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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2017 year, number 6


A. Z. Shvidenko1,2, D. G. Schepaschenko1,3, F. Kraxner1, A. A. Onuchin2
1International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz, 1, Laxenburg, 2361 Austria
2V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
3N. E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Pervaya Institutskaya str., 1, Mytischi, Moscow Oblast, 141005 Russian Federation
Keywords: леса России, изменения климата, управление лесами, устойчивое к рискам лесное хозяйство, Russian forests, climate change, forest management, risk resilient forestry

Abstract >>
The paper contains a short analysis of theoretical and methodological backgrounds of transition to sustainable forest management in Russia (SFM). It is concisely considered the current state of forest management in Russia which is estimated as critical; expected impacts of climate change on the country’s forests; and theoretical and methodological prerequisites, specifics and risks of transition to SFM including 1) concept and general methodological basis of transition to SFM; 2) specifics of the required information; 3) problem of forest protection in conditions of growing risks; 4) strategic prerequisites of adaptation of forests to climate change and their use as a tool of climate change mitigation; and 5) necessity of a harmonized estimation of diversity of resources and other forest ecosystem services within the paradigm of risk resilient forest management. A crucial role of models of different complexity and destination is considered as a basic methodological tool of long-term planning of forest management actions. It is shown that there is no single strategy, which would allow reaching all goals of SFM. The scale of objects within which SFM is implemented might play a crucial role in finding the optimal decisions. Similar to many other countries, Russia is late with consideration and implementation of SFM. The paper is limited by theoretical and methodological questions and does not touch upon managerial, institutional and political problems of the up-to-date forest sector of Russia.

Mapping the holocene forest formations with the use of key climate indicators - heat and moisture

S. K. Farber, V. L. Koshkarova, N. S. Kuzmik
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: периоды голоцена, типы леса, рельеф, климат, закономерности распределения тепла и влаги, картографирование лесных формаций, Holocene periods, forest types, relief, climate, patterns of heat and moisture distribution, mapping of forest formations

Abstract >>
The article deals with the methodology of mapping the Holocene forest formations on the basis of the DEM and the key indicators of the climate - heat and moisture. The work is carried out by means of GIS. The test site is located within the boundaries of the axial West Sayan district of mountain taiga forests, which ensures homogeneity of natural and climatic conditions. Stages of the method: creation of rasters on groups of absolute heights, exposures and inclinations with their subsequent combination into a single Combine raster; obtaining the regularities of spatial distribution of heat and moisture and their representation in the form of rasters (digital models); and interactive mapping of the Holocene forests with various combinations of heat and moisture. The use of Combine raster makes it possible to refuse to use any other contours as - landscape, geomorphological, forest inventory. To determine parameters of climatic boundaries of forest formations, the types of forests are linked to the heat and moisture indicators. As a result of linking, a graphic image is produced, where forest formations and their productivity are located in a certain order. The mapping technique involves creating a dBASE table with a field containing information about forest formations. The row-wise change in the records of forest formations as they move to other values of heat and moisture is performed interactively. Each next combination of heat and moisture on maps corresponds to a certain distribution of forest formations and site productivity (bonitet) classes. (1900 ± 65) years ago the river valleys were treeless, flat meadows occupied meadows, and the slopes were steppes. As the hypsometric level increases, larch stands, spruce-Siberian stone pine with an admixture of larch, Siberian stone pine-larch with an admixture of fir, and the Siberian stone pine formations appear. (2200 ± 100) years ago the tundra prevailed. Larch forests of V-Va classes of bonitet were located in river valleys. (2640 ± 70) years ago, landscapes were similar to modern ones. The differences (today) - the river valleys are treeless, there are no pine forests, the larch belt is higher, the productivity of tree stands is generally higher, distribution of the Siberian stone pine and the Siberian stone pine-larch woodlands is less.


J. Moon1, W. K. Lee1, C. Song1, S. G. Lee1, S. B. Heo1, A. Shvidenko2,3, F. Kraxner2, M. Lamchin1, E. J. Lee4, Y. Zhu1, D. Kim5, G. Cui6
1Korea University, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, East Building, 322, Anamro Seungbukgu, 145, Seoul, 02841 Republic of Korea
2International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz, 1, Laxenburg, 2361 Austria
3V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
4Korea Environment Institute, Bldg B, Sicheong-daero, 370, Sejong-si, 30147 Republic of Korea
5National Research Foundation of Korea, Heonreung-ro, 25, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 06792 Republic of Korea
6Yanbian University, Gongyuan Road, 977, Yanji, Jilin Province, China
Keywords: mid-latitude ecotone, deforestation, land degradation, desertification, climate change, carbon cycle variation

Abstract >>
The mid-latitude zone can be broadly defined as part of the hemisphere between 30°-60° latitude. This zone is home to over 50 % of the world population and encompasses about 36 countries throughout the principal region, which host most of the world’s development and poverty related problems. In reviewing some of the past and current major environmental challenges that parts of mid-latitudes are facing, this study sets the context by limiting the scope of mid-latitude region to that of Northern hemisphere, specifically between 30°-45° latitudes which is related to the warm temperate zone comprising the Mid-Latitude ecotone - a transition belt between the forest zone and southern dry land territories. The ongoing climate change reveals a substantial increase of temperature and simultaneous decrease in the amount of precipitation across vast continental regions in the mid-latitudes. According to climatic predictions, these tendencies will continue during the 21st century, which will likely increase the frequency and severity of droughts and water stress of vegetation. Along with climate change, ongoing land degradation and deforestation are observed in many regions of the mid-latitude region. For example, the Korean peninsula, which is divided into South and North Korea, is characterized by drastically different forest conditions. Deforestation in North Korea has been exacerbating at a noticeable pace due to excessive logging and human intervention. Such problems are not confined to Korean peninsula but are witnessed across vast regions of the mid-latitude region. Within this context - acquiring better understanding in the role of terrestrial ecosystems located at different latitudes is critical - for building resilience against the negative impact of climate change and for maintaining the stability of the environment and landscapes.


V. F. Baginskiy1, N. N. Katkov2, E. A. Uss2
1Francis Skorina Gomel State University, Sovetskaya str., 104, Gomel, 246019 Republic of Belarus
2Forest Planning Unitary Enterprise В«Gomellesproekt», 1st Vstrechnaja str., 35, Gomel, 246027 Republic of Belarus
Keywords: таблицы хода роста, стандартная таблица, сортиментные таблицы, сосна, ель, береза, осина, growth progress tables, standard table, assortment tables, pine, spruce, birch, aspen

Abstract >>
Since 2013, new assortment tables have been adopted in the Republic of Belarus, and since 2015 new growth tables for pine, spruce, birch and aspen. Growth tables were compiled based on 1353 trial plots, where 2546 model trees were taken. New growth tables shows bigger values of forest inventory indicators comparing to modern normative tables: by average diameter, up to 20-30 % in young growth and 6-10 % at older age. The sums of cross-sectional areas and reserves at equal heights in new tables overestimate for pine and spruce for young and middle-aged stands by 6-10 %, and in older ages to 5 %. As a result, the relative abundances of pine and spruce forest stands at the age of 20 to 50 will decrease by approximately 10 %. This will lead to the fact that pine and spruce stands at the age of thinning, having a density of 0.8, will be protected as having a fullness of 0.7, which, in accordance with the rules of cutting the forest in Belarus, will lead to a reduction in thinning in pure stands. 5135 model trees were used for the development of assortment tables. In general, for all tree species, new table tables show a greater yield of commercial timber and valuable assortments comparing to the tables of F. P. Moiseenko by 3-7 %. The amount of large-scale commercial timber is lower according to the new tables than in the old ones. This is due to the decrease in the last 50 years of large trees in the main felling areas.


A. P. Chevychelov, P. I. Sobakin
Institute for Biological Problems of Cryolithozone, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Prospekt Lenina, 41, Yakutsk, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), 677980 Russian Federation
Keywords: почвенно-растительный покров, радионуклиды Cs и Sr, миграция, радиоактивное загрязнение, soil-vegetation cover, Cs and Sr radionuclides , migration, radioactive contamination, Yakutia

Abstract >>
Here, we report studies on content and distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr artificial radionuclides in soil-vegetation cover at «Kraton 3» accidental underground nuclear explosion site. This site is located in the territory of northwestern Yakutia, within the northern taiga subzone of the permafrost-taiga region of eastern Siberia boreal belt. In geomorphological aspect, this object belongs to steep slope of the divide connecting the flood-lands of the Markha River and peneplain of the divide. Sod-carbonate (redzina) soils prevail in soil cover of «Kraton 3» underground nuclear explosion site. This type of soil is typically characterized by a thin soil profile, weak alkaline reaction, heavy granulometric composition, saturated soil-absorbing complex, and drastically decreasing profile distribution of humus. Despite the considerable time after the accident, the radiation situation at the site is still very disturbing. Gamma ray background radiation levels at the site varied from 10 to 200 μR/h, which were 2-25 folds higher than average natural background radiation. The isotope contamination densities in soils of sites interconnected along the drainage were 34-1025 kBq/m2 for 137Cs and 57-781 kBq/m2 for 90Sr, which exceeded 30-1000 times the global fallout levels of these radionuclides. The rates of vertical migration of studied radionuclides were also determined as 0.11-0.84 % (137Cs) and 0.79-1.44 % (90Sr) per year of total radiation contamination density. The minimum vertical migration rates of 137Cs (0.11 %) were observed in leached sod-carbonate soil, while maximum rates (0.84 %) were determined in immature sod-carbonate soil, the profile of which lacks organogenic and humus-accumulative horizons. The migratory capabilities of 137Cs and 90Sr in this soil were very close and made 0.84 and 0.79 % respectively. Migration factors of 137Cs and 90Sr in permafrost soils of the studied area were determined with the use of principal component analysis. This study also revealed that radioactive contamination levels of local vegetation remain considerably high. The concentration of radioactive cesium in plants growing on the site of accidental underground nuclear explosion is 40-5000 times higher than its natural background levels.


N. S. Shikhova
Federal Scientific Center of the East Asia Terrestrial Biodiversity, Russian Academy of Sciences, Far Eastern Branch, Prospekt Stoletiya Vladivostoka, 159, Vladivostok, 690022 Russian Federation
Keywords: арборифлора, геохимическая экология растений, тяжелые металлы, аккумуляция тяжелых металлов растениями, arboriflora, geochemical ecology of plants, heavy metals, accumulation of heavy metals by plants

Abstract >>
The article deals with the submission of data on ecological and geochemical peculiarities of the forest ecosystems, still conserved, which were obtained during vegetation research of the Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula of the Primorsky Krai. For the first time, the species specificity on the heavy metal accumulations has been identified for many Far-Eastern species of the trees, bushes and woody climbing plants (78 species), which participate in the formation of the natural phytocenoses of the South Primorye. The accumulative plant properties to accumulate heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Co, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe) are found out in the different systematic groups and life forms of the plants. The best capacity to concentrate heavy metals (3-9 times more than background level) has been found out at 14 species: Salix udensis Trautv. et Mey. and S. gracilistyla Miq. (Zn, Mn, Cd); Syringa wolfii C. K. Schneid. (Zn, Mn); Lonicera caerulea L. (Co, Cd); Rubus sachalinensis Levl. (Pb, Cd); Populus tremula L., Betula davurica Pall. and B. costata Trautv. (Zn); B. platyphylla Sukacz., Rhododendron mucronulatum Turcz., Aralia elata (Miq.) Seem. and Corylus mandshurica Maxim. (Mn); Euonymus macroptera Rupr. (Co), Alnus hirsuta (Spach) Fisch. ex Rupr. (Cu). The best abilities of the total metal accumulations have been observed at the families as Vitaceae Juss. (Pb, Co, Cd, Cu), Hydrangeaceae Dumort. (Ni, Co, Cd), Rhamnaceae Juss. (Pb, Co, Cd) and Shisandraceae Blume (Pb, Cu). All heavy metal contents, mentioned above, correspond to the local and backgroung levels at Sorbaria sorbifolia (L.) A. Br., minimum content - at Celastrus flagellaris Rupr. liane. Coniferous species have low ability to accumulate most metals and also Juglans mandshurica Maxim., Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr., Tilia amurensis Rupr., Salix caprea L., Ulmus pumila L., Maackia amurensis Rupr. et Maxim., Berberis amurensis Rupr. et al. The background contents of the most metals are registered in Acer mono Maxim., Abelia coreana Nakai, Crataegus maximowiczii C. K. Schneid., Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Ulmus japonica (Rehd.) Sarg., Viburnum burejaeticum Regel et Herd., V. sargentii Koehne. In the region of investigation the plant specificity and soils have been identified basing on the ecological and geochemical criteria. The plant species, which are perspective representatives for monitoring and photo indication in the regional environmental conditions, or close to them, have been proposed.


O. A. Zemlyanukhina, V. N. Kalaev, V. S. Voronina, A. T. Eprintsev
Voronezh State University, Universitetskaya Ploshchad’, 1, Voronezh, 394006 Russian Federation
Keywords: микроклоны, вейгела, ферменты, пролин, адаптация, соле- и медеустойчивость, microclones, weigela, enzymes, proline, adaptation, salt resistance, copper resistance

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Microclones of perennial shrub Weigela florida «Variegata» were prepared, adapted to the conditions of salinity and increased copper ions proportion during the three-step in vitro experiment. The process and the degree of adaptation were studied by determining the concentration of total soluble cell protein, free proline, specific enzyme activities and isozyme spectra of peroxidase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NADH dehydrogenase, isocitrate lyase, malate dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme. In the course of long-term adaptation (120 days, 3 passages), the level of proline in experimental plants is reduced to values below the constitutive parameters in the control. Plants that are grown on copper have the most differences from control ones for changes in enzyme activities and protein content. Malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme behavioral model are most specific during the long-term adaptation to stress as in control and experienced plants. According to the metabolic response adaptation is the multifactorial process. The first factor is the function of enzymes, their participation in various metabolic cycles: CTC (malate dehydrogenase complex), oxidative branch of the pentose-phosphate cycle (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), electron transport chain (NADH dehydrogenase), connection with CTC via glyoxylate with metabolism of glycine and serine (extra-glyoxysomal isocitrate lyase), and antioxidant enzyme peroxidase. The second and fourth factors are the conditions of influence of salt stress and copper stress, respectively. The metabolic responses of the enzymes are dissimilar at different stages of adaptation under the action of stresses of unequal nature. The third factor is the conditions of in vitro cultivation, which affect ontogenetic processes. Thus, in the process of ontogenetic mature in the control plants the activity of NADH dehydrogenase (1.9-fold), isocitrate lyase (5.4-fold) and malate dehydrogenase (12.3-fold) increase, of activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (1.8-fold) and malic enzyme (2-fold) decrease. The activity of peroxidase remains at a constant level. We would like to highlight the idea that specific activities of only two representative enzymes such as isocitrate lyase and glucoso-6-phosphate dehydrogenase are sufficient to determine the processes necessary for normal adaptation of woody plants.


V. V. Ivanov, A. N. Borisov, A. E. Petrenko, D. A. Semenyakin, D. S. Sobachkin, R. S. Sobachkin
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: интенсивное лесовыращивание, рубки, оптимальная густота, конкуренция, доступный ресурс, область доминирования, intensive forest growing, cuttings, optimal stand density, competition, available resource, dominating area

Abstract >>
On permanent sample plots in young, middle-aged and mature, pure pine stands of the same age, the effectiveness of cuttings of different intensities was studied, to ensure intensive forest growing. Existing standards on the intensity of cutting and relative density do not fully provide the optimal parameters of stands after cutting. Meanwhile, the remaining part of the stand determines growth and productivity of the stand formed by the felling. The sample plots have been established in the «Pogorelsky Bor» experimental forest of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS, territorially entering the Krasnoyarsk island forest-steppe. In the studied stands, the felling led to an increase in current radial increment, which depends on the area of the dominance square ( S OD), which determines the amount of available resources for the tree after felling. Based on the analysis of the dynamics of radial growth and its relationship with the values of S OD for pine forest stands at different age stages and with different density, the optimum value of S OD is determined, which provides forming of trees of the 2-3rd Kraft classes of growth. Optimum values of the OD area were calculated depending on the values of the stem DBH and taking into account the habitat conditions. With a density that is lower than optimal, higher tree growth values can be obtained, but this does not mean achieving the maximum productivity of the stand as a whole. The studies allow, within the framework of the proposed approach, to provide intensive forest growing and formation of the stand structure that ensure the fulfillment of both economic and environmental functions of forests. The obtained data can be used in the development of recommendations for carrying out thinning in pine stands at different age stages of their formation.


T. A. Sizonenko
Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Kommunisticheskaya str., 28, Syktyvkar, Komi Republic, 167982 Russian Federation
Keywords: эктомикориза, пихта сибирская, сезонная динамика, флуоресценция, морфоанатомическая структура, дыхание, средняя тайга, ectomycorrhiza, Siberian fir, seasonal dynamics, fluorescence, morpho-anatomic structure, respiration, middle taiga, Komi Republic, Russia

Abstract >>
The aim of our work was to study seasonal dynamics of the Siberian fir Abies sibirica Ledeb. ectomycorrhizal morpho-anatomical structure, respiration rate and fluorescence. The study was carried out in the bilberry-sphagnum spruce forest in the middle taiga of the Komi Republic, Russia. The morpho-anatomical structure and fluorescence parameters were studied by light and luminescence microscopy. Thin root respiration was studied in intact fine roots in the field using an infrared gas analyzer. 12 subtypes of fungal mantels were revealed in ectomycorrhizal fir roots; their amount and composition demonstrated seasonal dynamic changes. At the beginning vegetation stage, the diversity and proportion of pseudoparenchymatous and double covers were maximal. Plant component of ectomycorrhizae that includes cortical parenchyma and stele had high activity of fluorescence during the entire vegetation period. The dynamics of staining of fungal component (fungal mantel and Hartig net) was more contrasting. The highest fluorescence intensity of cortical parenchyma was found in ectomycorrhizae with maximal fungal mantel thickness. High proportion of tannin cells in cortical parenchyma was related with low intensity of fungal mantel and Hartig net fluorescence. During vegetation season, maximal amount of intensively strained ectomycorrhizal elements occurred in July and unstrained - in June and August. Relation between fine roots respiration and an increase of brightly strained ectomycorrhizal structural elements in fir roots was not statistically significant. Root CO2-emission was lower in May and September in comparison with summer months. For respiration rate of fir fine roots we found its strong positive correlation with the litter temperature.


V. A. Karpin, N. V. Petrov, A. V. Tuyunen
Forest Research Institute of the Karelian Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushkinskaya str. 11, Petrozavodsk, Republic of Karelia, 185910 Russian Federation
Keywords: сукцессия, фрагментация лесного покрова, сценарий освоения, агроландшафт, подсека, succession, forest cover fragmentation, land use scenario, agricultural landscape, slash-and-burn clearing

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The process of forest cover regeneration after the cessation of human impact was considered. The study area was situated in the southern part of the Kenozersky National Park, Arkhangelsk Oblast. This area has 500 years of agricultural land use history. The territory features a complete spectrum of land at some point used for agricultural production: from sites currently in active use to fully recovered tree stands aged 120-140 years. The reforestation process was considered separately for each of the following land uses: slash-and-burn, multipurpose small-patch, and arable-grassland types, which differ considerably in impact intensity, duration, and degree of disturbance of the forest environment. The course of forest regeneration successions was found to depend on the type of preceding land use. The time required for the forest communities in slash-and-burn sites to recover to their original state is 120-140 years, and the succession involves the deciduous stage. Multipurpose small-patch use left the forest environment more profoundly modified. Eventually, a majority of these sites are now occupied by more productive, although undistinguishable from the original, coniferous-deciduous stands. Some factors have been detected that may lead to the formation in such sites of low-productivity self-regenerating plant communities dominated by deciduous species, which can persist there for an indefinitely long time unless relevant actions are taken. Arable-grassland land use considerably inhibits the regeneration of the forest cover typical of middle taiga, because there forms a thick sod layer. It was only in some grassland patches, where the impact stopped 5-10 years ago, that coniferous species, namely pine, were successfully regenerating.

Technogenic loads on birch stands in Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe

L. N. Skripal’shchikova1, T. V. Ponomareva1, E. V. Bazhina1, A. P. Barchenkov1, A. V. Belyanin2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Joint Stock Company В«RUSAL Krasnoyarsk Aluminium Plant», Pogranichnikov str., 40, Krasnoyarsk, 660111 Russian Federation
Keywords: березняки разнотравные, техногенные нагрузки, ассимилирующая масса, антропогенно преобразованные почвы, техногенная пыль, валовой фтор, birch stands of herbaceous type, technogenic loadings, assimilating mass, antropogenically transformed soils, technogenic dust, total fluorine, Krasnoyarsk Krai

Abstract >>
Technogenic loadings on stands and soils were established in birch forests of grassy type, of V-VIII age classes in Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe both in buffer zone of Krasnoyarsk city industrial emissions and in background conditions. The study was carried out on monitoring sample plots by established procedures with using certified methods of fluorine concentration determination in leaves and soils in late vegetation season. Quantitative data of technogenic dust accumulation on the surface of birch Betula pendula Roth leaves as well as total fluorine content in assimilating mass were fixed. Technogenic dust accumulation was found to be reduced in comparison with earlier data and that may be connected with decrease of industrial emissions from urban industrial site adjacent to the birch stands. The study of soils in the grassy-type birch stands was new. The soils were characterized as antropogenic-transformed and technogenic-modified because of long-term impact of dusty and gaseous industrial emissions as well as recreational loading. Concentrations of total fluorine in soil horizons were found to be various and characterized as normal, adopted in literature (Tandelov, 2012). The highest concentrations of fluorine were fixed in upper 0-5 cm and lower mineral 10-20 cm soil layers in birch stand of grass-graminea type northeast of the city.