochemical features of mafic magmatism manifested during the evolution of a complex nappe-folded structure in Western Sangilen, resulted from the Cambrian-Ordovician collisional tectogenesis. There are abundant ultramafic-mafic and mafic associations of different types in this region: layered low-Ti low-alkali ultramafic-mafic intrusions, high-Ti medium-alkali gabbroids, gabbro-monzodiorite intrusions, and alkali basalts. Isotope-geochronological data showed that these complexes formed over a wide time interval, from 570 to 440 Ma. At this time, the geodynamic setting in Western Sangilen changed from an island-arc one via a collision one to an intercontinental rift setting. At the early and late stages of the evolution of Western Sangilen, the geochemical features of mafites were typical of their geodynamic settings. The properties of mafites that formed synchronously with the collision are of particular interest. The studies have shown that the chemical composition of collisional mafites of Western Sangilen changed with time. They became richer in alkalies, titanium, and incompatible elements. This fact indicates a change in the type of mantle source from suprasubductional in the Cambrian to enriched deeper-level one in the Ordovician.
																								



7.
INTERMEDIATE LAKES OF THE CHULYM AND KARGAT RIVER VALLEYS AND THEIR ROLE IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE BASIN OF LAKE CHANY

S.K. Krivonogov1,2, V.A. Gusev2,1, E.V. Parkhomchuk3,2, S.V. Zhilich1,4
1V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3G.K. Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Lavrent’eva 5, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
4Institute of Archeology and Ethnography, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Lavrent’eva 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Палеолимнология, палеогидрология, озера, голоцен, Западная Сибирь, бассейн оз. Чаны, Paleolimnology, paleohydrology, lakes, Holocene, West Siberia, basin of Lake Chany

Abstract >>
The Chulym and Kargat rivers flow through chains of saucer-shaped depressions, which are swamp meadows or drainage lakes. In the past, all of them were lakes short-lived in different Holocene epochs. These depressions accumulated a significant amount of the Chulym and Kargat runoff and thus influenced the water balance of Lake Chany. Our studies reconstruct the history of these depressions. A model describing their filling with sediments is proposed. The lacustrine sediments penetrated by boreholes and pits are dated by the radiocarbon method at 6.3-2.0 ka BP. The data obtained indicate the long existence of Lake Chany as a shallow water basin and rise in its level at ~2 kyr BP.
																								



8.
CLIMATIC FACTORS AS RISKS OF RECENT ECOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE SHALLOW ZONE OF LAKE BAIKAL

T.G. Potemkina, V.L. Potemkin, A.P. Fedotov
Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Ulan-Batorskaya 3, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia
Keywords: Глобальное потепление, климатические факторы, эвтрофикация, озеро Байкал, Global warming, climatic factors, eutrophication, Lake Baikal

Abstract >>
Eutrophication processes have been recorded in many world’s freshwater reservoirs, which are sources of drinking water. More and more investigations show that global warming is the main natural factor that causes eutrophication. In recent years, signs of eutrophication have also been recorded in Lake Baikal containing 20% of the world’s freshwater reserves. Therefore, we performed the first comprehensive analysis of long-term changes in climatic parameters capable to provoke negative changes in the shallow zone. The largest number of anomalies of climatic indices has been recorded in the 21st century. Moreover, the current decade has been the most favorable for the emergence of negative processes in the lake (outbreak of the mass growth of algae and aquatic vegetation, rotting of their remains at the bottom and on the shores of the lake, changes in the structure and zoning of biocoenoses, etc.). The main natural conditions favoring the emergence of negative signs are elevated temperatures of the air and lake shore water, reduced amount of precipitation, reduced inflow of river waters into Baikal and lowering of its water level, low-water season, and weakening of wind currents, water exchange processes, and, as a result, water self-purification. In the period of continuing global warming, it is necessary to study the climate effect on the processes in the shallow zone and to carry out long-term monitoring for elucidation of recent and expected changes in the ecological state of Lake Baikal and for their valid interpretation.
																								



9.
OBSERVATION OF SEISMOELECTRIC EFFECT IN GAS CONDENSATE FIELD IN THE NATURAL EARTH’S ELECTROMAGNETIC AND SEISMIC NOISE OF 0.1-20 Hz

G.Y. Shaidurov, D.S. Kudinov, V.S. Potylitsyn, R.G. Shaidurov
Siberian Federal University, ul. Kirenskogo 26, Krasnoyarsk, 660074, Russia
Keywords: Сейсмические шумы, электрические шумы, взаимно-корреляционная функция, газоконденсатное месторождение Минусинское, Seismic noise, electrical noise, cross-correlation function, Minusinskoe gas condensate field

Abstract >>
The first experimental measurements of the cross-correlation function (CCF) of the Earth’s seismic and electrical noise were carried out in two areas of the Minusinskoe gas condensate field in 2014 and 2015, using a VPEMPZ-M1 (Shum-6) two-channel geophysical device developed at Siberian Federal University. The Earth’s seismic noise and electrical noise in the frequency range 0.1-20 Hz were received by a geophone and an electric dipole, respectively. In both cases, a productive pool at depths of 1800-2000 m had a maximum CCF value five to seven times greater than the normal background. This phenomenon indicates the occurrence of the seismoelectric effect in passive fields.
																								



10.
TECHNOGENIC TECTONIC SEISMICITY IN KUZBASS

V.V. Adushkin
Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 38, korp. 1, Moscow, 119334, Russia
Keywords: Техногенез, сейсмичность, техногенное землетрясение, магнитуда, Technogenesis, seismicity, technogenic earthquake, magnitude

Abstract >>
This paper presents an analysis of the development of the current seismic state of the Kuznetsk coal basin, which is characterized by an increase in technogenic seismicity of different types under the influence of prolonged intensive mining operations. The development of technogenesis led to a significant increase in technogenic seismicity in the Kuznetsk Basin in the 1970-1980s, when the number of technogenic earthquakes began to exceed the number of natural earthquakes. Among the various types of induced seismicity, special attention is paid to strong technogenic tectonic earthquakes with a regional magnitude Mb ≥ 3 and, accordingly, a seismic energy release of more than 109 J, i.e., earthquakes of energy class K > 9. These small-focus earthquakes are often accompanied by destruction of underground mines, collapse of quarries and pits, damage to surface facilities and equipment, and other adverse effects. In this paper, such earthquakes are defined as technogenic tectonic to emphasize their dual origin: technogenic impacts and the subsequent relaxation of tectonic stresses. It is also noted that the Earth’s interior in Kuzbass initially had its own natural seismicity and a developed system of tectonic faults. Natural seismotectonic activity combined with constantly increasing scales of mining and explosive consumption has led to an increase in the number of technogenic seismic events and their intensity. A striking example of such an event was the 18 June, 2013 Bachat earthquake with a regional magnitude Mb = 5.8 and a seismic intensity of 7 in the epicentral zone. It was the world’s largest man-made earthquake induced by the mining of solid minerals. We consider the possible causes of this catastrophic earthquake and discuss the conditions favoring the formation of foci of such technogenic tectonic earthquakes resulting from changes in the geodynamic and hydrogeological conditions in the Earth’s crust under man-caused impacts. These induced changes in natural processes are accompanied by a change in the stress-strain state, resulting in the concentration of tectonic stresses at heterogeneities and in fault zones, which become sources of induced technogenic seismicity. The paper discusses the current period of the occurrence and increase in such anthropogenic seismicity in the Kuzbass region with increasing scales of coal mining and blasting. Over the last 20 years, the consumption of explosives at Kuzbass enterprises increased from 100-200 to 500-600 thousand tons per year, and, accordingly, the amounts of broken and transported rock increased from several million tons per year to a billion tons per year, which disturbed the dynamic equilibrium in the Earth’s crust and changed the existing field of tectonic stresses. Moreover, the continuously increasing consumption of explosives has also increased the technogenic impact on the crust structures. The location of the epicenters of large-scale blasts inducing seismic events with regional magnitudes Mb = 3.0-4.5 has made it possible to identify regions with the greatest technogenic impact in Kuzbass. Using the data of the ISC seismological catalog, we separated seismic events with the above magnitudes into day and night ones. Since blasting work is forbidden at night, night seismic events are referred to as technogenic tectonic earthquakes (night event criterion). The maximum magnitude of seismic events induced by blasting operations in the Kuznetsk Basin was estimated at Mb ≤ 4.4. The annual number of technogenic tectonic earthquakes with 3.0 ≤ Mb ≤ 3.4, 3.5 ≤ Mb ≤ 3.9, 4.0 ≤ Mb ≤ 4.4, and Mb ≥ 4.5 was determined based on the night event criterion. The regions of their occurrence were identified from the location of the epicenters of technogenic tectonic earthquakes.