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Philosophy of Sciences

2018 year, number 1

1.
THE METHODOLOGY OF INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDIES IN THE CONTEXT OF THE В«CONSCIOUSNESS-WORLD» PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEM. PART II

Danila Vladimirovich Malakhov
Institute of Philosophy National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 1, k. 2, Surganov st. 220072, Minsk, Republic of Belarus
Keywords: сознание, интенциональность, ноэзис, ноэма, феноменологическая редукция, эйдетическая редукция, региональные онтологии, актуальные события, метафизика процесса, наблюдатель кванто во-механических процессов, consciousness, intentionality, noesis, noema, phenomenological reduction, eidetic reduction, regional ontologies, actual events, process metaphysics, quantum mechanical observer

Abstract >>
The article deals with the hermeneutical component of the methodology of interdisciplinary studies. We consider the classical noetic-noematic structure of intentionality and reveal the form of its modification with reference to the problem of interaction of consciousness and quantum-mechanical processes in an «osberver’s» figure. Intentionality serves as an ontological and methodological principle of relationship according to which states of quantum systems, active states of consciousness and classical alternatives are mutually defined. We formulate the methodological principle of integral notional configurations of various disciplines which bases on Husserl’s phenomenological philosophy and Whitehead’s process metaphysics.
																								



2.
THE PROBLEM OF ARCHE IN PHILOSOPHY AND THE FUNDAMENTAL THEORY OF PHYSICS

Aleksandr Leontievich Kuish
Institute of Philosophy, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, off. 810, build. 2, 1, Surganov st. 220072, Minsk, Republic of Belarus
Keywords: первоначала, первоэлементы мира, первосущность, теория всего, фундаментальная теория физики, Arche, primary elements of the world, primary substance, the theory of everything, fundamental theory of physics

Abstract >>
The paper studies the philosophical problem of Arche (primary elements of the world) in the context of the fundamental theory of physics.
																								



3.
PHILOSOPHICAL CONCEPTIONS OF LANGUAGE VS. MATHEMATICAL LOGIC IN SEMANTIC TRADITION

Vitaliy Valentinovich Tselishchev1,2
1Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 8, Nikolaev st. 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk National Research State University, 2, Pirogov st. 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: логическая константа, логический атомизм, синтаксис, семантика, логическая форма, logic, semantics, syntax, language, calculus, Russell, Wittgenstein, Carnap, semantic tradition

Abstract >>
In the article, we consider three representatives of the semantic tradition which are committed to varying degrees of the syntactic tendency to treat language as a universal medium. We show that even in their works, semantic tendencies associated with the understanding of language as calculus arise and gain strength. The sequence "Russell-Wittgenstein-Carnap" (here we mean the early Carnap) reflects the historical stages of the formation of the semantic position under the influence of mathematical logic.
																								



4.
BERNOULLI’S THEOREM AND KOLMOGOROV’S REQUEST FOR THE PROXIMITY OF PROBABILITY AND FREQUENCES

Vladimir Moiseevich Reznikov1,2
1Novosibirsk National Research State University, 2, Pirogov st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Institute of Philosophy and Law, SB RAS, 8, Nikolaev st. Novosibirsk, 630090
Keywords: частотная интерпретация, субъективистская интерпретация, теорема Бернулли, близость вероятности и частот, устойчивость частот, принцип Курно, Колмогоров, Мизес, Борель, Фреше, Леви, frequency interpretation, subjectivist interpretation, Bernoulli theorem, proximity of probability and frequencies, stability of frequencies, Cournot principle, Kolmogorov, Mises, Borel, Frechet, Levy

Abstract >>
The famous mathematicians Borel, Levy and others criticized Kolmogorov’s request for the proximity of event probability and its frequency characteristics in the context of applying the probability theory. They believed this request to be redundant, since it is the conclusion of Bernoulli’s theorem. The article shows that within the frequency interpretation, Kolmogorov’s condition is not the conclusion of the theorem, but it is fulfilled as a consequence of frequency stability. In addition, we show that the deduction of Kolmogorov’s request made within the subjectivist interpretation is not justified within the frequency one.
																								



5.
THE EVOLUTION OF THE CONCEPT OF CAUSALITY: FROM DETERMINISM TO CHAOS

Anna Yuryevna Storozhuk
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: причина, детерминизм, нелинейность, хаос, cause, determinism, nonlinearity, chaos

Abstract >>
The article marks out three approaches to understanding causality. Those are determinism which supposes a linear character of causality; nonlinear causality which does not obey the superposition principle and is characterized by attenuation/intensification of consequences; and chaotic causality which obeys certain types of ordering. We trace ontological, epistemological and axiological statuses of causality in various approaches. We state that there is a gradual replacement of the causal paradigm in public consciousness, although the linear deterministic causality paradigm still often remains dominant.
																								



6.
SEMANTIC VIEWS OF D. CHALMERS AND J. PERRY WITHIN THE DISCUSSION OF PHENOMENAL PROPERTIES

Anna Yuryevna Moiseeva
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8, Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: феноменальное свойство, зомби-мир, интенсионал, концепт, возможность, необходимость, мыслимость, phenomenal property, zombie world, intension, concept, possibility, necessity, conceivability

Abstract >>
The article considers the discussion of the ontological status of phenomenal properties (qualia). We analyze arguments for dualism formulated by D. Chalmers who is primarily known as a philosopher of mind, although he has no less important works on the philosophy of language. Also, we consider the answer to Chalmer’s arguments given by J. Perry - the semantician who has recently turned to the theory of the mental. In the discussion, both philosophers explicitly base their arguments on semantic considerations; to examine these considerations is the main task for the present article.
																								



7.
HOW TO MEASURE THE HEIGHT OF A MOUNTAIN? A NOTE ON THE HISTORY OF GEODESY IN ANTIQUITY

Evgeniy Vasilyevich Afonasin1,2
1Novosibirsk National Research State University, 2, Pirogov st. Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Institute of Philosophy and Law, SB RAS, 8, Nikolaev st. Novosibirsk, 630090
Keywords: школа Аристотеля, география, измерение величин в античности, the school of Aristotle, geography, measuring altitudes in antiquity

Abstract >>
The article considers how Spinoza developed his conception of the essence of substance. We show the The article deals with the earliest available evidences of an attempt to make an accurate measurement of heights of mountains which was undertaken by Dicaearchus of Messana, Aristotle’s follower. We discuss not only practical aspects of the measuring procedure, but also a global theoretical task which Dicaearchus set to himself, i.e. his attempt to use these measurements in order to prove the falsity of some theories of the flat Earth.
																								



8.
DERMATOVENEREOLOGY IN ANCIENT INDIA(THE VEDIC PERIOD OF HEALING)

Mikhail Sergeevich Betekhtin1, Vladimir Yurievich Druzhinin2,3, Mikhail Albertovich Subotyalov4,3
1A.I. Evdokimov Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, 20, Delegatskaya st., Moscow, 127473, Russia
2Novosibirsk State Medical University, 52, Krasny av., Novosibirsk, 630091, Russia
3Novosibirsk National Research State University, 2, Pirogov st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
4Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 28, Vilyuyskaya st., Novosibisk, 630126, Russia
Keywords: история науки, дерматовенерология, лепра, Ригведа, Атхарваведа, протонаука, history of science, dermatovenereology, leprosy, the Rigveda, the Atharvaveda, protoscience

Abstract >>
The article deals with poorly known issues of the history of dermatovenereology of the Vedic period in Ancient India. We present information found out in the Vedas, which are fundamental written source of this period. Close attention is paid to the Atharvaveda which contains information about the everyday life of Indians in general, as well as a description of their views on health, disease, pathogens and treatment tools in particular. Valuable information about skin diseases and treating them is contained in hymns of the Atharvaveda. For instance, they notice skin diseases and those of subcutaneous fatty tissue: lepra ( kuṣṭha ), palita , kilasa , apacit , and yaksma . We quote views of various commentators of ancient Indian texts on these diseases and on how they correspond to modern nosologic units. We present information about ancient Indians’ approaches to treating skin diseases by using various means: spells, natural factors, etc. The Atharvaveda contains hymns concerning cosmetic issues (means for intensifying hair growth) and treatment of external injuries. As to sexually transmitted diseases, the Atharvaveda contains no unequivocal information. Nevertheless, when studying ancient Indian texts, we found out hymns which noticed spells and medicinal herbs both for treating and provoking impotence. This information may indirectly refer to treatment of inflammatory diseases of the urogenital tract, including those of infectious etiology. The new information presented in the article enriches the history of medicine and contributes to the formation of a comprehensive picture of the development of global dermatovenereology.
																								



9.
SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL L.V. SHAPOSHNIKOVOI AND ITS METHODOLOGY

Vladislav Georgievich Sokolov
The Unified Scientific Center for Space Thinking Problems, International Center of the Roerichs, 3/5, Maly Znamenskyla., Moscow, 119019, Russia
Keywords: научная школа, Шапошникова, Рерих, космическое мышление, космизм, Живая Этика, метаистория, Космос, культура, методология

Abstract >>
For the first time in science, many aspects are systematically and systematically revealed: the main features of the scientific school are L.V. Shaposhnikova, her methodology, conceptual developments L.V. Shaposhnikova, who represent the structure of her scientific school.
																								



10.
ON WAYS AND METHODS OF CONTROL OF PAID SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES

Polad Shahmali oglu Geidarov
The Institute of Control Systems, National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, 9, Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh st. Baku, Az 1141, Azerbaijan
Keywords: электронная наука, реформы в науке, импакт фактор, индекс цитирования, научный семинар, защита диссертаций, нерецензируемые статьи, electronic science, reforms in science, impact factor, citation index, scientific seminar, presentation of a thesis, non-peer-reviewed articles

Abstract >>
In recent years, the Internet offers services concerning publication of articles in scientific journals for a fee. Such business services appeared because of author’s wish for publishing their works in prestigious journals with high impact factors, as well as for publishing many articles quickly and artificially increasing their personal citation indexes (e.g., the H-index) in this way. Providing such a commercial service does not imply evaluating the quality and scientific level of articles which authors produced. As a result, methods of evaluating scientific works by using citation indexes become dubious. In this paper, we consider some schemes of publishing scientific works for a fee and possible ways of resisting such events. Besides, we analyze how citation indexes may influence publishing scientific works for a fee, as well as what and how effective control methods of disclosing and preventing such events may be. To resist paid publications, we propose to use an expertise system where experts perform their evaluation in the framework of electronic scientific seminar. We consider advantages of electronic scientific seminar as a means of eliminating the very phenomenon of paid publications over other approaches. In addition, we describe the necessary conditions for creating an electronic scientific seminar system and ensuring a high quality decision making basing on expertise.