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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2018 year, number 5

1.
Program code for retrieval of the water vapor continuum absorption from experimental data

T.E. Klimeshina, I.V. Ptashnik
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: водяной пар, континуальное поглощение, восстановление континуума, экспериментальные данные, water vapor, continuum absorption, continuum retrieval, experimental data

Abstract >>
The software was created that allows automatic retrieval of water vapor continuum absorption from experimental data. The program includes baseline correction (if necessary), automatic correction of the experimental spectrum by frequency, automatic “spectroscopic” correction of the measured pressure value, subtraction of the spectral line local contributions, automatic selection of microwindows of transparency with the most reliable results of continuum retrieval and smoothing of the values obtained. Currently the software is intended to be used for processing Fourier measurement data, but it can be adjusted for other experimental methods.
																								



2.
Water dimer - water monomer absorption relation within the H2O rotational band

Yu.V. Bogdanova1, O.B. Rodimova2
1Tomsk State Pedagogical University, 634041, Tomsk, пр. Komsomolskij av., 75
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: водяной пар, димеры воды, крылья спектральных линий, микроволновое поглощение, water vapor, water dimers, spectral line wings, microwave absorption

Abstract >>
Spectral line contour found on the basis of the asymptotic line wing theory with parameters obtained from fitting to experiment in the 8-12 mm region and describing the spectral and temperature behavior of the water vapor absorption coefficient in this region is used to calculate absorption in the long-wave wing of the H2O rotational band. The absorption coefficient calculated within the asymptotic line wing theory takes into account the absorption by any colliding molecular pairs except the absorption due to stable dimers. The application of this contour in calculation of the absorption coefficient in the range of 14-200 cm-1 allows us to extract the absorption part due to stable dimers from the absorption measured with the special resonator spectrometer. The dimer absorption spectrum derived shows a consistency with the spectra from quantum-mechanical calculations and measured in other experiments.
																								



3.
Probability distribution of strong intensity fluctuations of vortex laser beams in the turbulent atmosphere

V.P. Aksenov1, V.V. Dudorov1, V.V. Kolosov1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Tomsk Scientific Center of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 634055, Tomsk, av. Akademichesky, 10/4
Keywords: вихревой пучок, турбулентная атмосфера, флуктуации интенсивности, функция распределения вероятностей, vortex beam, turbulent atmosphere, intensity fluctuations, probability density functions

Abstract >>
Numerical experiment is used to study the distribution laws of intensity fluctuations of laser beams propagating in the atmosphere. The probability density functions of intensity of fundamental Gaussian beam and beam having an orbital angular momentum (vortex beam) are compared for different positions of the observation point in a cross plane. An analytical model is suggested for the probability density function of intensity fluctuations, which works well for the conditions of strong (when the variance of intensity fluctuations takes the highest values) and saturated intensity fluctuations.
																								



4.
Determination of corrections to aiming using a passive optical crosswind speed meter

A.L. Afanasiev1, V.A. Banakh1, D.А. Маrакаsоv1, V.A. Aksenov2, E.V. Shishkin2, Yu.V. Pazyi3
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Special Equipment and Communications, Novosibirsk, ul. Kutateladze, 3, 630055, Russia
3Novosibirsk Military Institute of the Internal Troops named after general of the Army I.K. Yakovlev of the Ministry of the Interior of the Russian Federation, Ulitsa Klyuch-Kamyshenskoye Plato, 6/2, Novosibirsk, 630114, Russia
Keywords: пассивный оптический измеритель, интегральная скорость ветра, ветровая поправка, некогерентный источник, корреляция изображений, акустический анемометр, турбулентность, passive optical meter, integral wind speed, wind correction, incoherent source, image correlation, acoustic anemometer, turbulence

Abstract >>
The results of the statistical analysis of experimental data obtained during the polygon tests of a passive optical wind speed meter are presented. During the tests, a possibility of using the device for aiming correcting to compensate the wind shift of bullets was evaluated. During the experiments, the arrays of the coordinates of the impact points and the values of the component of the wind speed averaged over the line of sight were recorded; the one-to-one correspondence of the elements of the arrays was not established. A method for determining the coefficient of linear interrelation for such arrays is proposed. It is shown that taking into account the corrections formed on the basis of wind measurements by a passive optical meter decreases the spread of the impact points to values corresponding to shooting standards for the best snipers in the absence of wind.
																								



5.
Diffraction-beam optics of filamentation. I. Formalism of diffraction beams and light tubes

Yu.E. Geints, A.A. Zemlyanov, O.V. Minina
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: фемтосекундные лазерные импульсы, самофокусировка, филаментация, дифракционный луч, дифракционно-лучевая трубка, femtosecond laser pulses, self-focusing, filamentation, diffraction ray, diffraction-beam tube

Abstract >>
The concept of non-stationary diffraction-beam optics of powerful femtosecond laser pulses is presented. According to the concept the power of a beam propagates along specific light structures--diffraction-beam tubes. These tubes do not intersect, do not exchange energy, but changes in their shape and cross sections during propagation reflect the effect of physical processes that occur with radiation in the medium. The non-stationary theory is supplemented with evolutionary equations for time averaged diffraction beams and effective squared radii of diffraction tubes.
																								



6.
Experimental and theoretical investigations of near-ground acoustic radiation propagation in the atmosphere

V.V. Belov1, Yu.B. Burkatovskaya2,3, N.P. Krasnenko4,5, A.S. Rakov4,5, D.S. Rakov3,4, L.G. Shamanaeva1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
3National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
4Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave
5Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 634050, 40 Lenina Prospect, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: атмосферная акустика, приземное распространение звука, метод Монте-Карло, поглощение, рефракция, рассеяние звука атмосферной турбулентностью, atmospheric acoustics, near-ground propagation of acoustic radiation, Monte Carlo method, absorption, refraction, sound scattering by atmospheric turbulence

Abstract >>
The process of near-ground propagation of monochromatic acoustic radiation at frequencies of 300, 1000, 2000, and 3150 Hz along atmospheric paths up to 100 m long is investigated experimentally and theoretically depending on altitudes of acoustic source and receiver. Experiments were performed at the experimental site of the IMCES SB RAS using a specially developed setup. The dependence of the recorded sound pressure level on the propagation path length and the initial signal power is studied. The theoretical analysis is performed by the Monte Carlo method that allows contributions of multiple scattering of acoustic radiation, refraction, and reflection by the underlying surface to the acoustic signal recorded with the detector to be taken into account for realistic models of the atmosphere. The local estimation algorithm of the Monte Carlo method developed by the authors was used for calculations. The comparison of the experimental and theoretical results shows their satisfactory agreement, which testifies to the efficiency of the suggested Monte Carlo algorithm and its applicabilty to the prediction of near-ground acoustic radiation propagation.
																								



7.
Hardware-software complex for studying the structure of the fields of turbulent fluctuations of temperature and wind

A.A. Azbukin1, A.Ya. Bogushevich1, V.P. Lukin2, V.V. Nosov2, E.V. Nosov2, A.V. Torgaev2
1Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: турбулентность, ультразвуковой термоанемометр, пространственные производные, turbulence, ultrasonic anemometer, spatial derivatives

Abstract >>
A new hardware-software ultrasonic complex AMK-03-4 is created for measurements of the characteristics of turbulent weather fields. In contrast to similar measuring instruments, the complex consists of four identical ultrasonic anemometers. The design of the complex allows one to record not only turbulent, but also statistical characteristics of spatial derivatives of turbulent pulsations of temperature and orthogonal wind speed components along the Cartesian axes. This allows investigating the spatial-temporal structure of turbulent meteorological fields of a surface air layer for subsequent applications in the similarity theory. Besides, the standard algorithm for calculation of structural characteristics of fluctuations of temperature and wind speed used in the ultrasonic anemometers is improved, which provides for considerably lower errors of their measurements.
																								



8.
Factors determining the observed values of the asymmetry coefficients of light fluxes in the atmosphere in the near-IR region

V.V. Pashnev1, V.E. Pavlov2, S.S. Orlov1, Y.Ya. Matyuschenko1
1Altai State University, 656015, Russia, Barnaul, pr. Lenina, 61
2Institute for Water and Environmental Problems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1, Molodezhnaya St., Barnaul, 656038, Altai Krai, Russia
Keywords: инфракрасная область спектра, оптические толщи молекулярного и аэрозольного рассеяния, аэрозольные модели атмосферы, альбедо подстилающей поверхности, уравнение переноса излучения, infrared region of spectrum, optical thickness of molecular and aerosol scattering, aerosol atmospheric model, albedo of underlying surface, the equation of radiation transfer

Abstract >>
This research is a part of the series of works devoted to the study of different factors that influence the phase function of cloudless atmosphere’s brightness: the elongation of aerosol scattering phase function, solar zenith angle, optical thickness, and albedo of underlying surface. The near-infrared region is under the analysis. While calculating the brightness of the cloudless day sky in the solar almucantar, we use the radiation transfer equation. The form of the aerosol phase function is determined by including three types of particles into the atmospheric model: submicroscopic, submicron, and coarse, as well as their mixtures in different proportions. We have received the data for a wavelength of 1.02 μm. The data may be used in atmospheric optics as an additional assessment of asymmetry of the aerosol scattering phase function and in approximate calculations of the flow of scattered solar radiation incoming to Earth’s surface.
																								



9.
Results of investigations of aerosol characteristics in the atmosphere of the Kara and Barents Seas in summer and autumn of 2016

S.A. Terpugova1, P.N. Zenkova1, D.M. Kabanov1, V.V. Pol'kin1, L.P. Golobokova2, M.V. Panchenko1, S.M. Sakerin1, A.P. Lisitzin3, V.P. Shevchenko3, N.V. Politova3, V.S. Kozlov1, T.V. Khodzher2, V.P. Shmargunov1, D.G. Chernov1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Limnological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 664033, Irkutsk, Russia
3P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 36 Nahimovskiy pr., Moscow, 117997, Russia
Keywords: НИС В«Академик Мстислав КелдышВ», морская атмосфера, аэрозоль, микрофизические характеристики, химической состав, аэрозольная оптическая толща, RV “Akademik Mstislav Keldysh”, marine atmosphere, aerosol, microphysical characteristics, chemical composition, aerosol optical depth

Abstract >>
Results of measurements of a complex of aerosol microphysical, chemical, and optical characteristics in two cruises of the research vessel «Akademik Mstislav Keldysh» in 2016 are analyzed. The work was carried out in the Kara Sea from July 10 till August 20 and in the Barents Sea from August 25 till October 10, 2016. The mean values of the following aerosol characteristics are presented: AOD of the atmosphere, fine and coarse components of AOD, number concentration of particles in the near-water layer of the atmosphere, mass concentrations of the absorbing matter («soot»), water-soluble ions (Na+, Mg2+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, NH4+, NO3-, SO42-), and gaseous admixtures (SO2, HCl, HNO3, NH3). The characteristic particle size distribution functions are presented for different regions of the Kara and Barents Seas. It is shown that the levels of both aerosol turbidity of the atmospheric column (AOD) and the concentrations of aerosol and soot in the near-water atmospheric layer were close to the long-term mean values in Arctic latitudes. The atmospheric turbidity during the period of measurements was noticeably affected by emissions of forest fire smokes from the continent. The contribution of smoke aerosol into the mean values of AOD at λ = 0.5 µm obtained from shipborne measurements is about 44%.
																								



10.
Complex assessment of atmospheric air quality in the city of Gelendzhik

A.S. Safatov1, A.P. Agafonov1, M.Yu. Arshinov2, A.M. Baklanov3, B.D. Belan2, G.A. Buryak1, A.V. Fofonov2, V.M. Generalov1, A.S. Kozlov3, N.A. Lapteva1, S.B. Malyshkin3, Yu.V. Marchenko1, S.E. Olkin1, I.K. Reznikova1, A.N. Sergeev1, D.V. Simonenkov2, V.A. Ternovoi1, Yu.V. Tumanov1, V.P. Shmargunov2
1State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology "Vector", Novosibirsk region, Koltsovo, 630559, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
3V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3 Institutskaya str., 3, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: загрязнения воздуха, качество воздуха, химический состав аэрозоля, биологический состав аэрозоля, источники аэрозоля, PM, air pollution, air quality, aerosol chemical composition, aerosol biological composition, aerosols sources, PM

Abstract >>
Atmospheric air quality is determined by the concentrations of some gaseous pollutants and mass concentrations of aerosol particles in different size ranges. A wide range of atmospheric pollutants in both gaseous and aerosol phases was studied in the vicinity of Gelendzhik simultaneously in several sites of the region and at altitudes of up to 2200 m in July 2009. No such complex experiment was conducted there before. The following characteristics of the atmospheric aerosol were studied in the partical size range 3 nm - 32 μm: elemental composition of particles (23 chemical elements) and concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (14 compounds), unsaturated hydrocarbons, total protein, biotoxins, and culturable microorganisms. The concentration fields of different air pollutants and the integrated air pollution index were constructed using mathematical models of pollutant propagation and data on the hydrometeorological conditions during the period of measurements. The sources of aerosols in the region were revealed by studying the chemical composition of the airborne particles. The data obtained allowed us to estimate air pollutants and to calculate air quality indexes for the Gelendzhik area. The daily average concentrations of all the pollutants were compared to the daily average maximum permissible concentrations. All these concentrations were less than appropriate values of daily average maximum permissible concentrations.The integrated air pollution index did not exceed 1. Consequently, the atmosphere in the vicinity of Gelendzhik did not contain any significant pollutants in that period.
																								



11.
Variability of light absorption by yellow substance in surface water of Lake Teletskoy

O.B. Akulova, V.I. Bukatiy, K.P. Popov
Institute for Water and Environmental Problems of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 656038, Barnaul, 1, Molodezhnaya str. IWEP SB RAS
Keywords: показатели поглощения и ослабления света, спектральная прозрачность воды, растворенное органическое вещество, желтое вещество, хлорофилл, взвесь, физическая модель, корреляция, light absorption and attenuation indices, spectral transparency of water, dissolved organic matter, yellow substance, chlorophyll, suspended matter, physical model, correlation

Abstract >>
Experimental data on variability of light absorption by yellow substance in the surface layer of Lake Teletskoye (Gorny Altai) received during field hydrophysical studies carried out in the summer of 2017 are presented. The indices of light absorption by yellow substance calculated in the spectral range 400-800 nm (at natural logarithmic base) are within 0.1-2.1 m-1. The yellow substance concentration in Lake Teletskoye determined by the optical method from the measured light absorption by yellow substance varies from 2.9 to 5.1 g/m3. To assess the effect of light absorption by yellow substance on the total attenuation, the relative spectral contribution of major optically active components of the lake water (yellow substance, suspended matter, chlorophyll, and pure water) to the spectral attenuation index for the water area under study is calculated. It is found that just the yellow substance makes the maximum contribution at all sampling points (21) of the lake.