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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2017 year, number 4

1.
FOREST BIOMASS OBSERVATION: CURRENT STATE AND PROSPECTIVE

D. G. Schepaschenko1,2, A. Z. Shvidenko1,3, C. Perger1, C. Dresel1, S. Fritz1, P. I. Lakyda4, L. V. Mukhortova3, V. A. Usoltsev5, K. S. Bobkova6, A. F. Osipov6, O. V. Martynenko2, V. N. Karminov2, P. V. Ontikov2, M. V. Shchepashchenko7, F. Kraxner1
1International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz, 1, Laxenburg, 2361 Austria
2N. E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Pervaya Institutskaya str., 1, Mytischi, Moscow Oblast, 141005 Russian Federation
3V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
4National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Heroiv Oborony str., 15, Kyiv, 03041 Ukraine
5Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 8 Marta str., 202, Yekaterinburg, 620144 Russian Federation
6Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Kommunisticheskaya str., 28, Syktyvkar, Komi Republic, 167982 Russian Federation
7Russian Institute of Continuous Education in Forestry, Institutskaya str., 17, Pushkino, Moscow Oblast, 141200 Russian Federation
Keywords: лесная фитомасса, дистанционное зондирование, Geo-Wiki, Forest-observation-System.net, forest phytomass, remote sensing, Geo-Wiki, Forest-observation-System.net

Abstract >>
With this article, we provide an overview of the methods, instruments and initiatives for forest biomass observation at global scale. We focus on the freely available information, provided by both remote and in-situ observations. The advantages and limitation of various space borne methods, including optical, radar (C, L and P band) and LiDAR, as well as respective instruments available on the orbit (MODIS, Proba-V, Landsat, Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 , ALOS PALSAR, Envisat ASAR) or expecting (BIOMASS, GEDI, NISAR, SAOCOM-CS) are discussed. We emphasize the role of in-situ methods in the development of a biomass models, providing calibration and validation of remote sensing data. We focus on freely available forest biomass maps, databases and empirical models. We describe the functionality of Biomass.Geo-Wiki.org portal, which provides access to a collection of global and regional biomass maps in full resolution with unified legend and units overplayed with high-resolution imagery. The Forest-Observation-System.net is announced as an international cooperation to establish a global in-situ forest biomass database to support earth observation and to encourage investment in relevant field-based observations and science. Prospects of unmanned aerial vehicles in the forest inventory are briefly discussed.
																								



2.
AN EXPERIENCE AND CONTEMPORARY STATUS OF FOREST RECULTIVATION IN KUZBASS

V. I. Ufimtsev
Federal Research Center on Coal and Coal Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Prospekt Leningradskii, 10, Kemerovo, 650065 Russian Federation
Keywords: отвалы, лесная рекультивация, древесные насаждения, густота, ход роста, общее жизненное состояние, Кузбасс, dumps, forest recultivation, woody plants, density, growth trend, general vital status, Kuzbass

Abstract >>
Reforestation is the main direction of rehabilitation of the degraded lands by the coal industry. The substratum of dumps of the coal industry is characterized by sharp deficiency of elements and the expressed xeromorphy. During more than 40 years on the dumps were created over 15 thousand ha of wood plantings, the agrotechnological and scientific foundation of forest recultivation is laid. Biological features of several tens types are studied, their suitability for the purposes of afforestation of dumps is estimated. Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L., a common sea-buckthorn Hippophaë rhamnoídes L. and a silver birch Betula pendula Tristis appeared certainly suitable, 10 more types are recognized as the perspective. In 1989 and 2005 under the leadership of L. P. Barannik are prepared and approved for application at the regional level of the recommendation about reforestation. Now experiments on selection of types proceed, work on optimization of technologies of forest recultivation taking into account an assessment of the created plantings of the I-II class of age is conducted. The main square of reforestation, about 11 thousand hectares, the scots pine which is capable to grow on the highest classes of site class without decrease in growth processes in the senior age groups borrows. Pure sea-buckthorn plantings are created on the area about 3 thousand hectares, they are used by the population as berry-pickers, the ecological value of a sea-buckthorn consists in fast development of a surface of dumps, unpretentiousness. Joint landings of these two tree species are widely used. The birch hung, along with a birch fluffy, is presented, mainly, in the form of natural renewal. In recent years, in connection with reduction of nurseries on cultivation of seedlings of a pine, the birch began to be used actively at artificial afforestation of dumps, especially in urban areas. The main problems of forest recultivation are: non-selective formation of dumps, unsatisfactory parameters of preparation of sites at a mining stage of recultivation, high density of the created stands, weak formation of the subordinated circles and the slowed-down soil formation, inflammability of the mixed landings of a pine and sea-buckthorn and the small range of the used cultures, absence of due consideration to the above problems
																								



3.
REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION AND GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION OF DRY LAND AND BOG POPULATIONS OF Pinus sylvestris L. IN WESTERN SIBERIA AND RUSSIAN PLAIN

I. V. Petrova, S. N. Sannikov, O. E. Cherepanova
Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 8 Marta Str., 202a, Yekaterinburg, 620144 Russian Federation
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris L, популяция, суходол, болото, факторы среды, аллозимный анализ, population, dry land, bog, environmental factors, allozyme analysis

Abstract >>
The results of large-scale interdisciplinary ecological and geographical researches (1973-2015 years), environmental gradients, reproductive isolation, genetic and phenotypic differentiation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations of the dry lands and the adjacent bogs in Western Siberia and the Russian Plain have been generalized. The strong regime gradients of the physical, chemical, and especially hydrothermal factors of the pine populations edafotope on dry lands and adjacent high bogs in the sub-forest-steppe, in the middle and northern taiga (in a less degree) of Western Siberia have been revealed. The stable reproductive isolation of populations on the high bogs and (to a lesser extent) on the transitional bogs from the dry land ones, which is determinated by a later dates of the peat substrate heating, a differences in the phases of pollination-“flowering” (reception) of trees, and its increase in the general direction from the northwest to the southeast of the Russian Plain and the Western Siberia, has been determined. The significant genetic distances Nei (1978) and their gradients (bounds) between the dry land and adjacent bog populations in the south of forest zone (at the local population level), and lower gradients in the northern taiga subzones, as well as in transitional bogs have been found. For the first time the clear boundary between populations of P. sylvestris L. on the dry land and adjacent high bog (in the continuous areal) has been determined as a result of stationary palaeobotanical, ecological, phenological, morphological-anatomical-phenotypic and allozyme studies. An outline of hypothetical-deductive theory of genetic divergence of bog P. sylvestris populations from dry land ones in Holocene under the influence of the disruptive selection and the other factors of microevolution, which is proceed in the conditions of strongly contrasting environment and reproductive isolation has been substantiated through the generalization of research results and literature data.
																								



4.
HYBRIDIZATION OF Populus nigra L. AND P. Laurifolia Ledeb. (Salicaceae) IN THE FLOODPLAIN OF THE TOM RIVER

B. V. Proshkin1,2, A. V. Klimov1
1Novokuznetsk Institute, Tsiolkovskii Str., 23, Novokuznetsk, 654041 Russian Federation
2Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, Dobrolyubov Str., 160, Novosibirsk, 630039 Russian Federation
Keywords: тополь, идентификация, асимметричная гибридизация, гибридные зоны, генотип, Poplar, identification, asymmetric hybridization, hybrid zones, genotype

Abstract >>
Natural hybrid zones are of the considerable interest to genetic-evolutionary researches. Natural hybridization is recognized as the mechanism of transfer of genes between types for a long time and has important evolutionary consequences. Trans-species hybridization is characteristic of the sort Populus L., though, as a rule, it is restricted to representatives of one section. The exception is made by types of the section Aigeiros and Tacamahaca , which are rather freely crossed, but at the same time save the integrity and are well differentiated. As show numerous researches, prezygotic mechanisms of reproductive insulation aren’t capable to restrict hybridization between types of these sections, but perhaps define its asymmetry. In hybrid zones in case of transposition of types of different sections among hybrid descendants F1 prevail. Hybrids of the subsequent generations and a bekkrossa are discarded by selection before a reproductive maturity. Carried out based on the complex analysis of morphological features of leaves and escapes of P. nigra (Aigeiros), P. laurifolia (Tacamahaca) and their natural hybrids in a flood plain of the Tom River (The Kemerovo region of the Russian Federation) of a research also showed that observed hybridization has one-sided, asymmetrical character, hybrids turn aside lavrolistny poplar. Despite duration of the proceeding hybridization in a flood plain of the Tom River P. nigra and P. laurifolia well differ. Natural hybrids meet preferentially on flood plain sections where P. laurifolia grows in an equal share with P. nigra. Perhaps, the frequency of occurrence of hybrids depends also on sexual structure of local populations of pure types. The exception is made by sections with the considerable anthropogenous impact, which can be considered as «hybrid habitats».
																								



5.
FOLIAGE EFFICIENCY OF FOREST-FORMING SPECIES IN THE CLIMATIC GRADIENTS OF EURASIA

V. A. Usoltsev1,2
1Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 8 Marta str., 202a, Yekaterinburg, 620144 Russian Federation
2Ural State Forest Engineering University, Sibirskii trakt, 37, Yekaterinburg, 620100 Russian Federation
Keywords: чистая первичная продукция, продуктивность ассимиляционного аппарата, зимний видимый фотосинтез, транспирация, ассимиляция, дыхание, природная зональность, континентальность климата, net primary production, foliage efficiency, winter apparent photosynthesis, transpiration, assimilation, respiration, natural zoning, climate continentality

Abstract >>
The paperis of the scientific area of biogeography and devoted to a new aspect in the study of biological productivity of forest ecosystems on a geographical basis, expressed indirectly by climate parameters, namely, the foliage efficiency that until now is not investigated at the global level. Foliage efficiency is the ratio of net primary production (NPP) to foliage biomass and is expressed in relative units. Some features of change of foliage efficiency of vicarious forest-forming species in Eurasian transcontinental gradients are showed for the first time using the voluminous factual material. The set of published biomass and NPP data (t/ha) obtained in a number of 2192 plots is compiled. Using multiple regression analysis technique, the statistically significant changes in foliage efficiency values according to two transcontinental gradients, namely by zonal belts and continentality of climate, are stated for each forest-forming species. The species-specificity of age dynamics of stem volume and foliage efficiency is shown. It is monotonically decreased almost for all tree species in the following order: spruce and fir, pine, birch, oak, larch and aspen-poplar. When climate continentality increasing, foliage efficiency values of mature forests is dropping, most intensively in pines, less intensive in deciduous forests and virtually no changes in spruce-fir communities. In zonal gradient from the northern temperate to the subequatorial belt, foliage efficiency of deciduous species decreases, but it of the evergreen spruce and pine increases in the same direction. One of the possible causes of these opposite zonal trends of foliage efficiency in evergreen and deciduous species consists in different conditions of physiological processes in the year cycle, in particular, in year-round assimilates accumulation in the first and seasonal one in the second.
																								



6.
FOREST ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF PYROGENOUS ANOMALIES IN THE BASIN OF BAIKAL LAKE

M. D. Evdokimenko, Yu. N. Krasnoshchekov
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: ландшафтные пожары, пирогенные аномалии, лесная подстилка, органогенные пирогенные горизонты почв, зольные элементы, водопроницаемость почв, поверхностный жидкий и твердый сток, landscape fires, pyrogenous anomalies, forest formation process, organogenic pyrogenous soil horizons, ash constituents, water permeability of soils, surface sludge liquor and flood of solid matter

Abstract >>
The nature of forest pyrogenous anomalies in the basin of Baikal, due to mainly arid climate of the region and the predominance of highly inflammable types of light needle coniferous forests discussed in the paper. Pyrological regimes (placid, moderate, intense, and extreme) in the full altitudinal range at different meteorological situations of the seasons analyzed. Forest pyrogenous anomalies occur under intense and extreme conditions, especially during the spring and summer «high fire» season, as the establishment on a large part of the territory pyrological monotony with the full absence of incombustible areas of vegetation. Hence, a high risk of extensive landscape fires that really happened in recent times, in 2003 and 2015. The forest ecosystems’ post-fire transformation have been studied: fire damages of forests; post pyrogenous dynamics of their viability and productivity; the main variations in forest forming process; changes in soil environment, including the ash content and acidity of forest litter, physical and chemical soil properties. Pyrogenic degradation of forest ecosystems will inevitably lead to degradation of the protective functions of the Baikal forests, the restoration of which after landscape fires takes many decades. Products of soils erosion from the burned areas complicate current alarming situation with the pollution of coastal waters in Baikal lake.
																								



7.
THE NEW HYBRID METHOD FOR MEASURING TRANSPIRATION SAP FLOWS IN TREES

G. P. Tikhova1, A. G. Pavlov2, V. B. Pridacha1, T. A. Sazonova1
1Forestry Research Institute, Karelian Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushkin str., 11, Petrozavodsk, Republic of Karelia, 185960 Russian Federation
2IntelTeck Lab Ltd., Oktyabr’skii Prospekt, 24, Petrozavodsk, Republic of Karelia, 185001 Russian Federation
Keywords: скорость ксилемного потока, метод Гранье, метод измерения скорости распространения тепловых импульсов, математическое моделирование тепловых процессов, sap flow velocity, Granier technique, heat pulse velocity method, mathematical modeling of heat processes

Abstract >>
Sap flow measurements have become relevant in many physiological and ecological investigations. A variety of methods are used to estimate sap flow in trees in modern studies. However the determination of accuracy of commonly used techniques often presents a challenge. We analyzed advantages, pitfalls and restrictions of up-to-date methods that were implemented in commercially available devices. We proposed a new hybrid method for measuring linear sap flow velocity, which was designed on the base of different variants of heat-pulse velocity (HPV) technique and thermal dissipation (TD) technique developed by Granier. The method was created in order to increase accuracy and precision of sap flow velocity measurements. The mathematical model of the proposed method was developed. It allows to determine accuracy of measurements and potential limits of applying the new technique in the field studies. The model is based on the description of heat process dynamics in the volume of 1 cubic decimeter of sap tissue. The obtained relationships were used in developed software that allows to model reverse heat pulses distribution under the condition of shortened interval between their generations. The proposed algorithm enables verification of zero sap flow velocity measurement in tree trunk with given accuracy. The computer program was developed. It allows to define maximum acceptable time interval for a given accuracy of determined values when the velocity is close to zero as well as to demonstrate the shape of the heat signal depending of time in the given point of trunk. The model calculations showed that the new method improves the accuracy of sap flow velocity measurements at low and high flow rates when conventional techniques suffer from significant errors. The applying of the new method allows to detect zero sap flow without using any additional measuring procedures and devices.
																								



8.
FORECAST FOR THE DYNAMICS OF FORESTS IN KRASNOYARSK KRAI

V. A. Sokolov1, N. V. Sokolova1, O. P. Vtyurina1, E. A. Lapin2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Join Stock Co. В«Les-Kom» Ltd., Sakhyanova str., 9/1, Ulan-Ude, Republic of Buryatia, 670047 Russian Federation
Keywords: лесной комплекс, стратегия развития, прогноз динамики лесного фонда, лесное хозяйство, управление лесами, forest complex, development strategy, forecast for forest dynamics, forestry, forest management

Abstract >>
Dynamics of the forest ecosystems connects closely with the natural and anthropogenic changes (succession processes, forest fires, windfalls, forest insects, forest diseases, forest harvesting, reforestation, the infrastructure development associated and not associated with forestry and so forth). Authors do not consider the up-to-day problem of global warming on the Earth, as opinions of scientists are controversial. Retrospective analysis of forest dynamics of the Krasnoyarsk Territory for the last 50 years has allowed to assess the impact of these changes on condition of forests. The univocal conclusion of deterioration of forest quality has been drawn. Area of coniferous forests has decreased by 9 %, including the 25 % reduction of mature and overmature forest stands. To forecast forest dynamics, modelling of natural and anthropogenic processes in the forest ecosystems has been applied, taking into account that the existing system of measures for reforestation and tending care of forest actually does not affect dynamics of the forests. The provision about increase in forest harvesting volume to 37.6 million м3 of the Development Strategy of the Krasnoyarsk Forest Industrial Complex has been used for forecasting. It has been proved that such scale of forest harvesting will inevitably lead to the over-cutting of ecological and economic accessible allowable cut that will negatively affect the forest condition in 50 years. Our forecast of forest dynamics of the Krasnoyarsk Territory for the next 50 years has showed that negative changes will continue at the same pace under the current extensive form of forest management. What is more, the maximum decrease of forest area might be in pine forests (32.9 %) with the significant increase of broadleaves forests - 22.7 %. To improve the situation in the Russian forest sector, a radical change in the system of forest management is needed.
																								



9.
SOME FOREST TREES FOR HONEYDEW HONEY PRODUCTION IN TURKEY

S. Гњnal, S. Ayan, M. Karadeniz, E. N. Yer
Kastamonu University, Kuzeykent mh. Org. Atilla AteЕџ PaЕџa cd., Kastamonu, 37100 Turkey
Keywords: падевый мед, растительные тли, лесные деревья, Турция, honeydew honey, aphids and cochineals, forest trees, Turkey

Abstract >>
Honey is an important source of nutrients and energy and an effective remedy against various human diseases. Honeydew honey is produced from honeydew of phloem-feeders that honeybees gather. In this study, we focused on honeydew producers and diversity of host tree species which are involved in honeydew production in Turkey. A total of 24 honeydew producers by host tree species are identified in Turkey. Of these, 13 coniferous trees and 11 deciduous trees. The main honeydew producer in Turkey is a scale insect, Marchalina hellenica Gennadius (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) living mainly on pines (Turkish red pine, Aleppo pine, and rarely on stone pine, Anatolian black pine and Scots pine). Honeydew producer insects can be treated as serious pests of conifer and broadleaf trees. The aphids and the scale insects such as Ceroplastes floridensis, Cinara cedri, C. laportei, Eulachnus rileyi, Icerya purchase, Kermes vermilio, Lichtensia viburni and Saissetia oleae are known as pests in several European, Asian and African countries. Despite their potential harm to their host plants, insect species producing honeydew play an important role in honey production in Turkey. Turkish honey production is exported to EU countries and, furthermore beekeeping is an important part of agricultural sector in Turkey.