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Journal of Mining Sciences

2017 year, number 6

1.
Enhancement of Coal Bed Degassing by Hydraulic Fracturing

M. V. KURLENY, S. V. SERDYUKOV, A. V. PATUTIN, T. V. SHILOVA
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: угольный пласт, метан, предварительная дегазация, дегазационная скважина, гидроразрыв, герметизация интервала разрыва, скважинная транспортная система, проппант низкой плотности, рабочая жидкость, coal bed, methane, pre-degassing, drainage hole, hydraulic fracturing, fracture interval geometrization, down-hole transport system, low-density proppant, hydraulic fluid

Abstract >>
The article addresses constraints of hydraulic fracturing application to enhancing preliminary degassing of coal beds. Decisions on geometrizing a hole interval by cemented mixture with cross fracture initiator are presented. An original conveying system for equipment in hole and a robotic hydrofracturing device for hard coal roof and floor are developed. The proposed hydraulic fracturing fluid with low-density proppant allows making fractures ensuring high-rate methane flow.
																								



2.
Seismic-Geomechanical Prediction of Water-Impervious Strata State in Potassium Mines

A. A. BARYAKH, I. A. SANFIROV, A. K. FEDOSEEV, A. I. BABKIN, A. A. TSAYUKOV
Mining Institute, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Sibirskaya 78a, Perm, 614007 Russia
Keywords: калийные рудники, водозащитная толща, сейсморазведочные наблюдения, математическое моделирование, напряженно-деформированное состояние, разрушение, potassium mines, water-impervious strata, seismic exploration, mathematical modeling, stress-strain state, failure

Abstract >>
The article describes a safety control system for water-soluble mineral mining in complicated ground conditions. The system is based on geomechanical interpretation of surface and underground seismic monitoring. Mathematical modeling of water-impervious strata takes into account the whole set of mine-technical and geological factors determined from the seismic observations. It is shown that seismic-geomechanical monitoring allows stress state control in waterproof strata, which ensures prompt decision-making on extra protection and minimizes accident risks.
																								



3.
Assessment of Horizontal External Stresses in Vorkuta Mine Field by Seismic Tomography Data

V. N. ZAKHAROV, L. A. NAZAROVA, M. I. PROTASOV, L. A. NAZAROV, A. V. PANOV, A. P. AVERIN
Academician Melnikov Institute of Integrated Mineral Resources Development-IPKON, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: углепородный массив, объемная геомеханическая модель, напряженно-деформированное состояние, 3D томография, обратная задача, коэффициент бокового распора, coal-and-rock mass, 3D geomechanical model, stress-strain state, 3D tomography, inverse problem, lateral earth pressure coefficient

Abstract >>
3D geomechanical model of Vorkuta Mine, Pechora Coal Basin, has been developed and implemented numerically. By the data on dynamic events recorded by stationary seismic stations, tomography of the study object is performed, and velocity of elastic waves is recovered in the illuminated area of the object. The boundary value inverse problem on horizontal external stresses by stress distribution found using empirical relations between elastic wave velocities and stresses determined in the laboratory-scale experiments is formulated and solved.
																								



4.
Stress State of a Coal Pillar in Fully Mechanized Longwall Mining in Dislocation Zone

V. M. SERYAKOV1, S. V. RIB2, V. N. FRYANOV2
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Siberain State Industrial University, ul. Kirova 42, Novokuznetsk, 654007 Russia
Keywords: угольные шахты, геологическое нарушение, механизированный комплекс, монтажная и демонтажная камеры, напряжения, смещения, разрушение, ширина целика, coal mine, dislocation, fully mechanized longwall mining system, assembling and disassembling rooms, stress, displacement, failure, pillar width

Abstract >>
Stress state of rock mass during fully mechanized longwalling in dislocation zone is analyzed. In focus is the variant of crossing the dislocation zone with disassembling the fully mechanized longwall system and its re-assembling in a new room. Stress redistribution in coal and host rocks when heading approaches dislocation and in post-dislocation mining from the new assembling room is determined.
																								



5.
Procedure and Results of Geodynamic Monitoring in Uzelga and Talgan Mining Areas in South Ural

A. A. PANZHIN, A. D. SASHURIN, N. A. PANZHINA, E. YU. EFREMOV
Institute of Mining, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Mamina-Sibiryaka 58, Yekaterinburg, 620075 Russia
Keywords: современная геодинамика, процесс сдвижения, напряженно-деформированное состояние, инструментальный мониторинг, наблюдательная станция, маркшейдерские измерения, modern geodynamics, displacement, stress-strain state, instrumental monitoring, observation station, surveying

Abstract >>
The authors present the procedure and data of many years-long geodynamic monitoring of the ground surface displacements in Uzelga and Talgan mining areas. Despite similar geological conditions, the difference in the types of the protected objects on the ground surface conditions different variants of the procedure for each deposit. Some points of reference surveying network and observation plugs are re-fixed using the satellite data, digital elevation meter and electronic tachometer, and characteristics of trends in modern geodynamic movement induced by a displacement trough are obtained. The results of the implemented geodynamic activity assessment include vectors of general spatial displacements of observation plugs and curves of compression-tensions and shearing strains. It is determined that rock mass deformation has a discrete mosaic pattern. The conclusions are generalized, and the hypotheses are made on the further deformation of the ground surface.
																								



6.
Connection between High Tectonic Stresses and Endogenous Ring Structures

S. B. STAZHEVSKY, G. N. KHAN
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: Земная кора, месторождения полезных ископаемых. тектонические напряжения, деформированное состояние, эндогенные кольцевые структуры, метод дискретных элементов, Earth crust, mineral deposits, tectonic stresses, deformation state, endogenous ring structures, discrete element method

Abstract >>
At mineral deposits and in the intercontinental areas of the Earth, subhorizontal tectonic compression stresses are anomalously high. Many mineral deposits occur within subsurface ring-shaped morpho-formations. The authors solve the problem on stress state in a ring structure at representative stages of its evolution. It is shown that sublateral compression in the ring structure, in particular, at mineable depths, is very heterogeneous, unstable and can considerably exceed stresses due to overburden rock mass weight. The calculated results are compared with the laboratory and in situ data.
																								



7.
Modeling Deformation Wave in Rock Mass near Deep-Level Tunne

QI CHENGZHI1, CHEN HAOXIANG2, CHANYSHEV ANVAR3,4, QI JILIN1, WU WEI5
1Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing, 100044 China
2Defense Engineering Institute, Nanjing, 210007 P R China
3Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management, ul. Kamenskaya 56, Novosibirsk 630099 Russia
4Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
5University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria
Keywords: деформационная волна, непрерывный фазовый переход, потенциальная энергия Гинзбурга - Ландау, вариационный принцип Гамильтона, deformation wave, continuous phase transition, the Ginzburg-Landau potential energy, Hamiltonian variational principle

Abstract >>
In this paper deformation wave is studied on the basis of continuous phase transition theory. Relative shear strain is taken as an order parameter. The potential energy is obtained by analogy with the Ginzburg-Landau expansion of free energy. Hamilton’s variational principle is used to obtain the motion equation by which several types of deformation waves can be modeled. The results show that the proposed model is effective in modeling deformation waves.
																								



8.
A New Approach to Determining Multi-State Hydraulic Fracture Size by Well Production Data

Q. ZHOU, A. B. ZOLOTUKHIN, A. T. GAYUBOV
Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Leninskii pr. 65, Moscow, 119991 Russia
Keywords: горизонтальная скважина, многоступенчатый гидроразрыв пласта, размеры трещин, анализ промысловых данных, horizontal hole, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, fracture size, field data analysis

Abstract >>
The authors offer a simplified two-zone model to describe fluid flow in steady-state horizontal holes with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing and present the analytical solution in order to calculate sizes of hydrofractures. The new procedure to determine size of multi-stage hydrofractures in horizontal holes is tested using field data on China deposits. The calculation results prove the efficiency of the procedure in the determination of steady-state conditions. The procedure can be used in optimization of hydraulic fracturing.
																								



9.
Energy-Based Volumetric Rock Destruction Criterion in the Rotary-Percussion Drilling Technology Improvement

V. N. OPARIN, V. V. TIMONIN, V. N. KARPOV, B. N. SMOLYANITSKY
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: ударно-вращательное бурение, энергетический критерий объемного разрушения горных пород, нелинейные геомеханические процессы, напряженно-деформированное состояние, буровые установки, энергоэффективность, призабойная зона скважин, физико-механические свойства, фактор топологической связности, rotary-percussion drilling, energy-based volumetric rock destruction criterion, nonlinear geomechanical processes, stress state, drilling units, energy efficiency, bottom-hole zone, physical properties, topological connection factor

Abstract >>
Efficiency of energy-based criterion of volumetric rock destruction in estimation of drilling technology is theoretically validated and experimentally proved in in-situ rotary-percussion drilling in mines in Russia. The criterion is adapted to the performance of various drilling units by means of introduction of empirical coefficients for transformation of drilling energy intake to the relevant energy characteristics of stress rock fracture in face zone. The mathematical description of the criterion of minimum energy intake of rotary-percussion drilling depending on stress state and physical properties of rocks, and on force of rotary-feed mechanism is presented. The authors introduce a new geomechanical notion-factor of topological connection of rocks and give its analytical expression using experimental uniaxial compression and uniaxial tension strength of rocks, required in the design and improvement of rotary-percussion drilling in different geological and geotechnical conditions of mining.
																								



10.
Enhancing Efficiency of Rock Drilling Tool in Permafrost

N. G. TIMOFEEV, R. M. SKRYABIN, B. V. YAKOVLEV
Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University, ul. Kulakovskogo 50, Yakutsk, 677000 Russia
Keywords: бурение, скважина, мерзлые породы, буровой снаряд, шнек, температура, породоразрушающий инструмент, теплообмен, оттайка породы, drilling, hole, permafrost, drilling assembly, auger, temperature, drill bit, heat exchange, permafrost thaw

Abstract >>
The article addresses the issue of development of a large-diameter (from 500 m and more) rotary drill tool (drill bit) for exploration of placers in permafrost. It is shown that at the contact of drill bits and bottomhole, permafrost thaw takes place with the further adhesion and congelation of the drill tool and hole walls, which degrades coring. The dependence of heat emission at bottomhole on cutter configuration radius on drill bit is determined. The developed design of a drill bit ensures efficient destruction of bottomhole with minimized heat emission, and a prototype drilling assembly is manufactured for large-diameter rotary drilling. The in situ test data are presented.
																								



11.
Influence of Soil Plug on Impact Pipe Driving Process

N. I. ALEKSANDROVA
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: сухое трение, импульсное нагружение, нелинейная динамика, численное моделирование, аналитическое решение, dry friction, impulsive loading, nonlinear dynamics, numerical modeling, analytical solution

Abstract >>
Different modes of advance of a driven pipe with a soil plug under rectangular impulse are investigated numerically and analytically with regard to dry friction between the pipe and plug and between the pipe and external stationary medium. The two model solutions are compared with and without regard to the pipe and plug elasticity. It is shown that elasticity of the pipe and plug is neglectable in case of a long-duration impulse.
																								



12.
Experimental Estimate of Capacities of Shallow Hydraulic Fracturing with Proppant Made of Aluminosilicate Microspheres in Oil Reservoirs

T. V. SHILOVA, M. V. KURLENYA, S. V. SERDYUKOV
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: тяжелые нефти, термошахтная разработка, локальный гидроразрыв, трещина, проппант, алюмосиликатные микросферы, проводимость, кислотная обработка, проницаемость, heavy oil, thermal recovery, local hydrofracture, proppant, aluminosilicate microspheres, capacity, acid treatment, permeability

Abstract >>
The authors describe laboratory tests of hydraulic fracturing with proppant made of aluminosilicate microspheres ASPM-500 in combination with acid treatment for shallow fracking in thermal recovery of heavy oil. It is illustrated that application of aluminosilicate microspheres to local fracturing of rocks is a promising line of development of hydraulic fracturing technologies.
																								



13.
Economic Expediency of Copper Ore Mining in the West Wing of Oktyabrsky Deposit with Dirt Fill of Secondary Stopes

V. A. USKOV, S. A. KONDRAT’EV, S. A. NEVEROV
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: камерная система разработки с закладкой выработанного пространства, камерно-целиковый порядок отработки, себестоимость добычи и переработки медистой руды, удельная прибыль, Октябрьское месторождение, cut-and-fill method, room-and-pillar mining, cupriferous ore mining and processing cost, profit per unit, Oktyabrsky deposit

Abstract >>
It has been found to be economically expedient to develop the west wing reserves of Oktyabrsky Mine by cut-and-fill method with cemented backfill of primary stopes and dirt fill of secondary stopes. This method shows better performance in terms of ore loss and dilution as compared with the current mining system at the same quality of ore produced. Feasibility study of the two variants of process design in the full cycle of mining, processing and recovery of primary metal (nickel) and associated metals (copper, platinum, etc.) shows that the proposed mining system allows higher profit per unit of ore mining and processing.
																								



14.
Improvement of Technology for Roadway Support in Artemevsk Mine of Vostoktsvetmet

L. A. KRUPNIK1, YU. N. SHAPOSHNIK2, D. A. SHOKAREV3, S. N. SHAPOSHNIK4, A. I. KONURIN2
1Kazakh National Research Technical University, ul. Satpaeva 22, Almaty, 050013 Kazakhstan
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
3Expert PRO, ul. A. Protozanova 47, Ust-Kamenogorsk, 070004 Kazakhstan
4Serikbaev East-Kazakhstan State Technical University, ul. Serikbaeva 19, Ust-Kamenogorsk, 070000 Kazakhstan
Keywords: устойчивость горных пород, крепи горных выработок, металлическая рамная крепь, усиленная комбинированная крепь с армокаркасами, rock mass stability, mine support, steel frame support, combined support

Abstract >>
The state of mining in Artemevsk Mine is analyzed, and the current and recommendable support designs are described. In unstable rock mass, it is possible to replace heavy and laborious steel frame support by less expensive and lower labor-intensive fiber-reinforced shotcrete lining with surface support without reduction in load-bearing capacity of the support. The variants of arrangement of shotcrete production plant are discussed, and the economic efficiency of the proposed dry-mix shotcreting is calculated in terms of Artemevsk Mine.
																								



15.
Predicting Variation in Volume Density of Titano-Magnetite Ore with Depth at Gusevogorsky Deposit, Middle Ural

V. D. KANTEMIROV, A. M. YAKOVLEV, R. S. TITOV
Institute of Mining, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Mamina-Sibiryaka 58, Yekaterinburg, 620075 Russia
Keywords: титаномагнетитовая руда, объемный вес, керн, отбор проб, инструментальные измерения, статистическая обработка данных, блочное моделирование, titano-magnetite ore, volume desnity, core, sampling, instrumental measurementrs, statsitsical data processing, block modeling

Abstract >>
The investigation in volume density of titano-magnetite ore of the North orebody of Gusevogorsky Deposit is reported. It is found that the volume density is interconnected with the iron content of ore. Based on the block modeling, the authors predict variation in the volume density and total iron content for deep level ore in Northern open pit mine of EVRAZ KGOK. The prediction data are applicable in geological and process designs.
																								



16.
Effect of Tannin on Compound Collector Adsorption and Stibnite and Arsenopyrite Flotation from Complex Ore

T. N. MATVEEVA, N. K. GROMOVA, L. B. LANTSOVA
Academician Melnikov Institute of Integrated Mineral Resources Development-IPKON, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: стибнит, арсенопирит, флотация, модифицированный диэтилдитиокарбамат, таннин, stibnite, arsenopyrite, flotation, modified diethyl dithiocarbamate, tannin

Abstract >>
Using the scanned laser microscopy, the authors obtain new experimental data on the influence exerted by a phytomodifier represented by tannin on adsorption of a compound collector represented by modified sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate at arsenopyrite and stibnite, which allows substantiating the method of selective production of antimonic concentrate from complex gold-bearing arsenide ore by new reagents and enables optimized selection of reagent regimes.
																								



17.
Collectability and Selectivity of Physical Adsorption of Carbonic Acids during Flotation

S. A. KONDRAT’EV, I. I. BAKSHEEVA, D. V. SEM’YANOVA
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: флотация, карбоновые кислоты, химическая и физическая формы сорбции, поверхностное давление, flotation, carbonic acids, chemical and physical types of adsorption, surface pressure

Abstract >>
The collecting ability of desorbable species (DS-species) of carbonic acids is analyzed. The spreading velocity and surface pressure of some fat acids are correlated with their collectability. It is found that an increase in the hydrocarbon chain length to a certain limit results in the higher collectability of carbonic aids, which correlates with the high spreading velocity of derivants of the acids on water surface. The cause of reduction in the collecting ability of short-chain collectors is discovered. It is shown that an adequate criterion of fat acid collectability can be the surface flow thickness of the agent’s DS-species film. The flotation performance with the mixed chemisorptions and physisorption coat and with the coat represented by chemical adsorption is estimated. The causes of the decrease in the valuable component recovery and in the concentrate quality without the physical form of reagent adsorption at a mineral surface are revealed.
																								



18.
Comparative Analysis of Sequential Leaching Procedures for Dissociation of Rare Earth Elements in Gold-Bearing Material

N. F. USMANOVA1,2, V. I. BRAGIN1,2, A. M. ZHIZHAEV1, E. N. MERKULOVA1, G. N. BONDARENKO1
1Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Akademgorodok 50, Bld. 24, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia
2Siberian Federal University, pr. Svobodnyi 79, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
Keywords: последовательное выщелачивание, редкоземельные элементы, монацит, гипергенез, кора выветривания, sequential leaching, rare earth elements, monazite, hypergenesis, residuum

Abstract >>
The article describes sequential leaching of gold-bearing ore of the residuum. The interconnection between rare earth elements and their mineral matrix is defined. The mobility of REE in the initial ore and during hypergenesis is assessed. Two kinds of REE are revealed: fine monazite cerium-neodymium crusts in iron-bearing minerals and dense monazite pockets in titanium-bearing minerals. The five-stage sequential leaching procedure allows more detailed distribution of elements in the rebellious matrix while the three-stage procedure focuses on mobile forms.
																								



19.
Magnetic Parameters of Separation Products and Impurity Aggregates in Concentrates

E. K. YAKUBAILIK1, I. M. GANZHENKO2, A. D. BALAEV1, P. YU. BUTOV2
1Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok 50, Bld. 38, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia
2EVRAZRUDA, Kondomskoe shosse 39, Novokuznetsk, 654018 Russia
Keywords: технологическая схема обогащения, мокрая лабораторная сепарация, засоренность концентрата, магнитные характеристики продуктов, processing circuit, wet laboratory separation, concentrate impurity, magnetic characteristics

Abstract >>
The change in separation performance and in magnetic characteristics of separation products is traced along the processing circuit of Abagur plant at a laboratory scale in order to determine the limit content of magnetite iron in impurity aggregates in the concentrate. The wet magnetic analysis is carried out in the field of H = 175 kA/m, and the magnetic characteristics are determined in the vibration magnetic detector in the field up to 800 kA/m. The concentrate impurity is governed by the relative content of barren rock and ore aggregates removable in concentration at the given level of the technology.
																								



20.
Experimental Research of Formation of Pay Section in Gold Mining Waste

V. S. ALEKSEEV, P. P. SAS, R. S. SERY
Institute of Mining, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Turgeneva 51, Khabarovsk, 680000 Russia
Keywords: техногенные россыпи, криогенные процессы, суффозия, фильтрационные потоки, миграция частиц золота, формирование продуктивного пласта, mining waste, freeze-and-thaw processes, suffusion, seepage flow, gold migration, pay section formation

Abstract >>
Underestimation of raw material reserves contained in gold mining waste dumps results in tense socio-economic situation in gold mining regions. Efficient management of gold mine waste is only possible with the new and sound technologies of waste preparation and deep conversion with a view to recovering valuable components. Aimed at creation of such technology, the large-scale theoretical and experimental research has been undertaken in order to study the nature and rate of influence exerted by basic process factors on migration and concentration of gold particles in gold mine waste.
																								



21.
Test Bench for the Analysis of Complex Stress Evolution in Geomaterials under Weak Dynamic Loads

V. P. KOSYKH, P. V. KOSYKH, A. F. REVUZHENKO
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: кручение, сжатие, механические свойства геоматериалов, испытание образцов, динамические нагрузки, напряженно-деформированное состояние, torsion, compression, mechanical properties, geomaterials, testing, dynamic loads, stress-strain state

Abstract >>
The test bench has been designed to subject specimens of geomaterials to loading by torsion and longitudinal compression with the simultaneous multiple weak impacting. The measurement system contains sensors for static and dynamic measurements of strains. The tests experiments included cyclic torsion of mixed gypsum and quartz sand specimen. The static and dynamic strains were measured, and the velocity of elastic wave in organic glass was determined.
																								



22.
Instrumentation System for Synchronous Recording of EME and Mechanical Deformation Parameters in Lab-Scale Tests of Rock Specimens

A. G. VOSTRETSOV1,2, G. I. KULAKOV1, A. A. BIZYAEV1,2, G. E. YAKOVITSKAYA1
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Novosibirsk State Technical University, pr. Marksa 20, Novosibirsk, 630073 Russia
Keywords: разрушение, электромагнитное излучение, нагрузка, деформация, прогноз, нелинейность, квазирезонансный процесс, спектральные характеристики, горные породы, failure, electromagnetic emission, loading, deformation, prediction, nonlinearity, quasi-resonance process, spectrum, rocks

Abstract >>
The article describes the instrumentation system designed for the synchronous recording of electromechanical emission and mechanical deformation parameters in lab-scale tests of rock specimens. Based on the data of implemented tests, the change in the structure and spectrum of EME signals at the pre-discontinuity stage in rocks is determined, and the failure prediction criteria are proposed.