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Journal of Mining Sciences

2017 year, number 5

1.
Probable Effect of Secondary Subsidence of Main Roof on Outburst Hazard in Coal Beds under Decomposition of Gas Hydrates

V. V. DYRDIN1, V. N. OPARIN2, A. A. FOFANOV1, V. G. SMIRNOV1, T. L. KIM1
1Gorbachev Kuzbass State Technical University, ul. Vesennyaya 28, Kemerovo, 650000 Russia
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: газодинамические явления, вторичные осадки, зона дезинтеграции, "газовый мешок", газогидраты метана, выбросоопасность, низкочастотные колебания, температура, давление, моделирование, gas-dynamic events, secondary subsidence, disintegration zone, gas pocket, methane gas hydrates, outburst hazard, low-frequency vibrations, temperature, pressure, modeling

Abstract >>
The article presents physical modeling of geomechanical processes in outer zones of coal beds with the main roof caveable with difficulty. The scope of the modeling embrace the effect exerted on gas release by gas temperature and pressure variation during stage-wise outlet of gas from a pressure bomb, which simulates cyclical mechanical impact on a coal bed in the zones of a gas pocket. It is found that the low-frequency (2.0-4.5 Hz) attenuating vibrations generated in the main roof can induce both secondary rock mass disintegration as well as methane desorption and decomposition of gas hydrates (if present) accompanied by an increases in gas pressure and in number of gas-dynamic events in outer zones of coal beds.
																								



2.
Enclosing Rock and Support Interaction during Mining

V. E. MIRENKOV
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: выработка, очистные работы, напряжения, смещения, накопление повреждений, разрушение, вес пород, крепление, процесс взаимодействия, underground opening, stoping, stresses, displacements, damage accumulation, fracture, overlying rock weight, support, interaction process

Abstract >>
The author proposes a new analytical approach to the description of statics, kinematics and dynamics of interaction between mine support and enclosing rock mass in the course of stoping. Inclusion of the static component suggests the classical construction of a probable line of fracture. The kinematic aspect means accounting for the influence of the overlying rock weight on the process of failure. The dynamics of failure during growth of mined-out area is illustrated in terms of a unit event of production heading advance. These components of the damage accumulation process in rock mass allow more accurate monitoring of destructions due to rock pressure.
																								



3.
Acoustic Emission Spectrum and Failure Prediction in Loaded Coal Specimens

V. L. SHKURATNIK1, P. V. NIKOLENKO1, A. E. KOSHELEV2
1Academician Melnikov Institute of Integrated Mineral Resources, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
2Gazprom geotekhnologii, ul. Stroitelei 8, Moscow, 119311
Keywords: каменный уголь, акустическая эмиссия, образец, спектр, одно- и трехосное нагружение, Кузнецкий угольный бассейн, Печерский угольный бассейн, mineral coal, acoustic emission, specimen, spectrum, uniaxial and triaxial loading, Kuznetsk and Pechora Coal Basins

Abstract >>
Mechanisms of change in the spectra of acoustic emission in specimens of mineral coal from Kuznetsk and Pechora Basins are experimentally determined in uniaxial and triaxial (Karman scheme) compression tests. It is shown that at the pre-failure stage in a specimen under uniaxial compression, the spectrum pattern of acoustic emission changes considerably, the amplitudes of low frequencies grow while the amplitudes of high frequencies reduce. Under the Karman scheme loading of specimens, the amplitudes of the low-frequency signals grow without the decrease in the high-frequency amplitudes, which is connected with the prevented opening of fractures under the influence of the hydrostatic pressure in the horizontal plane.
																								



4.
Features of Pendulum Waves under Deep-Seated Charge Blasting in Blocky Rock Mass

N. I. ALEKSANDROVA
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: заглубленная полость, блочная среда, полупространство, волновое движение, волна Рэлея, численное моделирование, deep-seated cavity, blocky medium, half-space, advancing wave, Raleigh wave, numerical modeling

Abstract >>
The object of the numerical study is the travel of pendulum waves in a blocky medium under nonstationary impact of deep-seated charge blasting on the surface of the expansion chamber. The blocky model is simulated by a two-dimensional lattice of masses connected by elastic springs along the axes and diagonals. The displacements and velocities of the masses at different half-space points are calculated using the finite-difference method.
																								



5.
Strength of Anisotropic Rocks under Axial Compression and Lateral Pressure

A. M. KOVRIZHNYKH, O. M. USOL’TSEVA, S. A. KOVRIZHNYKH, P. A. TSOI, V. N. SEMENOV
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: анизотропия, слоистость, трещиноватость, предел прочности, разрушение горных пород, anisotropy, bedding, jointing, ultimate strength, rock failure

Abstract >>
The article describes the theoretical and experimental research into the strength of cylindrical specimens made of layered and anisotropic geomaterials exposed to axial compression and lateral pressure. The tests used INSTRON 8802 versatile servohydraulic fatigue testing system. The experimental results are the relationships between the ultimate strength and bedding angle in specimens of an artificial material, meta-siltstone and shale. The experimental data agree well with the theoretical calculations.
																								



6.
Characteristics and Problems of Rock Fracturing by Fluids

N. G. KYU
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: Флюидоразрыв, концентраторы напряжений, хрупкое разрушение, герметизация скважин, нагнетание флюида, поперечный и продольный разрывы, пластичные вещества, управление флюидоразрывом, fracturing by fluid, stress raisers, brittle fracture, hole sealing, fluid injection, lateral and transverse fractures, plastic substances, fluid fracturing control

Abstract >>
Fracturing efficiency of fluids in specific mining processes depends on reliability of data on structure and state of rocks, on pre-setting the location of fracturing origin, on choice of a fluid and its injection regime, as well as on the accepted engineering solutions. Fracturing by fluids are the processes that alter properties, structure, composition and state of rocks. Investigation of such processes offers a deeper insight into the multi-phase media (earth crust) and promotes advancement in nonconventional mining technologies.
																								



7.
Effect of Powered Closure Stability of Elastic Valve on Efficiency of Air Hammer Drills

V. V. CHERVOV, I. V. TISHCHENKO
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: пневмомолот, упругий клапан, давление воздуха, объем камеры, зазор, ход ударника, диаметр камеры, air hammer drill, elastic valve, air pressure, hammer volume, clearance, hammering unit travel, chamber diameter

Abstract >>
In focus of the studies is the influence exerted by the radial displacement of the hammering unit on the air distribution in the air hammer drill with the ring-shape elastic valve. The minimal allowable volume of the backstroke chamber at the frontmost position of the hammering unit when it contacts the anvil is calculated with regard to the limited maximum pressure in the impact stroke chamber at the moment of the blow. In the capacity of the air hammer drill efficiency criterion, it is suggested to use the length of the powered closure of the elastic valve, that compensates rotation of the hammering unit in the body when the radial clearance between these parts grows. The parameters of the air distribution system are estimated for all sizes of air hammer drills with the ring-shaped elastic valves.
																								



8.
Procedure, Algorithm and Program for Selecting Basic Parameters of Hydraulic Hammering Systems

L. V. GORODILOV, D. V. VAGIN, T. B. RASPUTINA
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: гидроударная система, критерии подобия, характеристики предельных циклов, графический интерфейс, hydraulic hammering system, similarity criteria, limit cycle characteristics, graphical interface

Abstract >>
The article presents the procedure and algorithm for selecting basic characteristics of a positive-displacement hydraulic hammering system. The procedure is based on the dimensional analysis of equations of the system, selected similarity criteria and calculations of output characteristics in the space of the similarity criteria. The program offers a user the options of setting initial parameters and characteristics of hydraulic impact systems in the form of values and constraints and, then, table values for the dimensionless characteristics to be inserted in the similarity formulas for the selection of a hydraulic impact system. For a selected system, geometry of the hammer head is calculated. The Java-based program has a graphical multi-window interface, including menu, toolbox, windows for setting parameters, and limitations, input of source data and calculated data, computation of hammer head sizes and output of plotted dynamic characteristics of limit cycles of the hydraulic system.
																								



9.
Mechanisms and Causes of Methane Explosions in Highly Productive Coal Mines

M. V. KURLENYA, V. A. SKRITSKY
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: угольный пласт, горное давление, вентиляция выработок, самовозгорание угля, взрыв метана, безопасность горных работ, coal bed, rock pressure, mine ventilation, coal self-ignition, methane explosion, mining safety

Abstract >>
The review of accidents connected with explosions in gently dipping and inclined coal bed mining with mechanized equipment is presented. It is shown that the most probable cause of the explosions is inflammation of methane-and-air mixture induced by the sources of coal self-ignition in mines. The explosion wave brings burning gas in the production heading and adjacent tunnels and causes blasting of coal dust. The mechanism of coal self-ignition in edge areas in inter-panel pillars exposed to high rock pressure is described.
																								



10.
Specificity of Iron Ore Mining in Gornaya Shoria

A. A. EREMENKO1,2, V. N. FILIPPOV1, S. M. NIKITENKO3, E. A. KHRISTOLYUBOV4
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Gorbachev Kuzbass State Technical University, ul. Vesennyaya 28, Kemerovo, 650000 Russia
3Institue of Coal, Federal Research Center of Coal and Coal Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Sovetskii pr. 18, Kemerovo, 650000 Russia
4Gornaya Shoria Division, EVRAZRUDA, ul. Lenina 21, Tashtagol, 652970 Russia
Keywords: руда, участок, геодинамические явления, горная порода, технология, система разработки, шахта, себестоимость, конкурентноспособность, ore, area, geodynamic event, rock, technology, mining system, mine, cost, competitve ability

Abstract >>
The complicated geology and geomechanics in Tashtagol, Sheregesh and Kaz mines induce geodynamic events during transition to deeper level mining. Mining advance from the higher stress concentration areas from the hanging wall of a fault towards the lower stress concentration areas contributes to the reduction in rockburst hazard. The use of the self-propelled equipment allows higher volume of preparatory driving per 1000 t of ore production by 10-20% as compared with the portable equipment. The mechanism of rock mass movements in deeper level stoping is revealed. High mining depth and high strength of enclosing rocks are favorable for starting extraction of ore reserves left in pillars. The combination of these factors and the efficient mining system design enable mining of blind ore bodies without backfill and allows extraction of ore reserves from pillars under the rivers and ground surface infrastructure.
																								



11.
Technology and Ecology of Dumping at Open Pit Mines in Kuzbass

V. I. CHESKIDOV, A. S. BOBYL'SKY
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: разрезы, отвалообразование, вскрышные породы, внутренние и внешние отвалы, гидроотвалы, технологические схемы, экологическая безопасность, open pit mines, dumping, overburden, extrenal and internal dumps, hydraulic fills, process flow charts, environmental safety

Abstract >>
The methods and means of dumping overburden at open pit coal mines in Kuzbass are reviewed. Specific features of dumping are highlighted, and the dependence of dump stability on geological conditions and physical properties of overburden is determined. The priority lines of development in the dumping technology are aimed at efficient utilization of mined-out areas in open pits and idle hydraulic fills. The issues of the environmental safety of dumping are addressed.
																								



12.
Effect of Integrated Energy Impacts on Intensified Leaching of Zirconium and Rare Earth Elements from Eudialyte Concentrate

V. A. CHANTURIA, V. G. MINENKO, A. L. SAMUSEV, E. L. CHANTURIA, E. V. KOPORULINA
Academician Melnikov Institute of Integrated Mineral Resources, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: эвдиалит, кислотное выщелачивание, цирконий, редкоземельные элементы, энергетические воздействия, eudialyte, acid leaching, zirconium, rare earth elements, energy impacts

Abstract >>
The article gives testing data on the effect exerted by energy impacts (ultrasonic, electrochemical and thermal) on the recovery of zirconium and rare earth elements from eudialyte concentrate to pregnant solution by acid leaching. An original installation is developed for the implementation of leaching. Based on the research findings on the kinetics of acid leaching of eudialyte concentrate and on the change in the concentrate micro-structure and phase composition, the mechanism of the influence of integrated energy impacts on the efficiency of recovery of zirconium and rare earths in pregnant solution is substantiated.
																								



13.
Experimental Investigation of Change in the Contrast between Flotation Properties of Calcic Minerals

V. A. IGNATKINA
National University of Science and Technology, Leninskii pr. 4, Moscow, 119049 Russia
Keywords: флотация, кальцит, шеелит, контрастность, сочетание собирателей, смачиваемость, мицеллобразование, водородные связи, Flotation, calcite, scheelite, contrast, combination of collectors, wettability, micelle formation, hydrogen bridges

Abstract >>
The interaction of fatty acid sodium oleate collector and higher isoalcohols in liquid phase and on the surface of separated minerals of scheelite and calcite is investigated. The research findings on monophase calcite and scheelite are presented with their X-ray patterns and IR spectra. The experimental data show the contribution of the intramolecular interactions in combinations of differently ionizable oxyhydryl collectors on the increase in the contrast between floatabilities of scheelite and calcite. The IR spectroscopy states that the maximum strength of the intramolecular hydrogen bridges between oleate and isoalcohols in the range of 300-3200 cm-1 fits with the molar ratio 2. Isoalcohols in the surface layer of scheelite neutralize hydrophilic behavior of oleate micells by means of generation of heteromolecular associates through hydrogen bridges, loosen hydtrated layer and enhance air bubble attachability; adhesion of isoalcohol drops improves floatability of scheelite; higher isoalcohols reduce flotation activity of calcite. The maximum contrast in flotation properties is observed in slimes at oleate concentrations fit the micelle formation process.
																								



14.
Improvement of Copper-Nickel Ore Concentration by Energy Treatment

V. I. ROSTOVTSEV, S. A. KONDRAT’EV, I. I. BAKSHEEVA
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: медно-никелевое минеральное сырье, обработка ускоренными электронами, рудоподготовка, флотация, магнитная сепарация, copper-nickel ore, treatment by accelerated electrons, ore pre-pretreatment, flotation, magnetic separation

Abstract >>
The experimental research into intensification of copper-nickel ore concentration by flotation and magnetic separation shows that pre-treatment of ore before milling by accelerated electrons results in the increased yield of - 0.071 mm size and in enhanced recovery of useful components in the concentrate. Magnetic separation improves complexity of use of mineral raw materials.
																								



15.
Use of Zeolite Rocks in Metal Recovery from Mine Water

O. V. EREMIN1, E. S. EPOVA1, R. A. FILENKO1, O. S. RUSAL’1, V. A. BYCHINSKY2
1Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and Cryology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Nedorezova 16a, Chita, 672002 Russia
2Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Favorskogo 1a, Irkutsk, 664033 Russia
Keywords: ионы золота, тонкодисперсное золото, доизвлечение, флотация, флотореагент-модификатор, растительный экстракт, биосорбент, борщевик, фурокумарины, metal-bearing mine solutions, zeolite rocks, ammonium salts, metal extraction

Abstract >>
Mine water at some mineral deposits in Transbaikalia contains valued metals commercially recoverable from solutions using zeolite rocks. Experimental impregnation of metal-bearing mine water from Sherlovaya Gora and Bom-Gorphon areas with sodium and ammonium kinds of clinoptilolite rocks from Shivyrtui deposit has been carried out. In the laboratory conditions, metals adsorbed by zeolite rocks are extracted by means of displacement by concentrated ammonium salts with the further calcinations of the filtrate up to 500 °С. The metal content of the obtained cakes is conditioned by metal concentrations in solutions, by methods of impregnation and by the eluents applied. Saturation of ammonium types of zeolites with mine water solutions from the Sherlovaya Gora lake and the further extraction of adsorbed metals by ammonium acetate yields the recovery of lantanoids of 73%. The obtained results, considering multiple recycling of the sorbent, can be used in development of an efficient technology for extraction of rare earth elements from mine solutions.
																								



16.
Innovative Solutions in Iron Ore Production at Mikhailovsky Mining and Processing Plant

A. V. VARICHEV1, A. A. UGAROV1, N. T. EFENDIEV1, S. I. KRETOV2, A. A. LAVRINENKO3, A. A. SOLODUKHIN4, P. V. PUZAKOV2
1Metalloinvest Holding Company, Rublevskoe shosse 28, Moscow, 121609 Russia
2Mikhailovsky Mining and Processing Plant, ul. Lenina 21, Zheleznogorsk, 307170 Russia
3Academician Melnikov Institute of Intergated Mineral Resources, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
4NPVP TOREX, ul. Osnovinskaya 8, P.B. 169, Ekaterinburg 620041, Russia
Keywords: железистые кварциты, флотация, железорудные окатыши, фабрика окомкования, обжиговая машина МОК-1-592, ferruginous quartzite, flotation, iron ore pellets, pelletizing factory, roasting machine MOK-1-592

Abstract >>
The article describes features of ore reserves and development of processing technologies at Mikhailovsky MPP. New approaches to disintegration of ore and to improvement of dry magnetic separation of unoxidized ferruginous quartzite are evaluated. The scope of the discussion embraces the process of finishing magnetite concentrate, extracted from unoxidized ferruginous quartzite by wet magnetic separation, using the flotation flow chart with the closed and open circuits, as well as the reverse cation flotation of hematite concentrate from tailings of wet magnetic separation. The authors present process solutions aimed at designing energy-saving conveyor roasting machine MOK-1-592 and the technologies of production of different purpose iron ore pellets.
																								



17.
Mathematical Prediction of Ice-and-Rock Shield Thickness in Shaft Sinking

L. YU. LEVIN, M. A. SEMIN, O. S. PARSHAKOV
Mining Institute, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Sibirskaya 78a, Perm, 614007 Russia
Keywords: ледопородное ограждение, проходка стволов, задача Стефана, диффузионная теплопроводность, фазовый переход, математическое моделирование, ice-and-rock shield, shaft sinking, Stefan problem, diffusion thermal conductions, phase transition, mathematical modeling

Abstract >>
A Stefan problem is analyzed for the case of rock freezing during shaft sinking, It is shown that the rate of thermal diffusion in rock mass is comparable with the velocity of the boundary between different phases. The Stefan problem is solved for a single shaft using the finite difference method. The procedure for the generalization of the calculation data on thickness of an ice-and-rock shield in a single shaft for the case of many shafts is improved. The ice-and-rock shield thickness forming around freezing pipes is calculated in terms of shaft 1 in the mine of Petrikovsky Mining and Processing plant of Belaruskali.
																								



18.
Integrated Monitoring of Induced Air Pollution in Mining Regions

V. N. OPARIN1, V. P. POTAPOV2, O. L. GINIYATULLINA2, A. A. BYKOV2, E. L. SCHASTLIVTSEV2
1Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Institute of the Computational Technologies, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Rukavishnikova 21, Kemerovo, 650025 Russia
Keywords: атмосфера, загрязняющие вещества, мониторинг, горнопромышленный регион, комплексный метод обработки данных, снежный покров, дистанционное зондирование Земли, air, pollutants, monitoring, mining region, integrated data processing method, snow cover, remote earth sensing

Abstract >>
The authors propose to assess air pollution in mining regions using the integrated instrumental monitoring, calculation and remote sensing. The algorithms for experimental data processing for the calculation and remote monitoring of snow cover pollution as a universal indicator of the pollution distribution in air are substantiated. The article presents the integrated monitoring data on the induced load in the air in the large mining industry cluster in Kuzbass.
																								



19.
Laboratory Installation and Procedure to Determine Gas Permeability of Rocks

S. V. SERDYUKOV, T. V. SHILOVA, A. N. DROBCHIK
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: испытания горных пород, проницаемость, лабораторная установка, камера высокого давления, уголь, пористый песчаник, эффект Клинкерберга, rock tests, permeability, laboratory installation, high-pressure cell, coal, porous sandstone, Klinkenberg effect

Abstract >>
The authors propose the approach to validation of the surveying control accuracy in safety monitoring of earth dams in terms of liquid waste receivers at mines. Based on the system structuring of types of earth dams and their elements, estimation of influence of loads and effects exerted to these structures, as well as the analysis of accident The article presents the installation meant for the determination of gas permeability of rock specimens placed in a testing cell with the adjustable axial and lateral compression. The installation includes a measurement system for the automated long-term investigation of rock permeability in accordance with the preset program. It is also possible to test specimens with a fracture filled with a propping material. The reported data of the permeability tests of porous quartz-containing material and coal demonstrate the capacity of the installation and the experimentation specificity.
																								



20.
Elements of the Method of Submicron Particle Emission Recording for the Accident Prediction in Underground Mineral Mining

S. D. VIKTOROV, A. A. OSOKIN, A. V. SHLYAPIN
Academician Melnikov Institute of Integrated Mineral Resources, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russian
Keywords: горная порода, разрушение, прогноз, катастрофические явления, субмикронные частицы, эмиссия, горные удары, напряженно-деформированное состояние, rock, failure, prediction, accidents, submicron particles, emission, rock bursts, stress-strain state

Abstract >>
The article presents the review of the current methods used in Russia and abroad to predict accidents in underground mines based on the monitoring of stresses, strains and seismic and electromagnetic events. The phenomenon of emission of submicron particles is reveled in rocks and the submicron particle emission under compression of rock specimens is modeled physically. A conclusion is drawn on the possibility of developing a new method and equipment for the prediction of accidents during underground mining.
																								



21.
Application of the Empirical Modal Decomposition in Observation of Deformation in Mines

S. V. PANOV1, M. D. PARUSHKIN1,2, V. M. SEMIBALAMUT3, YU. N. FOMIN1,3
1Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Lavrentieva 13/3, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
3Federal Research Center for the Unified Geophysical Service, pr. Akademika Lavrentieva 13/3, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: деформация, лазерный деформограф, эмпирическая модовая декомпозиция, обработка сигналов, deformation, laser strain meter, empirical modal decomposition, signal processing

Abstract >>
The method of the empirical model decomposition and its application to the analysis of data obtained using a laser strain meter is described. The issues of adaptation of the method to the real data are discussed. The method enables identification of a monotone trend and a slow component of deformation process much more efficiently than the conventional techniques. The method shows reliable operation in cleaning of signals from noise and high frequencies.