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ECO journal (ECOnomics and industrial Engineering)

2018 year, number 3

Different Aspects of Poverty Among Families with Children

E. E. Grishina
The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration
Keywords: семьи с детьми, бедность, депривации, социальная исключенность, уровень жизни, Families with children, poverty, deprivation, social exclusion, living standards

Abstract >>
The article analyzes monetary and deprivation poverty of families with children on the data of a household survey conducted by the Institute for Social Analysis and Forecasting RANEPA in 2017. To analyze the risks of various deprivations the multidimensional deprivation index was constructed. In order to analyze the risks of It was shown that large families with children, single families, families with children where parents have low level of education or unemployed face a high risks of monetary and deprivation poverty. It is noted that the risks of deprivation poverty are significantly associated with the risks of monetary poverty. Risks of health deprivation is higher for families with children that include persons with disabilities. Residents of rural areas and small towns have higher risks of housing deprivation. The analysis shows that taking into account of deprivation of applicants for targeted social assistance can help to reduce the inclusion errors and provide the social assistance to the neediest families with children.

Non-Monetary Poverty of the Elderly

P. Kuznetsova
The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration
Keywords: бедность, депривация, пожилые, риски бедности, социальная исключенность, многомерный анализ, Рoverty, deprivation, elderly, poverty risks, social exclusion, multidimensional Analysis

Abstract >>
In this research we estimate non-monetary poverty of the elderly on the data of a representative survey of labor veterans. We consider six areas of deprivation (food, financial welfare, property, housing, health and social integration) as well deprivation in total. Despite the low level of income poverty, senior citizens often have to restrict themselves in food as well as in consumption of medicines and medical services, suffer from a lack of financial support and assistance in everyday life. The risks of nonmonetary poverty increase with the age of respondents, while having a partner, living in a household with a working person, as well as high level of education significantly reduce them significantly.

Poverty of Disabled People and Households

R. R. Khasanova, A. O. Makarentseva
The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration
Keywords: инвалидность, домохозяйство, бедность населения, бедность инвалидов, бедность домохозяйств с инвалидами, Disability, household, poverty of population, poverty of disabled, poverty of households with disabled

Abstract >>
Our findings evidenced that the poverty level of disabled people is remain to be high despite the government policy regarding poverty and disability. Usually, not only disabled people but households with disabled individuals have high level of poverty. If one of the household’s members is disabled, the probability for household to be in the group with the income below poverty line increases dramatically. It is because majority of disabled people (in employable and childhood age groups) are members of households with three and more members. Households with one or two members have lower level of poverty than households with three and more members, particularly, in comparison with households with disabled persons. The probability to be in the group with income below poverty line is 30% for disabled people in employable age from households with three and more members. Often, households with four members have children that increase the probability to be in the group with income below poverty line. The data derived from surveys is shown that the main disadvantage of Russian government policy related to social care for disabled people is almost fully neglecting specific needs of different disabled groups. Existed payments are oriented to individual recipients of social support rather than whole households.

Housing Differentiation in Post-Soviet Russia: the Institutional and Economic Context of the Dynamics of Housing Groups

T. Yu. Cherkashina1,2
1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering SB RAS
2Novosibirsk State University
Keywords: нефинансовые активы, жилищные группы, собственность на жилье, приватизация жилья, жилищная стратификация, Non-financial assets, housing groups, ownership of housing, privatization of housing, housing stratification

Abstract >>
The article presents the dynamics of the number of housing groups in post- Soviet Russia in changing institutional and economic conditions. Information base of research are data of state statistics, Central Bank of the Russian Federation, the The Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE), Сomprehensive monitoring of living conditions (Rosstat, 2014, 2016). In the early stages of privatization of different income groups did not differ on the proportion of households whose members have acquired the status of homeowners, since the beginning of 2000-ies in the low-income group, the share of owners occupied housing is smaller than in the other groups. At the same time recorded in the mid-1990s, the differentiation of income groups according to the possession of other housing assets is maintained for twenty years: among households with high income of owners of second homes in two times more than among the poor. Modern housing stratification of Russian households is a combination of two groups in the middle layer - owners only apartments or houses (70%) and many small groups: “housing minority” of tenants at the bottom of the stratification (10%) and owners of several housing assets in the higher levels (16-17%). To the middle layer can be attributed 1.5% of households living in non-own housing, but owning other housing assets.

Poverty and Wealth: the Perception of Russian Internet Users

S. A. Barkov, O. V. Gavrilenko, A. V. Markeeva, E. A. Sverdlikova
Lomonosov Moscow State University
Keywords: бедность, богатство, бедные, богатые, интернет-пользователи, социальные медиа, сетевые сообщества, инфляция, неравенство, потребление, зарплата, доход, Рoverty, wealth, poor, rich, Internet users, social media, network communities, inflation, inequality, consumption, wages, income

Abstract >>
The article presents the results of the content-analysis of messages in social media about peculiarities of Russian Internet users’ attitude of to the problems of poverty and wealth. Communication in Internet suggests a pragmatic orientation. It’s not a place for discussions of general socio-economic and socio-political problems. Poverty and wealth are perceived through the prism of consumer behavior, in order to find opportunities to meet the needs of people. In Internet communications, there is an obvious negative assessment of poverty, while attitudes toward wealth and rich, towards social differentiation are represented by more neutral assessments. In the forefront of discussions, there is an opportunity to maintain an acceptable standard of living in difficult economic conditions. People share the recipes of survival in the face of a sharp drop in incomes.

In Search of Lost Balance: Between State Regulation and Market Instability

A. V. Alekseev
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering SB RAS
Keywords: экономический рост, производство промышленной продукции, инвестиции, модель экономического развития, денежное стимулирование, государственные программы развития, Еconomic growth, industrial output, investment, economic development model, monetary stimulation, state development programmes

Abstract >>
The article characterizes the existing economic model of the Russian Federation development and proves that the attempts of its upgrade are a dead end. It proves the claim that the main objective of the middle-term development is making national economic system relatively independent of the world economy (regarding critical technologies) and capable to provide national sovereignty. We have come to the conclusion that the Russian economy needs strategic management intensification with the use of market mechanism potential as a counter to the excessive reliance on market methods with unsystematic elements of indicative planning, which can be seen nowadays.

To the Issue of the Russian Railway Transport Management Model Improvement

S. A. Bykadorov1, Ye. B. Kibalov2
1Siberian State Transport University
2Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering SB RAS
Keywords: структурная реформа, ОАО В«РЖДВ», концепция, государственное регулирование, конкуренция, вертикальное расщепление, стратегия двойного назначения, казенная эксплуатация, Транссиб, естественный монополизм, Structural reform, JSCo “RZD”, concept, state regulation, competition, vertical splitting, strategy of a dual purpose, state operation, Trans-Siberian Railway, natural monopolism

Abstract >>
In article Structural reform of railway transport of Russia realized within the last 20 years is synthesized descriptive and standard approaches to the analysis of the large-scale institutional project. Quantitative indices and the qualitative expert judgments testifying to ambiguity of results of long-term reforming are given. The conclusion is drawn that Reform did not lead to transformation of the railways of Russia into an effective remedy of transformation of industrial economy where they were rather effective, in modern high-speed hi-tech transport communication, congruent to the future society of the knowledge, identified today with digital economy. Offers on the content of options of the further reform development and the mechanism of its management are formulated.

Cloudy Mirrors of the Oil Economy

O. S. Anashkin
National Research University “Higher School of Economics”
Keywords: вертикально интегрированная нефтяная компания, отчётность, прозрачность информации, месторождение, Vertically integrated oil company, reporting, transparency of information, Oilfield

Abstract >>
This article considers possibilities of obtaining data needed for analysis of economics results of mining from reports of vertically integrated oil companies. It also describes information contained in some special-purpose data bases. World trends in information disclosure of oil-producing companies are discussed.

Reforms in the Electric Power Industry of Russia in the Context of Energy Law Development

N.S. Simonov
Federal Grid Company (JSC В«FGC UES»)
Keywords: электроэнергетика, электроснабжение, энергетическое право, естественная монополия, рынок электроэнергии, Еlectric power industry, power supply, power law, the great public utilities, electric power market

Abstract >>
The subject of research is the Genesis of the doctrine of electric power supply as one of the sources of energy law. It is proved that the attitude of society to a proprietary form of electricity and energy services is determined by specific historical conditions, and mainly technology generation and transmission of electricity. In the vast historical material with the use of a comparative analysis traces the process of the civil law understanding of the legal regime of electricity supply in the industrial development countries, Russian Empire, USSR and modern Russia. It is concluded that modern technologies, more than ever, contribute to the liberalization of the electric power industry and the creation of a market competition between electricity suppliers.

ICO, as a Modern Method of High-Tech Projects Financing

E. A. Obukhova
Novosibirsk State University
Keywords: криптовалюта, ICO, блокчейн, биткойн, токен, фандрайзинг, инвестиции, SWOT-анализ, Crypto-currency, ICO, blockchain, bitcoin, token, fundraising, investments, SWOTanalysis

Abstract >>
Attraction of investments is one of the most significant stages for management at any phase of the life cycle of a business project. Recently, in addition to traditional fundraising channels, such relatively new ways of attracting financing, such as crowdfunding and initial placement of tokens (ICO - initial coin offering), have become widespread. Most often along this path are the teams involved in the implementation of high-tech projects. The growing interest of investors is fueled by the rapid growth of the rate of crypto-currencies, as well as by the policies of a number of leading countries, supporting circulation of crypto-currencies and transactions with them. This article reviews the world experience of ICO, SWOT-analysis of this mechanism of attracting investments, as well as examples from real economic practice of recent years, illustrating the possibilities and limitations of using this method. Taking into account the analysis, several scenarios for the development of technologies for the creation and use of crypto-currencies have been formulated, and the prospects for the implementation of the ICO, based on their release, have been evaluated.