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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2018 year, number 1

1.
Variations in soot and submicron aerosols in the Moscow region in 2014-2016

V.M. Kopeikin1, A.S. Emilenko1, A.A. Isakov1, O.V. Loskutova2, T.Ya. Ponomareva3
1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky per., 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
2D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Miusskaja ploshhad', 9, 125047, Moscow, Russia
3Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, 11-13, Bol'shoj Predtechenskij per., 123242, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: субмикронный и сажевый аэрозоль, дымовой аэрозоль, массовая концентрация аэрозоля, загрязнение атмосферы, BC and fine aerosol, smoke aerosol, mass concentration of aerosol, pollution of the atmosphere

Abstract >>
The results of measurements of fine aerosol and black carbon mass concentrations in the center of Moscow and at two sites at Zvenigorod Sientific Station (ZSS) in the spring and fall periods of 2014-2016 are presented. The results are compared with the data of comprehensive measurements during 1989-2013. Situations with increased air pollution due to smoke plumes from burning peat bogs in Bryansk region, transport of smokes from forest fires in Siberia, as well as smoke from burning bark beetle affected trees in the forests in Moscow region have been revealed. A significant increase in vehicular traffic near the first measurement point at ZSS, located 150 m away from a road, during past 25 years has resulted in the growth of the aerosol air pollution level by about 2-3 times. At the second point, 1-km distant from the road, the level of air pollution by BC is comparable with that obtained in the 90s of the past century and is lower than in Moscow by about 3 times.
																								



2.
Spatiotemporal variations in atmospheric aerosol optical depth along the route of the 42nd cruise of RV “Akademik Boris Petrov”

S.M. Sakerin, D.M. Kabanov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: аэрозольная оптическая толща, Индийский и Атлантический океаны, aerosol optical depth, Indian and Atlantic Oceans

Abstract >>
Results of expedition studies of the spatiotemporal variations in the aerosol optical depth (AOD) of the atmosphere during the 42nd cruise of RV “Akademik Boris Petrov” along the route from Singapore to Kaliningrad (via Suez Canal) are discussed. It is shown that the highest atmospheric turbidities were observed over the Arabian Sea (due to the outflows of fine-mode aerosol from Hindustan) and the Red Sea (due to the outflows of dust aerosol), where the average AODs in the region 0.5 µm were 0.355 and 0.304, respectively. A considerable aerosol turbidity is also characteristic for the atmosphere in the Strait of Malacca, burdened by aerosol outflows from the direction of Sumatra and Western Malaysia (average AOD is 0.262). Different aerosol content is noted in the neighboring equatorial regions of the Indian Ocean: the average AOD in the middle of the ocean, more remote from the contents, turned out to be a factor of 1.5-2 larger than near Sumatra. All tropical zone of the Indian Ocean is characterized by high values of Ångström selectivity exponent (1.08-1.18), indicating a predominating contribution of fine-mode aerosol to AOD.
																								



3.
Features of diurnal variability of ultrafine aerosol in the atmosphere of the coastal zone of Lake Baikal and the arid zone of Mongolia

A.S. Zayakhanov, G.S. Zhamsueva, I.P. Sungrapova, V.V. Tsydypov
Institute of Physical Material Science of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 670047, Ulan-Ude, 8, Sakhyanovoy str
Keywords: атмосфера, микродисперсная фракция аэрозоля, нуклеационная мода, мода Айткена, atmosphere, ultrafine aerosol, nucleation mode, Aitken mode

Abstract >>
The results of experimental study of ultrafine aerosol characteristics in the Baikal region and Gobi Desert are presented. The comparative analysis of the dispersion composition of atmospheric aerosol in different climate conditions is carried out. It is ascertained that the total content of ultrafine aerosol in the atmosphere of Gobi Desert is significantly lower than in the Baikal atmosphere. In the arid atmosphere, the soil aerosol prevails in the particle size distribution, while in the Lake Baikal region nanometer-size aerosols are additionally represented, which are mainly of anthropogenic and organic origin. Two peaks in the ultrafine aerosol concentration are observed in the daytime and evening hours on the daily curve of the total number concentration. In the morning and daytime hours, the number of nucleation-mode particles increases due to strengthening of breeze circulation, which transports anthropogenic impurities from the lake, and activation of photochemical reactions.
																								



4.
The probability density of fluctuations of focused laser beam scattered radiation in the surface air layer under rain, drizzle, fog

N.A. Vostretsov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: туман, морось, дождь, флуктуации, плотность вероятности, коэффициенты асимметрии и эксцесса, fog, drizzle, rain, fluctuations, probability density, skewness, kurtosis

Abstract >>
The results of experimental studies of the statistical parameters of fluctuations of focused laser beam radiation scattered in rain, drizzle, fog by precipitation particles along a 130 m atmospheric path are considered. The dependences of the probability density on precipitation form, scattering coefficient, and wind speed and its path-normal component are analyzed.
																								



5.
Lidar studies of the thermal regime of the stratosphere over Tomsk during the period 2012-2015

V.N. Marichev, D.A. Bochkovsky
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: лидар, температура, стратосферное потепление, lidar, temperature, stratospheric warming

Abstract >>
The temperature vertical distributions over Tomsk in disturbed and quiet periods of the year over 2012-2015 are analyzed. The experimental material accumulated show some features of the annual dynamics in the thermal regime of the stratosphere. Thus, the winter stratospheric warming occurs annually. During the period specified, there was one strong (major) warmings, in winters 2012/13, when air mass transport in the upper atmosphere changed from the western to the eastern, and three weak (minor) LINK Word.Document.12 "D:\\2017-12\\Маричев_03.03.2017\\Лидарные исследования термического режима стратосферы над Томском за период 2012_ред.docx" "OLE_LINK1" \a \r \* MERGEFORMAT warmings, in winters 2011/12, 2013/14, and 2014/15. Based on long-term observations, it is shown that the temperature vertical distribution for Western Siberia is in a good agreement with the CIRA-86 model distribution in the majority of cases throughout a long period of the year (from April to November).
																								



6.
Lidar observations of optical parameters of the atmosphere during the Sichuan earthquake

A.I. Grishin1, A.V. Kryuchkov1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: землетрясение, атмосфера, лидар, аэрозоль, концентрация, пограничный слой, earthquake, atmosphere, lidar, aerosol concentration, boundary layer

Abstract >>
The results of lidar atmospheric observations during the Sichuan (China) earthquake of 2008 are presented. It is shown that the parameters of the atmosphere substantially transformed during and after the earthquake. The profile of scattering characteristics formed in the lower troposphere differs from the original one, which can serve as one of predictors of the phenomenon.
																								



7.
Turbulent lidar. I. Design

I.A. Rasenkov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: атмосферная турбулентность, усиление обратного рассеяния, лидар, atmospheric turbulence, backscatter amplification effect, lidar

Abstract >>
Two designs of the laser radar system operating on the basis of the backscatter amplification effect (BSA) are suggested. The system is, in fact, a micro-pulse aerosol lidar with two receiving channels, one of which records an increase in the echo signal on the laser beam axis with an increase in the atmospheric turbulence intensity. The BSA effect has place in a narrow spatial region around the laser beam axis; so, the receiver aperture should be small enough. The creation of the turbulent lidar became possible with the advent of compact pulsed lasers with pulse energies lower then mJ and pulse repetition rates of several kHz. The lidar is intended for continuous long-term unattended operation. It is eye safe. Two schemes of the turbulent lidar on the basis of an afocal Mersenne telescope (mirror collimator) are suggested. BSA-2 and BSA-3 turbulent lidars are described. On the basis of Vorob’ev’s approximation for statistically homogeneous turbulent environment, an algorithm is suggested for retrieval of the structure parameter of optical turbulence Cn2 from lidar data.
																								



8.
The algorithm for reconstructing the vertical distribution of sources and sinks of a substance in the atmospheric boundary laye

P.N. Antokhin1, A.V. Penenko2, O.Yu. Antokhina1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 6, Ac. Lavrentieva ave., 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: образование озона, данные самолетного зондирования, обратная задача поиска источников, вариационный подход, регуляризация Тихонова, ozone generation, airborne sensing data, inverse source problem, variational approach, Tikhonov regularization

Abstract >>
An algorithm is suggested for solution of the inverse problem of retrieving the vertical distribution of sources and sinks of a substance (ozone) using a finite number of vertical profiles of its concentration. The inverse problem is solved for the pollutant transport model. Missing information on the time dynamics of the source (sink) is compensated by applying a method based on the Tikhonov regularization. The regularization parameter is found from the solution of the auxiliary inverse problem with the parametric specification of an unknown source. The algorithm developed is tested on both synthetic data and real aircraft measurements. In numerical experiments with real data, the vertical distribution of an ozone source (sinks) in the atmospheric boundary layer and lower troposphere was retrieved.
																								



9.
Monitoring of the vegetation cover of oil fields in Tomsk region on the basis of satellite data

V.P. Dneprovskaya, T.O. Peremitina, I.G. Yashchenko
Institute of Petroleum Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Academichesky ave., Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: окружающая среда, состояние растительного покрова, нефтедобывающие территории, спутниковые данные, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, snow cover, aluminum production

Abstract >>
For timely estimation of the ecological status of inaccessible territories in Tomsk region, a technique is developed for the assessment of vegetation of oil-producing regions on the basis of Landsat-8 satellite images and MODIS products. The methodology suggested includes the analysis of the state of landscape, considers climatic factors and the areas of contaminated lands. Application of this approach made it possible to analyze the state of vegetation cover of inaccessible oil fields in Tomsk region from 2010 to 2016 and to detect the vegetation damage on some oil fields.
																								



10.
Relationships between climate conditions and spatial structure of vegetation in Western Siberia

V.P. Dneprovskaya, I.G. Yashchenko
Institute of Petroleum Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Academichesky ave., Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: геоинформационные системы, геоботаническое зонирование, ландшафтное зонирование территории, типы растительного покрова, климатические изменения, geoinformation systems, geobotanical zoning, landscape zoning, vegetation types, climate change

Abstract >>
The climate conditions and the spatial structure of vegetation in Western Siberia have been comprehensive analyzed. The changes in the climate in this region and in the geobotanical landscape during the past half century have been studied based on meteorological data taking into account the landscape zoning. It is shown that an increase in the annual average temperature results in the reduction of dark coniferous forest and expansion of small-leaved forests and swamps.
																								



11.
Mercury content in needles in the south-western Baikal region

E.E. Lyapina1, E.V. Shvorneva2, N.N. Voropai1,3
1Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave.
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
3The V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography SB RAS, 1, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 664033, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: ртуть, аэрозоли, хвоя, биоиндикация, Прибайкалье, экология, геоэкология, mercury, aerosols, needles, bioindication, Baikal region, ecology, geoecology

Abstract >>
The content of mercury in uneven-age needles of different trees from sites “Mondy”, “Arshan”, and “Tunka", Republic of Buryatia, is studied. Original data on mercury accumulation level and features of its distribution depending on conifer type, age of needles, landscape, and climatic conditions are presented. The Hg concentrations in needles estimated for the territory of Eastern Siberia do not exceed the literature data and are within the limits of average concentrations for Siberia and Russia in general.
																								



12.
Mercury distribution in the environment of mining areas in the Altai Republic (Russia)

D.V. Yusupov1, Yu.V. Robertus2, L.P. Rikhvanov1, R.V. Lyubimov2, E.E. Lyapina3, E.M. Tursunalieva1
1National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
2Institute for Water and Environmental Problems of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 656038, Barnaul, 1, Molodezhnaya str. IWEP SB RAS
3Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave
Keywords: ртуть, золото, амальгама, атмосфера, почва, древесная растительность, Алтай, mercury, gold, amalgam, atmosphere, soil, woody vegetation, Altai

Abstract >>
Mercury content is assessed in the natural environment-in soil, leaves and needles of woody vegetation, and atmospheric and soil air-within the areas of anthropogenic Hg contamination due to mercury and gold mining in river valleys of the Altai Republic, in zones of influence of “Veselyj”, “Aktash”, and “Mayskiy” mines, as well as in the Katun river valley in the segment of hydroelectric power station projected. High Hg concentrations and correlations between them in interfaced components of the environment are revealed. The shares of exchange and related Hg forms in contaminated soil are estimated, as well as the contributions of atmosphere and soil in the Hg assimilation by plants.