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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2017 year, number 3

1.
THE SALE OF ALASKA AS EVALUATED BY THE AMERICAN AND CANADIAN HISTORIOGRAPHY (THE LATE XIX - EARLY XXI CENTURIES)

D.A. Ananyev
Institute of History SB RAS, 8, Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: , , , Russian America, foreign historiography, sale of Alaska

Abstract >>
The articles objective is to provide an analysis of changing views of American and Canadian historians on reasons and consequences of the Alaska Treaty signed in 1867. In the study the author analyzes relevant papers on the topic published in USA and Canada in the late XIX - early XXI centuries; identified basic concepts proposed by the historians; determined their contribution to the problem elaboration. It is established that since the late XIX century American and Canadian researchers paid special attention to the factor of amicable relations between the United States and Russia facilitating a positive outcome of negotiations and permitting Russia to achieve the stated objective (works by H. Bancroft, F.A. Golder, T. Bailey, S. Tompkins, D.H. Miller, R.J. Jensen et al.). Despite the widespread perception that the 1867 Treaty provided greater benefit to Russia, some researchers (V.J. Farrar, R. Luthin et al.) persisted that even if Alaskas purchase was not economically justified, the bargain was in line with the military-strategic interests of the United States. In the postwar period, in the context of Cold War Western scholars paid greater attention to the policy of colonial expansionism pursued both by Russia and USA in the North Pacific Region (C. Manning, C. Hulley et al). In the 1960s-1970s historians of the so-called revisionist school (H. Kushner and others) argued that the sale of Alaska occurred not because of friendship, but intense competition and struggle for markets (therefore, the territory cession looked like a win to one side, and like a loss - to another). They were opposed by those researchers who believed that Russia was guided not by economic considerations, but by political ones, so both countries benefited from this treaty in one or another way. The recent studies have revived the idea of struggle between the colonial powers while emphasizing the international implications of the 1867 Treaty (I. Vinkovetsky, L. Farrow). The author comes to a conclusion that American and Canadian historiography evaluated the 1867 Treaty based on general understanding of Russian-American relations interpreted either in terms of cooperation or rivalry.
																								



2.
PROBLEMS OF TOMSK PROVINCE NORTHERN TERRITORIES IN THE EARLY XIX CENTURY IN THE "NOTICES" BY V.S. KHVOSTOV

E.V. Komleva
Institute of History SB RAS, 8, Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: .. , , , , , , , , , , V.S. Khvostov, Siberia, northern areas of Tomsk province, Narym, Turukhansk, population, supply, management, settlers, aboriginals, tribute

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the analysis of Notes handwritten by V.S. Khvostov, the first civil governor of Tomsk province, represented in 1806 to the Minister of Internal Affairs V.P. Kochubei. The document allowed judging about the most problematic areas of the newly formed Tomsk province in the early XIX century. A key problem formulated by Khvostov was the characteristics of the province northern regions: Turukhansk district and Narym. The author of the Notes emphasized important aspects that, in opinion, required a special attention, such as the management of these vast remote territories, supplying local people with food, deplorable state of northern towns, collecting tribute, life of Russian settlers. V.S. Khvostov had not only stated the existing problems but also proposed some measures to solve them. In particular, he believed that Narym should be removed to a more convenient place, and Turukhansk had to be abolished at all, attaching the territory under its jurisdiction to the Yeniseisk district. Such radical proposals were not implemented, however, the authors view had influenced the state policy in this area in some ways - the series of governmental orders taken during a number of subsequent years were indirect evidences of it. There are some reasons to believe that V. Khvostovs proposals were well known to M.M. Speransky, but the question of the impact of the Tomsk governors Note on the reforms of 1820s requires further investigation. Along with the issues considered in the paper V. Khvostov proposed initiatives to develop the region as well: establishing industry, arranging horse plants, development of sheep breeding, opening schools for Siberian native peoples, cessation of exile to Siberia, constructing channels to link Siberian rivers. As a whole the Notes text completes the previously known information about the development of Central Siberia northern areas, indicates the interest of both local and central authorities to the region. The appendix has a fragment of Notes concerning shifting Narym to a new location.
																								



3.
"... BENEATH THE FLAMING NORTHERN LIGHTS": FOREIGN RESEARCHERS OF THE YENISEI NORTH IN THE LATE XIX - EARLY XX CENTURIES

E.I. Kochkina, A.S. Vdovin
Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University named after V.P. Astafiev, 89, Ada Lebedeva Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia
Keywords: , , , , , Yenisei North, expeditions, international scientific communications, foreign researchers, Northern Sea Route

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the contribution of foreign researchers in studying the Yenisei North; characterizes directions and tendencies in their studies. The presented data allow confirming the significant influence of foreign expeditions on the scientific study of the region within frameworks of different disciplines: geography, geology, botany, zoology, ornithology, meteorology, linguistics, ethnography, history, archeology, anthropology, paleontology, and others. Source study and cartographical analyses to identify specific personalities and their routes are carried out. N. Nordenskiold, J. Wiggins, H. Seebohm, A. Popham, J. Stadling, S. Patursson, G. Wright, F. Nansen, K. Donner, O. Olsen, M. Czaplicka, F. Dus, H. Findeisen are among the famous researchers connected with the North. The dependence of their works in work on political, economic, social and cultural development of Russia is traced. Foreign scientists and the results of their work have become a stimulus for the development of local science, prompted Russian scientists and scientific societies on a number of expeditions including the study of the Turukhansk region by Krasnoyarsk subdivision of the Russian Geographical Society. Works of foreigners in Siberia are characterized not only by collecting scientific information, but exporting a large number of collections, of natural and historical and cultural character, the most significant in terms of the region development. Further these collections have replenished the museums of England, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Germany, the United States of America and other countries. The authors conclude that the majority of foreign scientists established contacts with the local scientific community facilitating their study. Later, these links formed subsequent development of international scientific communication.
																								



4.
SOVIET STRATEGY IN THE ARCTIC (1920s)

A.I. Timoshenko
Institute of History SB RAS, 8, A. Nikolaeva Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: , , , , , , , Arctic, Northern sea route, Kara expeditions, mobilization methods, governance, Subkraiispolkom, Northern Sea Route Committee

Abstract >>
The article objective is to identify main problems related to the specifics of state management of the Russian Arctic in the 1920s. The research is necessary for revealing historical experience of the Russian Arctic and the Northern Sea Route development. The central place in formulating research tasks belongs to the analysis of mobilization methods used by the Soviet leadership to solve both economic and geopolitical tasks in the Russian Arctic zone. The article notes that the 1920s became the period of forming the centralized state administration in the USSR. The paper problematic field includes studying the essence of mobilization methods of the Russian Arctic administration and forming the system of national economic planning in the country including the Arctic territories. The author pays much attention to the continuity of the Russian state policy in the Arctic as a significant territory for effective national development. The article focuses on the events of the Soviet period initial stage, when Russias Arctic strategy already identified some prospects for the Russian North development. To solve this task, plans were outlined to develop transport communications, to build ports and industrial enterprises, as well as settlements. This task difficult for solving in high latitudes in the Soviet state administration was intended to be implemented step-by-step at first in the framework of activities of the Northern Sea Route Committee, organized according to the Soviet principles, and then of JSC Komseverput operating under the state patronage. The research concluded that using mobilization methods based on the centralized state administration in the USSR in the 1920s prepared a breakthrough development of the Arctic and the Northern Sea Route in subsequent years.
																								



5.
VLADIMIR PETROVICH LARIONOV - ACADEMICIAN OF THE NORTH

N.A. Kupershtokh
Institute of History SB RAS, 8, A. Nikolaeva Str., Novosibirsk, 6300090, Russia
Keywords: .. , , - , , academician V.P. Larionov, Yakutsk Scientific Center SB RAS, Institute of Physical-Technical Problems of the North, northern engineering

Abstract >>
The article studies the activity of Vladimir Petrovich Larionov (1938-2004), an outstanding scientist and organizer of science. Academician V.P. Larionov is well known for his studies in the field of materials science and structural strength at low temperatures. His elaborations are the basis of the Russian Arctic technological development. V.P. Larionov was born in the small Yakut village, graduated from school with a gold medal. In 1956 he entered Bauman Moscow Higher Technical School. In 1962 after graduating the young specialist was hired at the Yakut subsidiary of the Siberian Branch of Academy of Science of USSR. His studies were in demand for implementation of the state program «Northern technology. Academician N.V. Chersky composed a set of measures to develop physical-technical fields of science in Yakutia. He was supported by Academician M.A. Lavrentiev, the chairman of the Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. V.P. Larionov was one of the first who started studying northern materials science and creating technologies for processing structural materials. In 1968 V.P. Larionov was encharged to organize and lead a welding laboratory in the Department of cold resistance of machines and metal structures in the Yakut subsidiary. In 1970 the Institute of Physical-Technical Problems of the North was established based on the Department. Its main scientific subject was the problem of studying material cold resistance and developing recommendations for equipment production for the North. V.P. Larionov defended his candidate and doctoral dissertations, became the countrys leading specialist in the Arctic technology development. In 1986 V.P. Larionov was elected Director of the Institute of Physical -Technical Problems of the North. Scientific potential of the Institution and the Yakutsk Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences as a whole has grown under his guidance. V.P. Larionov contributed significantly to creation of the northern construction materials and processing technologies. His research results have become a fundamental scientific basis for a modern technological complex, which produces materials and equipment for the Arctic zone of the country.
																								



6.
ON THE SCIENTIFIC SERIES "SIBERIAN ARCHAEOGRAPHY AND SOURCE STUDY"

L.V. Titova, A. Kh. Elert
Institute of History, SB RAS, 8, A. Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: , , , , , .. , Siberian Archaeography and Source Study, series, collected volumes, new sources, publication, scientific school of N.N. Pokrovsky

Abstract >>
The Siberian Archaeography and Source Study is the annual series publication of the scientific studies, collected articles, publications of new and insufficiently explored most valuable sources of the national history and the book culture. The publication was established towards the creation of the archaeological and source-study sector, its first volume was published in 1975, the 34th and 35th series were issued in 2016. The theme of compilations reflects a wide spectrum of problems, being studied by historians, philologists, folklorists, ethnographers, musicologists and art historians, it is particularly linked with the national history and the old Russian literature. The recovered and little-known historical documents, the monuments of hagiography and Old Believers creation of different genres, musicology, Siberian memoirs, ethnographic materials along with the reviews and descriptions of manuscripts and Siberian book collections are constantly published in the digests of series. The main feature of theme is its pioneering character. The most important and perspective topics were set by N.N. Pokrovsky, the responsible editor of series, for his students and staff: these are eschatological Old Believers views, forensic and investigatory records, materials from the G.F.Millers archives, problems of folk theology and more. The structure of collected volumes remains the same throughout the years of publication. The first section is provided with research works, the second - with publications of newfound essays and historical documents, the third section - with descriptions and reviews of Siberian handwritten and book collections. A wide range of historians and philologists, including metropolitan and foreign researches are always brought in the compilations of Siberian Archaeography and Source Study series. For years (from 1975 to 2012) the main body of the editorial staff remained unchanged: the academician N.N. Pokrovsky (the responsible editor), the corresponding member E.K. Romodanovskaya (the responsible editor), the candidate of philological sciences L.V. Titova (the executive secretary), in recent years the editorial staff of series has been represented by the branch staff: the doctor of history A. H. Elert, the doctor of history N.D. Zolnikova, the doctor of history N.S Guryanova, the doctor of history N.P. Mathanova, the doctor of philology T.V. Panich, the candidate of philological sciences L.V. Titova (the executive secretary), I.A. Shipilov (the secretary).
																								



7.
BOOKISH DEMONOLOGY AND FOLK MAGICAL BELIEFS IN SIBERIA IN THE XII-XVIII CENTURIES

O.D. Zhuravel1,2
1Institute of History SB RAS, 8, A. Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, 1, Pirogova str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: , , , , , - , Siberian hagiography, popular Orthodoxy, possessions, spell, demonology, inquisitorial procedure

Abstract >>
The article considers the early Siberian literature in the context of popular religious consciousness of Siberians in the XVII-XVIII centuries, which is characterized as popular Orthodoxy with magical practices and beliefs as essential elements. The author focuses on demonological motifs reflecting primarily the phenomenon of possession (demoniac possession, hand-wringing, hiccup). The study showed that these motifs were widely represented in the miracles from the Tale of the Abalak Icon of the Mother of God, they can be found in the Tale of Appearance of Nicholas of Myra and Life of Simeon of Verkhoturye. Literary materials are compared with documentary sources - judicial and investigative materials related to sorcery and spell cases. The author considers bookish demonology of the early Siberian literature as a certain interpretative and polemical strategy aimed against popular magic which was viewed by the ecclesiastic and state law as spiritual crime. The article shows that the literary and church discourse existed along with practice of civilian investigations. The latter actively involved not only the state investigative and administrative bodies but also local population. The religious preaching expressed in written monuments was set by the church against the state prosecution. In so doing, the church combined issues of spiritual enlightenment with urgent tasks of establishing the cult of holy icons and sanctuaries, which was an important part of policy pursued by the Tobolsk Archpriests House. The author comes to conclusion that despite different linguistic strategies and mechanisms of struggle against popular magic, representatives of various layers of the Siberian society belonged to the same popular and religious culture, of which magical beliefs were an integral part. The author interprets the phenomenon of posession as a symbolic code which determined the everyday behavior and way of thinking of Siberians irrespective of their social status.
																								



8.
HISTORY AND EVERYDAY LIFE IN THE SIBERIAN CHRONICLE OF THE XVII CENTURY

L.I. Zhurova
Institute of History SB RAS, 8, Nikolaeva Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: , , , , , , , , Siberian chronicle, everyday life, governors, towns and burgs, historic reality, edition, tidings, textology

Abstract >>
Siberian chronicle is the largest cultural monument of book culture of the late XVII century and an important source of siberian History. The historic plot is composed of information and tidings about towns and ostrogs foundation, administration, diplomatic missions, appointments of governors and archbishops, deacons and scriveners. It is mixed with real life events, which creates a history of colonized Siberian land. The object of this investigation are three editions of the Siberian chronicle: «Kniga zapisnaya (1687), Golovins edition (1689) and Naryshkins edition (1694). The subject is human commonness reflected in the Siberian chronicle of XVII century. The article objective is to define the significance of daily routine component in the Siberian chronicles narration. Systematizing main daily human practices reflecting Siberian life details and realities allows viewing a person in the «spirit of the age context, defining forms of the historical-cultural community existence in the 17th century. Household news in the Siberian chronicle can constitute an independent chronicle story or be interspersed with an official message. «Kniga zapisnaya is of the greatest interest concerning persons everyday life: a story of the governors absurd death in Nizhny Tagil, reports on deaths of some individuals, fortunes and misfortunes in trading and geological investigations, etc., which reflect a whole world of various daily routines at vast areas. A separate section consists of events that occurred in Siberia for the first time, such as advent of boyars, appointment of archpriests, sanctifying Siberian archimandrites with white monkshoods, opening taverns, introduction of copper money, investigating corruption. Curious and usually dramatic are stories about fires, fates of some governors and their families, exiles, human conflicts. These articles, in terms of everyday lifes chronicles, are interesting because of routines details, dramatic narration reflecting the authors personality and his empathy with tragic events. Golovins edition is of the most interest because of stories about building activity in Siberia: restoration of burned temples, building prisons and bridges, and relationships between local population and China. Conflicts with Bashkirs and Kirghizs, plunder and ravage at Siberian borders are full of different vivid details of peoples life. In Naryshkins edition a lot of information is curtailed, motives of daily routine are reduced, the focus is on official reports on governance in Siberia. This trend continues in the XVIII century edition (Schlözers and Academic ones). The textual analysis allows determining features of chroniclers work in the late XVII century.
																								



9.
NEW MANUSCRIPT OF THE TALE OF IOANN NOVGORODSKYS JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM: ON THE STUDY OF LITERARY HISTORY OF THE MONUMENT

T.V. Panich
Institute of History SB RAS, 8, A. Nikolaev Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: , , , , , Ioann, Archbishop of Novgorod, Tale of Ioann Journey on Devil to Jerusalem, tale plot structure, new manuscript copy

Abstract >>
The tale of the Journey of Ioann Novgorodsky to Jerusalem is one of the most interesting literary monuments of Ancient Russia, which connects traditions of writing and oral lore, and shows events connected with Novgorod history. It reflects famous legends and fabulous motives. The plot about a devil who is sealed in a vessel by the sign of cross and performs human will take an important place in compositional structure and is well known in the world literature. There are many manuscripts from different times which present the tale both as a part of Life of Ioann Novgorodsky and out of this context as an individual work. The author introduces into scientific circulation a manuscript of the tale which is included in the Old Believers collection of the mid-XIX century from the Collection of Manuscripts and Early Printed Books of the Institute of History of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences 17/76. This manuscript represents a stage of the monument writing tradition, which was apparently developed in two ways: as a part of Live of Ioann of Novgorod and as an individual work, which had been written before it was attached to Live of Sanctifier. A new manuscript scroll of the tale has a number of textual differences versus earlier published manuscripts. It contains some mistakes, gaps and wrong interpretations. The manuscript contains some insertions as well. One of them is a large addition at the end of the text, which is derived from Life of Ioann of Novgorod. According to comparative study of involved texts, presence of this fragment brings together the tale manuscript 17/76 with a manuscript of the XVI century published in Great Menaion Reader. However, they also have some different interpretations. Despite the fact that this manuscript has later origin, results of its analysis are important for studying the tales literary history, for deeper understanding a character of the text motion and evolution during its handwritten life.
																								



10.
THE PLACE OF SPIRITUAL-MORAL LITERATURE IN READING OF INHABITANTS IN TOMSK PROVINCE (LATE XIX - EARLY XX CENTURIES)

Yu.V. Timofeeva
State Public Scientific-Technological Library SB RAS, 15, Voskhod Str., Novosibirsk, 630200, Russia
Keywords: - , , , , , , , spiritual-moral literature, reading, modernization, reader interests, library, fiction, Tomsk province

Abstract >>
The articles objective is to reveal the share of spiritual-moral literature in reading of inhabitants of Tomsk province under conditions of modernizing the Siberian society. The research methodological basis is the theory of the traditional society modernization. Data systematized and summarized by the author from the numerous reports of libraries in Tomsk province on book circulation in the catalog divisions make it possible to determine the place of spiritual-moral literature in reading of residents; to trace the modernization processes entering the Siberian hinterland, and to reveal the secularization of reading during the period under review. They show that spiritual-moral literature maintained its presence in reading of provincial inhabitants, but it was uneven and determined by the persons education, age, occupation, place of residence. The most widely spiritual-moral literature reading was distributed among the rural population, mainly peasants, and representatives of the older generation. It was increasingly replaced by fiction, special literature, periodicals among urban residents and youth. Spiritual-moral literature dominated in peasantry home libraries along with representatives of other classes in the province peasants went to libraries mainly to get fiction. Public readings were carried out on a broad program. Books on art, Russian history, hygiene, natural science, ethnography, and other topics besides texts of spiritual-moral content were read in their course. Revealed data make it possible to clarify and supply the regional and all-Russian picture of reading in the late imperial period, its dynamic development under conditions of modernization.
																								



11.
THE ESCHATOLOGICAL IDEAS OF THE FEDOSEEVTSY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CONCEPTS OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT

I.N. Nikanorov
Institute of History SB RAS, 8, A. Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: , , , , , .. , Old Believers, eschatology, Enlightenment, Fedoseevtsy, Preobrazhensk Old Believers community, I.A. Kovylin

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the evolution of eschatological ideas of Old Believers of the Fedoseevs denomination in the context of the Enlightenment concepts. It seems appropriate to use the concept of textual communities proposed by B. Strok to study the identity of traditional communities, such as Old Believers. The applied sources provide an opportunity to correlate the practice of oral controversies used by Fedoseevtsy and their statutory works where eschatological teaching is presented. The paper explores the content and context of a work reflecting a polemic between representatives of sensible understanding (by Popovtsy) and Antichrist spiritual understanding (by Fedoseevtsy). It should be noted that rational arguments proposed by Fedoseevtsy were characterized by their opponents as being similar to the Protestant doctrine, not the Orthodox tradition. Analysis of the statutory work recognized as authoritative one by all Fedoeevtsy has shown that the instructors warned their followers against unnecessary speculation about the essence of Antichrist and relied primarily on the interpretation of the Holy Gospel and the Church Fathers. Thus, the arguments inherent for oral practice are more rational and freer than those used for textual monuments preserving more conservative and traditional features, which continued the traditions of Ancient Russia scribes. The correlation of statutory works content and the position expressed by the representatives of Fedoseevtsy in disputes with opponents, on the one hand, showed differences in text representations and the actual religious experience, and on the other hand, it led to the conclusion that rational arguments included in eschatological constructions did not deny, but enriched their teachings about the last days in accordance with the Enlightenment spirit.
																								



12.
ON THE REVOLUTION FOR CHILDREN: THE DYNAMICS OF REPRESENTATIONS AND CONCEPTS OF "REVOLUTIONARY" IN THE MAGAZINE "ZADUSHEVNOE SLOVO" ON THE EARLY XX CENTURY

N.N. Rodigina1,2
1Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 28, Viluikaya str., Novosibirsk, 630126, Russia
2Tobolsk complex scientific station UB RAS, 15 Acad. Yu. Osipova Str., Tobolsk, 626152, Russia
Keywords: , , , childrens magazines, representations of Russian revolutions of early century, history of journalism

Abstract >>
The article objective is to determine the dynamic of representations and concepts of «revolutionary in childrens weekly magazine «Zadushevnoe Slovo in the early XX century. The methodological framework is set by 1) the concept of P. Bourdieu M.P. Mokhnacheva on collective authorship of journal texts that is based on the fact that magazine publications are the result of co-creativity of the text authors, publishers, editors, censors and readers; 2) a method of critical discourse by T. van Dijk predetermined close attention not only to the content, but to those who produced and controlled the revolution discourse as well. Magazine «Zadushevnoe Slovo (1876-1918) founded by M.O. Wolff was one of the most popular and favorite with childrens readership. The magazine aims remained practically unchanged throughout its existence history: to be a friend, interlocutor and leader of young readers; give them useful various reading, expand their knowledge. The editorial board was delighted to meet the manifesto on the 7th of October in 1905 calling it «the new era of Russian life. Young readers were informed about proclaimed freedom of conscience, religion, speech, assembly and association, inviolability of a person and the State Duma convocation. Since 1906 when the first issue was published the topics of the Russian parliament elections, population new political rights and freedoms had a priority for the magazine. Its editorial office in a simple, understandable language informed about the State Duma functions, substantiated its creation reasons, notified on estate, ethnic, professional composition of deputies of the first Russian parliament. However, after the manifesto of July 9, 1906 on the State Duma dissolution, «the revolutionary theme disappears from the journal pages. «The new era of Russian freedom was proclaimed on the magazine pages in early March 1917. As in 1905, the monarchy overthrow and the Provisional Government, declaring civil rights and freedoms were announced as epochal, progressive and natural. Metaphors of spring, light, family (all people are the native children of mother-country), revival to a new life of free Russia occurred in most April and May issues of 1917. Proclaiming the sacred idea of freedom «Zadushevnoe Slovo created the pantheon of its heroes-martyrs. Along with Christ, the Decembrists and non-commissioned officer T. Kirpichnikov were recognized as the first freedom fighters. However, by autumn the time of hope and joyful excitement was replaced by the period of «terrible disasters, great misfortunes and great disappointments. October 29, the magazine published an editorial article named «Homeland is dying, and in early 1918 the journal edition was ceased.
																								



13.
CONSTRUCTING A "MANAGER" NEGATIVE IMAGE ON PAGES OF MAGAZINE "KROKODIL" IN 1953-1964

M.A. Klinova, A.V. Trofimov
Ural State University of Economics, 62/45, 8 Marta / Narodnoy voli Str, Ekaterinburg, 620144, Russia
Keywords: , 1953-1964, , , heads of enterprises, 1953-1964, magazine Krokodil, criticism

Abstract >>
The articles objective is to determine the specifics of constructing a negative image of economic management at various (local, regional, central) levels on pages of magazine Krokodil in 1953-1964. The presented negative images of a leader were combined in specific groups: 1) practices that are detrimental to the state; 2) the selfish use of official position; 3) the negative manifestations in relation to subordinates; 4) negative personal and professional characteristics. The analysis based on use of statistical methods allows concluding that the negative image of economic managers was more accentuated on activities detrimental to the state (mismanagement, bureaucracy, overstatement of reported numbers). The abusive practices were actively criticized. To a lesser extent a negative image of the leader was associated with personal deviant manifestations (incompetence, drunkenness, etc.) and negative management practices (rudeness, negligence). The negative image of managers constructed on Krokodil pages had more accented features, which adjustment was of great interest to for the official discourse. The negative image of a manager was a reflection of political situation trends in the Khrushchev period. The policy of glasnost declared after the 20th Congress provoked the criticism intensification, and its collapse in the late 1950s led to a lesser severity of managers criticism. Elements of negative images of business managers had features of the Khrushchev campaigns of 1950-60s (struggle against mismanagement and theft, campaign for vigilance). Active reforms in agricultural sector in 1950s led to the growing criticism of rural leadership. Throughout the period images of local economic managers, became more negative, as they were more responsible for economic costs and Khrushchev period deviations.
																								



14.
PUBLISHING ACTIVITY OF LITERARY ORGANIZATIONS IN SIBERIA AND THE FAR EAST IN THE LATE XX - EARLY XXI CENTURIES

A.L. Posadskov
State Public Scientific Technological Library of the SB RAS, 15, Voskhod Str., Novosibirsk, 630200, Russia
Keywords: , , , , , , , book publishing, publishers, magazines, unions of writers, literary associations, Siberia, Far East

Abstract >>
The article objective is to analyze the activity of publishing houses established by literary organizations in Siberia and the Far East in the 1990s-2010s. So called literary publishers acted in the early XXI century within all regional offices of the Union of writers of Russia, books were also published by editorial boards of literary journals belonging to this Union. Getting some financial support from regional administrations, municipalities and legislative bodies at the beginning of XXI century, the official writers organizations resumed regular publication of old literary journals (Sibirskie ogni, Ogni Kuzbassa, Enisei, Altai, etc.), and initiated the creation of new ones (Irtysh, Barnaul, Novosibirsk, Literaturnyi Omsk, Literaturnyi Vladivostok, Slovo Zabaikaliya, etc.). Some of these magazines started to publish book annex. By the end of the first decade of the XXI century each writers organization in Siberia had its own publishing house: Sibirskaya Gornitsa (Novosibirsk), Sibirskiy pisatel (Kemerovo), Krasnoyarskiy pisatel, Irkutskiy pisatel, etc. The release of book series was quite common. The alternative organization - the Union of Russian writers and its Siberian divisions implemented publishing projects as well. An active publishing promotion of amateur organizations (literary associations, studios, recreation centers) became a new phenomenon in the Russian book publishing history. They created several dozens of publishing structures, the largest of which was the publishing house Union of writers in Novokuznetsk. The main study result was the conclusion about a significant expansion of the information field of literary movements in the Russian province during the last twenty years. Forming a new publishing environment in regions, literary organizations continue to diversify the business development in the Russian East.
																								



15.
GENDARME REPORTS OF THE 1850s-1870s AS A SOURCE FOR STUDYING THE DEVELOPMENT OF GOLD MINING IN WESTERN SIBERIA

P.P. Rumyantsev
Tomsk State University, Russia, 634050, Tomsk, Lenin Avenue, 36
Keywords: , , , XIX , , -, , , -, gold mining, mines, West Siberia, XIX century, gendarmes, staff officer, surveillance, annual report, Governor-General

Abstract >>
The article objective is to consider annual reports of gendarme staff officers on the private gold mining development in West Siberia in 1840-70s as an independent historical source. The article goals are the following: a comprehensive analysis of the information contained in annual reports of gendarmes on various aspects of gold mining process, especially information on accidents, crimes, law violations, etc.; making conclusions on the gendarme report importance as an independent historical source, primarily on the history of the gold mining in the specified time. Comparative historical analysis is the main research method. The author revealed that the gendarme staff officers attention was focused primarily on various kinds of incidents and violations on the gold mines in Siberia. It should be noted that gendarmes did not depend on local administration, and were directly subordinated to the heads of gendarmerie districts and governors-general, that could indicate the objectivity of information contained in their reports. The next conclusion is that the arguments of the gendarme staff officers on the gold mining state and their proposals to improve workers conditions confirmed that they were rather qualified in all these matters. Another conclusion is about sufficiently high level of efficiency of the gendarme surveillance in private gold mining: the Governor-General of West Siberia as the highest executive power in the region and the person, to whom the gendarmes reports on the state of gold mining were addressed, gave orders to the governors on the necessity to adjust cases of violation and abuse revealed by gendarmes. In turn, the governors reported on the work done. Summarizing the research, the author claims that due to the lack of reliable sources on the history of gold mining development in Siberia in the mid XIX century, gendarme reports contribute to closing this gap in some way. Therefore, gendarme reports should attract more attention from scientists
																								



16.
NEW ARCHIVAL MATERIALS ON SIBERIAN ORTHODOX PILGRIMS BURIED IN THE HOLY LAND IN 1864-1912

M.S. Krutova
Russian State Library, Department of manuscripts, Russian Federation, 109119, Moscow, Volkhonka str., 3/5
Keywords: , , , , , Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, Siberian history, Holy Land, pilgrimage, archival materials

Abstract >>
The articles objective is to acquaint the academic community with unknown handwritten materials, which contain information about Siberian Orthodox pilgrims who died in the Holy Land. The author identified these documents while describing the Russian hospital fund of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission Archive in Jerusalem. They contain information on the pilgrim deaths in 1883-1912, who arrived from West Siberia - Akmola (Omsk), Amur regions, Tobolsk and Tomsk provinces, as well as the pilgrims of East Siberia - Irkutsk and Yenisei provinces who died in 1864-1891. Such academic methods as descriptive, comparative-historical, source study, palaeographic ones have been used in this research. They allow establishing that the most valuable information about the pilgrims is contained in the death certificates (although the hospital register books of dead patients, metrical books and passports, as well as data of the Russian monastery necropolis and cloister at the Holy Land are investigated). As a rule, death certificates contain information about the first, last and patronymic name of the pilgrim, where he arrived from and at what age, and what disease he died of, where he was buried, who confessed and gave sacraments to him, who read the burial service over and when and who wrote the death certificate. The deceased patients medical certificates have kept very important information about the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission confessors, among them was Hieromonk Vladimir (Giganov) born in Siberia, who came from the spiritual estate, and graduated from the Tobolsk Theological Seminary. The new documents introduced into the academic circulation extend our knowledge on the pilgrims from remote parts of Russia - their age, social status, etc. The revealed information showed the problem of further studying the Siberian pilgrims biographical information in regional archives, which is relevant to Russian historians, ethnographers and archeographers.
																								



17.
"BAD" AND "GOOD" OFFICIALS IN THE NOTES OF SIBERIAN CLERGY OF THE XIX CENTURY

N.P. Matkhanova
Institute of History SB RAS, 8, Nikolaev Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: , , , , , officials, clergy, Orthodox missions, Siberia, images of officials

Abstract >>
The clergy and officials were notable and significant social groups, played an important role in the empire and its management. They were connected together with complex and ambiguous relationships. The character of these relationships was influenced by the clergys ideas about officials and officials ideas about the clergy. The article examines the image of officials, formed in minds of the Siberian priests of the XIX century. In order to identify its main components, the memorial-epistolary works created by representatives of the clergy are used, as well as their reports and journalistic works, all these texts are united under the term «notes. An analysis of the texts showed that the important component of the image of a «good official for the clergy was his / her devotion to the Orthodox faith, so the Catholic Poles were often presented in the most negative colors, while officials with liberal views were accused at best in «indifference towards Orthodoxy, at worst - in nihilism. Direct opponents of Christianity were those people who were indulgent towards Buddhism, visited datsans, attended shamanistic rituals and invited shamans to towns for a demonstration. In the views of missionaries, «good officials had to help the Orthodox mission and its activity, patronize christened non-Russians. Some hierarchs and ordinary priests highly valued honesty, conscientiousness, energy, experience and understanding of the needs of the region and the population. An important criterion was a respectful attitude of officials to the clergy. The notes contain images of officialdom in general, of its certain groups and particular officials - real people with their individual human qualities. Generalized images are less common, they were created mostly by heads of dioceses who were more educated, more inclined to journalism and possessed a literary gift. In missionaries notes one often can see the most negative ideas about the lower strata of officialdom. The notes of the Siberian priests created «personal and everyday image that became the basis for a stereotype, the way to organize of the clergys collective memory and to form of its collective identity.
																								



18.
ON APPOINTMENT OF ARCHBISHOP DIMITRY (BELIKOV) AS RULING BISHOP OF TOMSK DIOCESE

S.G. Petrov
Institute of History SB RAS, 8, A. Nikolaev str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: , , , (), , .. , , Russian Orthodox Church, patriarch Tikhon, Tomsk diocese, archbishop Dimitry (Belikov), Novosibirsk, archpriest T.I. Shostak, renovationism

Abstract >>
The article focuses on the regional aspect of the history of the Russian Orthodox Church of the 20th century. It studies the appointment of legitimate bishops to the Siberian dioceses during the initial period of the renewal schism inspired by the Bolsheviks. The analysis of the literature on this issue resulted in establishing the fact that researchers are experiencing an acute shortage of sources on this topic and they do not have a clear image of the events that happened. The article reconstructs in detail the situation that emerged in the largest diocese of Western Siberia, i.e. Tomsk. It portrays the events of the early 1920s in two largest urban centres of religious life of the diocese which are Tomsk and Novonikolayevsk (Novosibirsk). On the basis of historical sources identified and introduced into academic discourse it is concluded that the initiators of the restoration of the canonical diocesan power were ordinary priests and laymen of Novonikolayevsk. The purpose of the study is to analyse and publish the report of the priest Trifon Shostak to Patriarch Tikhon asking him to appoint Archbishop Dimitry (Belikov) as the ruling bishop of the Tomsk diocese. The article establishes the motives of the believers of Novonikolayevsk while making their choice. The study of the scarce evidence found in archives reconstructs main milestones of the clerical biography of the reports author who was an organizer of struggle against the schismatics in Novonikolayevsk, the citadel of the renewed Siberian metropolis. The report of the priest Trifon Shostak to Patriarch Tikhon is published in accordance with academic norms of archeography, it is provided with a scientific heading, archeographic legend, preserves all features of the published source text.
																								



19.
HISTORIAN'S CONTROVERSY ON THE URBANIZATION ESSENCE AND RESULTS IN RUSSIA/USSR

I.N. Stas
Surgut State University, 1, Lenin Str., Surgut, 628412, Russia
Keywords: , , - , , , , , , catch-up urbanization, industrialization, industrial-urban society, false urbanization, modernization, township, pseudourbanization, urbanization

Abstract >>
The article analyzes historians position in the scientific dispute about false urbanization in the history of Russia/USSR. Generalization of its results is determined by the significance of national historical urban studies development. The problem field of the article includes a study of negative interpretations (concepts of M.G. Meerovich, V.A. Isupov, A.S. Ivanov, I.N. Stas, M.N. Baldano), as well as the positive estimations of the Russian urbanization (theories of A.S. Senyavskii, S.S. Bukin, V.I. Isaev, A.Yu. Ilyin, O.V. Gorbachev). Research methodology of the article is based on principles of synthesis of the historiographic analysis and socio-cultural anthropology that contribute to understanding the historiography as a social scientific phenomenon to reproduce research activity of scientists with different self-identity, determined by their scientific schools and conceptual-theoretical orientation. The author comes to conclusion that historians unanimously interpret urbanization in Russia as unfinished process. However, the dispute essence lies in assessing results and understanding driving actors of urbanization. At the same time, the author believes that because of the relative youth of the urban history and rarity of generalizing works on urbanization in Soviet Russia, disparate opinions have not really attained a discussion form. Starting in 1990s, the dispute did not become a full-fledged scientific discussion in the form of conferences, seminars or series of scientific articles in particular journals, but rather took the form of correspondence exchange. A wide range of issues persists, that are rarely examined by historians in order to analyze urbanization processes. However it is important to study these issues for the sake of elaborating conceptual-theoretical models of urban development.
																								



20.
REGIONAL PUBLISHING HOUSES: EXIT TO THE VIRTUAL SPACE (A CASE OF NOVOSIBIRSK PRINTING OFFICES)

O.N. Alshevskaya1, S.A. Tarasova2, A.G. Pustotina3
1State Public Scientific-Technological Library SB RAS, 15, Voskhod, Novosibirsk, 630200, Russia
2Novosibirsk State Regional Scientific Library, 6, Sovetskaya Str, Novosibirsk, 630007, Russia
3Institute of Philology, Mass Information and Psychology, Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 99/1, Petukhova Str., Ap.64, Novosibirsk, 630022, Russia
Keywords: , , -, , , , regional book publishers, Internet, Internet commerce, social networks, account, reading infrastructure

Abstract >>
The article by O.N. Alshevskaya, S.A. Tarasova and A.G. Pustotina «Regional publishing houses: exit to the virtual space (a case of Novosibirsk printing offices) is devoted to PR activities of regional publishing houses on promoting their brands and products in the Internet. There are several levels of applying the Internet by book business enterprises. Over time, businesses are gradually moving from one level to another or starting to run several parallel directions. The number of publishing and book-selling organizations, which have access to the Internet, grows in the capital and regions of Russia. The most common (at the federal level) forms of books promotion in the Internet are the following: active support for own website (93 %), promotion in social networks (52 %), blogging (37 %), participation in forums (30 %), contextual advertising in the Internet (26 %), direct advertising in the Internet (19 %). In 2016 studying the promotion in the Internet of publishing houses and organizations was carried out in Novosibirsk - the third megalopolis of the country, the largest city beyond the Urals. The research results revealed insufficient representation of publishers in the Internet: the site presence (75 %); availability of an online bookstore (19 %); maintaining groups or pages in social networks (18 %). The accounts in social networks and their activity become especially important under modern conditions. Despite wide opportunities for interaction with the public and minimal financial costs of the publishers, only 10 Novosibirsk publishing houses (18 %) use social networks as a way of promoting their own products, and communication with the reader. Along with this, the study has revealed purposeful activity of other organizations of the regional infrastructure to promote the reading (libraries, bookstores, book fairs, etc.). In general, the authors have ascertained existing and dynamic development of the local book promotion infrastructure in the virtual space.
																								



21.
SIBERIAN COLONIAL DISCOURSE IN N.M. YADRINTSEV'S FEUILLETONS

M. K. Churkin
Omsk State Pedagogical University, 73, Yakovlev Str ., Omsk, 644007, Russia
Keywords: , , , , feuilleton, Siberian colonial discourse, regional identity, regionalism, social and political journalism

Abstract >>
Siberian colonial discourse has recently been the subject of historians special attention, who tried to overstep the limits of positivistic parameters of understanding the regional history (conquest, annexation). The discourse is oriented to determining the place of eastern outskirts as a part of Russia, as well as conditions, circumstances, methods and results of incorporating a remote outskirt into the General Imperial construct. The discourse basics were formed in the mid XIX century and represented in the works by S.M. Solovyov and V.O. Klyuchevsky. Due to the efforts of the Siberian regionalism representatives, formation of the ideological platform of the Siberian colonial discourse and determination of its subject and participants were actualized in the second half of the XIX century. Problems of the colonial discourse in relation to the socio-cultural incorporation of Siberia into the Imperial construct are vividly represented in literature, in particular, in N.M. Yadrintsevs feuilletons. The key topic of his feuilletons was connected with the limited knowledge of the central authorities about the eastern outskirts potential, with Siberia perception as a Russian economic colony ruled by the local officialdom in accordance with that status. The common idea of multi-thematic Siberian colonial discourse embedded in N.M. Yadrintsevs feuilletons was to highlight the condition of the Siberian society. It was that matrix that included multi-ordinal issues of incorporating Siberia into Russia; migrants fate and future, issue of non-Russian population, prospects of regional cities development, state-administrative policy. N.M. Yadrintsevs feuilleton contributed to spreading the important ideas of regionalism, popularizing them in the society. Besides, the genre rules for feuilleton such as associativity, emotional and figurative dominant allowed the author to untie his hands and made it possible to broaden the sphere of scientific interest and attract more actors, participants of the colonization process. Ultimately, all this has given full value and versatility for the Siberian colonial discourse of the second half of the XIX - early XX centuries.
																								



22.
MAINTAINING OF ZEMSTVOS' RIVER CROSSINGS ON TRANSPORT COMMUNICATIONS OF TOMSK PROVINCE IN THE EARLY XX CENTURY

E. V. Pocherevin
The Shukshin Altay State Humanities Pedagogical University, 53, Korolenko Str., Biysk, 659333, Russia
Keywords: , , , , , provincial tax, provincial administration, contract biddings, river crossing, Tomsk province

Abstract >>
Tomsk province transport infrastructure at the XX century included many river crossings which were located on important routes and supported by the provincial taxes. The owners of these ferries concluded a three-year contract with the county administration and received a fixed fee for servicing transportation. The article objective is to study the practice of carrying out contract auctions to maintain ferries. The author considers the mechanism of interaction of power structures at the provincial and district levels with contractors and keepers of river crossings on postal routes. Office materials of the provincial and district levels were used in research. Archival materials analysis made it possible to reveal the costs dynamics of maintaining crossings. The author pointed to a number of measures taken by the administration to conclude more profitable contracts to maintain ferry transports. The author concludes that contract tendering, as a rule, was not arranged according to a standard scheme. On the one hand, the official authorities tried to maintain the existing level of contract prices, thereby making them profitable for Zemstvo cashbox. On the other hand, potential contractors sought to increase them in various ways. It should be noted that the efforts of the latter sometimes paid off. The transportation costs permanent increase was exploded not only by self-interest of their keepers, but also by the real economic situation. The usual river crossings could be supported by provincial zemsky tax, if located on the postal tract. The mechanism for changing the facility status was very complicated and associated with formulating relevant documents, carrying out contract auctions, creating a material base. Under the conditions of limited provincial budget, the process of organizing a new zemsky crossing was rather difficult.